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ShimonoseKi.

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Town of Japan, at s.w. end of Nippon: bombarded by European and American vessels 1864; made a port of entry 1890. Pop. ab. 15,000.

Shimono§eki, Treaty Of. Signed April 17, 1895. Uorea was declared independent, Formosa! and Manchuria ceded to Japan, and China opened to foreign commerce and manufactures. Russian interference modified these results.

Shinar. Mesopotamian plain around Babylon.

Shindler, Mary Stanley Bunce (palMer), (mrs. C. E. Dana), b.1810. American poet. Northern Harp, 1841. Two of her hymns have been much used.

Street in Sbimonoseki Shingles (HERPES

ZOSTER). Eruption of vesicles on a reddened surface, usually located at the waist and extending- half around the body; it is frequently accompanied by neuralgic pain. See Herpes.

Shin-Leaf. Low perennial herbs of the genus Pyrola, natural family Pyrolacece, natives of n. temperate zone; erroneously called Wintergreen.

Shinn, William Powell, 1834-1892. American civil and mining engineer.

Shinncy. See Hockey.

Shin-Shiu. Reformed Buddhist sect, founded in Japan ab.1250.

Shintoigm. Official and national religion of Japan, called by the Japanese Kami no michi. "way," or "doctrine of the gods." Its chief book is the Ko-ji-ki. or Records of Ancient Matters), a collection of cosmical myths and legendary history in which many generations of deities are enumerated, down to Jimmu Tenno, the first mikado and founder of the present imperial family, who is said to have reigned 660-585 B.C. Shintoism has no idols. It teaches the immortality of the soul and' an eternal future life of recompense or punishment. It ordains purity of life, and respect, almost adoration, to the emperor, the direct descendant of the gods and spiritual and temporal chief. Its priests are not required to submit to obligations of celibacy or abstinence, and their office is usually hereditary.

Shipbuilding. The earliest ship known is Egvptian, dating 3,000 B.C. It was of considerable size, with 52 oars and a mast, sail and 5 oars steering on either side. The two ends rose to a point, or the rear end was rounded for the stern. War vessels had a metal prow, used as a ram. The Greek and Roman war vessels were propelled by oars. The trireme was 150 ft. long and 18 ft. beam, with 174 rowers; this dates from 700 B.C. The Phoenician ships had sails, and Herodotus describes vessels with rudders on the Nile. The Viking warship had both rowers and a sail; one has been found 78 ft. long and 7 ft. beam, with 32 oars. The Byzantine war vessels of Leo VI., ab.900, were biremes and galleys propelled by oars. The English ships of 1190 were small sailing vessels. In the 15th century considerable progress was made by the French and Spaniards, and some large ships were built in England, one of which was 165 ft. long and 46 ft. beam. The Santa Maria of Columbus was 90 ft. keel and 29 ft. beam. In the 17th century the English made much advance in shipbuilding:, but in the following century Spain, France, Denmark and Sweden were far in the lead, both as regards speed and behavior of their ships. In the 19th century the British have become the largest shipbuilders, now.mostly using iron and steel in their construction. The first ship built in America was the Virginia, 60 ft. long, on the Kennebec River 1640. From 1812 to 1850 shipbuilding flourished in U. S. In 1841 the first China clipper-ship was built by Webb of New York, and also in 1849 the first three-deck ship. The clippers were fast sailers, the Sovereign of the Seas making 5,391 m. in 22 days; the Oreat Republic was 325 ft. long, 53 ft. beam, and 4.000 tons burden. In New England many vessels for the whale fishery were built. Many of the English merchantmen now have auxiliary steampower, by which 7 m. per hour can be attained without the

sails. The first steamboat was made by Denis Papin 1707, who propelled a boat with paddlewheels on Fulda River. James Runisey, an American, propelled a vessel 4 m. per hour by forcing a jet of water through the stern with steam-pumps in 1786. John Fitch, also an American, propelled a vessel with paddlewheels in 1785. Robert Fulton, an American, built a steamboat in Paris in 1803. In 1807 he built the Clermont, 133 ft. long, which steamed from New York to Alban3', 142 m., in 32 hours. This was the first commercial success of this class of boats. Iron canal-boats were made in England 1787, and iron steamboats with paddlewheels in 1821. John Ericsson used the screw-propeller on the Thames 1836. The Cunard line of Atlantic steamships was established 1840, and the Collins line of American-built steamships in 1850. The Pacific Steam-Navigation Co. in 1856 used a compound engine. The Aberdeen in 1881 used a triple-expansion engine, and the New Zealand Shipping Co. employ the quadruple-expansion engines. In 1888 the American line introduced the twinscrew. In 1856 the Atlantic voyage westward was made by steamships in lid. 19h.; in 1874 the Britannic made it in 8d. 6h.; in 1886 the average time, between Queenstown and Sandv Hook, was 6d. 15h. In 1897 the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, of the North German Lloyd Steamship Co., made the passage from Southampton to New York in 5d. 22h. 45m. This is the largest ship afloat, being 648 ft. long, 66 ft. beam, 43 ft. deep, and of 14,000 tons burden; her speed per hour is 22 knots, and her engines are triple expansion. The shipbuilding in 1896 was: Great Britain 1,316,906 tons; United States, year ending June 30, 1897, 177,643 tons; Germany, 54,075 tons; Norway, 2,522 tons; Denmark, 13,190 tons; Austria, 6,686 tons. The price in 1897, in Great Britain, for building vessels of medium size, was £7 per ton, an increase over 1896 of £1. In 1896 the tonnage of merchant ships in trade was: Great Britain, 13,563.597; United States, 4.703.880: Germany, 1.930,460; Norway, 1,705,722; France, 1,148,970; Italy. 821.553; Sweden, 552.888; Netherlands, 497,451; Denmark, 888.540; Greece, 885,935; AustriaHungary, 295,805; Belgium. 132,464. The United States had 1,193 vessels, tonnage 829,833, in foreign trade, and 20,030 vessels, tonnage 3,790,296, in coastwise trade; there were 64 vessels engaged in whale-fishing, and 1,621 vessels in cod and mackerel fishing. In 1850 the tonnage of merchant ships in trade was: Great Britain, 4,232.962; United States, 3,485,266; France. 688.153; Norway, 298,315; Holland. 292.576; Belgium, 34,919. See Bark, Bire'me, Brig. Bulkheads, Canoe. Caravel, Columbus, Cutter, Galley. Great Eastern, Marine Boiler, Marine EnGines, Rigging, Schooner. Screw-propeller, Sloop, SteamBoats, Trireme, Vikings and Yacht.

Ship Canal*. The Languedoc Canal, between the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean, was completed 1681, at a cost of $7,200,000; it is 140 m. long and has 119 locks. The Caledonia Canal, in Scotland, finished 1823, cost $5,000,000; it is 60 m. long. 38 m. of which are a chain of lakes, and it has 28 locks. The North Holland Canal, built 1825 as an approach to Amsterdam, is 52 m. long, with two entrance locks at the ends; its cost was ab. $5,000,000. The Corinth Canal, begun by Nero, was completed 1892; it is 4 m. long, and cost nearly $9,000,000. The Baltic Canal, completed 1895, is 61 m. long, and has 4 large tidal locks. See also Caledonian Canal, Chicago Canal. Manchester Canal. Nicaragua Canal, North Sea And Baltic Canal, Panama Canal, Saclt Ste. Marie Canal, Suez Canal, and Welland Canal.

Ship Fever. See Typhus Fever.

Slllpka Pass. In Balkan Mts., 50 m. n.e. of Philippo

polis: held bv Russians against Turks Aug. 21-26 and Sept. 917, 1877.

Shipley, Orby. b.1832. High Anglican writer and compiler, R.C. since 1878.

Ship-Money. Tax arbitrarily levied by Charles I. 163440, to furnish a navy; opposed by Hampden and others; one of the main abuses leading to the revolt of Parliament and the civil war.

Ship of Fool*. See Brant, S.

Shlpp, Albert Micaiah, 1819-1887. Prof, in N. C. and S.

C, and from 1874 at Vanderbilt Univ. Hist. Methodism in S. C, 1882.

Shippen,Edward. 1639-1712. Mayor of Phila. 1701; acting gov. of Pa. 1703.—His great-grandson, Edward. LL.D., 17291806, was a judge of Pa. Supreme Court 1791-99, and Chiefjustice 1799-1805.-His cousin, William. M.D.. 1736-1808, was the first lecturer on anatomy in U. S. 1762. prof, in the first medical school (incorporated'in Univ. Pa. 1791) 1765-1806, and director-gen. of military hospitals 1777-81.

Shipping, Law Of. Legal rules governing those engaged in the business of navigation; many of them are purely statutory. The master of a ship bears great responsibilities and is clothed with extraordinary authority over the crew, passengers, cargo, and vessel.

SHIPPING MASTER—SHOP SIGNS

1385

Shipping Blaster. See Shipping, Law Op.

Ship-Railways. These are designed to transport vessels overland from one waterway to another. There was one at Corinth, Greece, 400 B.C., on which ships 150 ft. long were carried. In 1438 and 1440 war vessels were carried overland 90 in. to Lake Garda by the Venetians. Canal-boats are carried on inclined planes from one level to another of the Morris and Essex Canal, N. J. The Chignecto ship-railway, to transport ■hips of 1,000 tons' weight of cargo, 2,500 tons total, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Bay of Fundy, 17 m. in length, was under construction 1888. Lifting-docks are provided at each terminus and a large basin in the Bay of Fundy to protect vessels from the tides. It is not yet completed." A shiprailway for the Isthmus of Suez was proposed 1860, and for the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, 1879, the latter by James B. Eads.

Ship's Husband. Part-owner or other person who has authority to act for all owners in providing for the general affairs of the ship.

Ship's Magnetism. This is chiefly due to the permanent magnetism of the iron in the ship, and is therefore much greater in iron than in wooden vessels. The deviation of the compass on wooden vessels, due to this cause, is not more than 10°; in iron ships it is sometimes 30°. This may be corrected by magnets. The quadrantal deviation of the compass is due to induced magnetism, and in wooden ships may amount to 2°, in iron ships to 8°.

Ships of War. See Battleship, Cruiser, Gunboat, Armor Plates For Warships, Torpedo Boat, Corvette, and Monitor.

Shipton, Ursula(southiel), 1488-ab.l56i'. English "prophetess" of posthumous fame, heroine of many apocryphal tales, mostly collected or invented by R. Head 1684.

Shlpworm. Lamellibranch Mollusks of the genus Teredo, which bore into the sides of wooden ships and timber constructions in salt water. In warm climates timber may be destroyed

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Common Shipworm {Teredo navalit).

in a few months. The only effective remedy is to impregnate the timber with creosote, or protect it with copper or yellow metal. See Pholadid^e.

Shiras, Alexander Eakin, U.S.A., 1812-1875. Commissary of subsistence from 1847; Brig.-gen. 1874. His services were important during the Civil War.

Shiras, George, LL.D., b.1832. Lawyer of Pittsburg. Pa.; Justice U. S. Supreme Court 1892.

Shiraz. Capital of Fars, Persia, and long of the Muzaffar dynasty; founded ab. 700, and for 500 years a splendid city, famous for its wine and roses, and for the tombs of Hafiz and Saadi; praised by poets; taken bv Tamerlane ab.1380; damaged by earthquakes 1812, 1824, and 1853. Pop. ab. 30,000.

Shire. In England, a county.

Shire. River of s.e. Africa, flowing from Lake Nyassa s. to the Zambesi. Length ab.370 m.

Shirlaw, Walter, b.1838, N. A. 1888. Painter, b. in Scotland; active in New York since 1877, and prominent as an instructor; fine colorist and draughtsman.

Shirley, James, 1596-1666. English dramatist and poet, now remembered chieflv for one or two lyrics. The Traitor, 1631; The Gamester, 1633; Tlie Example, 1634; The Lady of Pleasure, 1635.

Shirley, William, 1693-1771. Gov. of Mass. 1741^5 and 1753; Commander-in-chief 1755, Lieut.-gen. 1759.

Shirwa. Lake of s.e. Africa, s.e. of Lake Nyassa. Area ab. 350 sq. in., and dwindling.

Shishak. First king of the 22d Egyptian dynasty, 966 B.C.; conqueror of Palestine and much of Syria; spoiler of the temple at Jerusalem.

Shittim. Plain near Jericho, where the Israelites were led astray by Moabite wiles.

Shlttlm-Wood. That of Acacia seyal; used for the Hebrew tabernacle.

I

Shoa. S. part of Abyssinia, conquered by King Theodore ab. 1856; nominal Italian protectorate 1889-96. Capital is Lecheh, pop. 3,000. Area 15,000 sq. m., pop. 2,000,000.

Shoad Ore, or Shode Ore. Fragments of ore broken from a main deposit and distributed irregularly over the surface by the action of natural causes. Shoading is a search for ore, guided by indications given by these fragments.

Shoals, Isles Of. See Isles Of Shoals.

Shober, William Bush, Ph.D., b. 1864. American chemist, instructor in organic chemistry at Lehigh Univ. since 1892. Tr. Practical Methods of Organic Chemistry, by Gattermann, 1896.

Shock. Marked condition of depression occurring after an accident or an operation. Various explanations are given of its cause. A very satisfactory working hypothesis, in accident cases, is that it is an acute anaemia caused by loss of blood. Many lives have been saved after railway accidents by the use of emergency-cases as provided by some roads. The bleeding is sooner checked and the shock is usually less severe than in those cases where the means of prompt bandaging are not at hand.

Shock, William Henry, U.S.N., b.1821. Engineer of Farragut's fleet at Mobile 1863; Engineer-in-chief 1877-83.

Shoddy. 1. Orig., waste wool; in commerce, cuttings, ground and mixed with fresh wool to make rugs, flannels, etc. 2. In 1861, worthless clothing furnished to the soldiers by dishonest contractors.

Shoe. See Stamp Mill.

Shoeburyness. Promontory in Essex, England, on the u. shore of the Thames. It is used bv the government as a proving ground, and also as the seat of a school of gunnery.

Shoeing of Horses. See Hokskshoei.no.

Shoes. Covering for the feet, made of leather in Europe, America and some other parts; of paper and various fabrics in China and Japan; of wood in Holland and France; of dressed skins among the N. American Indians. Shoemaking was practiced by the Egyptians in the time of Moses and illustrated in the tombs of Thebes. Homer, Ovid and Pliny agree in celebrating the skill of Tychius, the Boeotian, in the art of shoe

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Shoes worn at various times.

making, and the latter credits him with the invention of leather shoes. The Romans wore an ivory crescent on their shoes; and Caligula enriched his with precious stones. In England, ab. 1462, the people'wore beaks or points on their shoes so long that thej' encumbered themselves in walking, and were forced to tie them up to their knees. The buckle was introduced 1688, and as at present worn ab.1633. Shoes are now largely made by machinery; a great variety of machines being used.

Shoes for Piles. Funnel-shaped irons for protecting the lower ends of wooden piles.

Shogun. Japanese military chief, practically supreme ab. 1200-1650.

Sholapur. Town of s. India, 150 m. s.e. of Poona. It has manufactures of cotton and silk. Pop., 1891, 63,312.

Sholes, Christopher Latham, b.1819. Journalist at Milwaukee; inventor of the first typewriter, 1868.

Shoot. Stem of a plant, as distinguished from the root; also, more usually, young growing twigs or branches.

Shooting-Star. Dodecatheon meadia. Showy herb of the natural family Primulaccoz, with rose-colored flowers, native of the central U. S.; called American Cowslip.

Shooting Stars. See Meteors.

Shop Signs. The use of pictorial and emblematic signs dates from the period of general illiteracy. Among the surviving conventional signs are the barber's pole, representing the staff held by persons in venesection, the spirals being the two bandages; this dates from the time barbers were also surgeons. On the continent of Europe, a notched basin is more

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cling1 to the old custom, with their images of Indians, etc. At one period, it was customary to give fanciful names to shops, as still to taverns, and carved emblems, such as the Golden Eagle, displayed.

Shore, Jane, ab. 1445-1527. Mistress of Edward IV., charged with sorcery by Richard III.; imprisoned in the Tower, and forced to' do public penance.

Short, Charles, LL.D., 1821-1886. Pres. Kenyon Coll., Ohio, 1863; Prof, of Latin at Columbia Coll. from 1868; N. T. reviser 1871; editor of several text-books.

Short, Charles Wilkins, M.D., 1794-1863. Prof. Transylvania Univ. 1825, and Univ. of Louisville 1838-49; botanist.

Short, William, 1759-1849. American envoy to France 1789, Holland 1792, and Spain 1794.

Shorthand. Known in some form to the Greeks; perhaps used by Xenophon in recording the sayings of Socrates. Galen (d.200) speaks of a copyist who could "write swiftly in signs." The Romans made much use of abbreviations. Ennius (d.169 B.C.) is said by Suetonius to have introduced and used signs (notce); but Cicero's freedman and secretary, Tiro, is commonly credited with the invention of a system of rapid writing. "Seneca (d.32) is said to have collected 5,000 different signs in use in his day. In England the system of T. Bright appeared 1588, that of P. Bales 1590. Some 80 different methods had appeared by 1850. Pitman's phonetic system was pub. 1837, and largely used; in the U. S., that of K. A. Bayley was the earliest, 1831. Lyndsey's Tachygraphy (including the vowels) dates from 1864. Graham's system, 1858, and Munson's, 1866, are founded on Pitman's.

Short-Horn. See Cattle.

Shorthouse, John Henry, b.1834. English novelist, whose works display deep spiritual feeling and broad modern sympathies, with marked archaic and ecclesiastical tastes. His John Inglesant, 1881, grew out of long study of the 17th century. The others are brief: Little Schoolmaster Mark, 1883-84; Sir Percival, 1886; A Teacher of the Violin, 1888; Countess Eve, 1888; Blanche, Lady Falaise, 1891.

Shortsightedness. See Mtopt.

Shoshone Falls. On Snake River, in s. Idaho; ab. 1.000 ft. wide and 1,000 high, with a sheer fall of 210 ft. Little Shoshone Falls, 4 m. e., are 182 ft. high.

Shoshones. Linguistic group of Indians, represented by tribes ranging from central Mexico n. almost to Canada. Among them were the Bannacks, Utes, Comanches, and Moquis. The S. proper (Snake Indians), related to the Pawnees, number less than 8,000, on reservations, mainly in w. Indian Territory. They practiced no agriculture, and have often been in want. The3' were enemies of the Texans, and in 1873 assisted the Modocs in their wars with the whites.

Shot. Solid projectiles, hollow projectiles, specifically classed as shell, and the minute projectiles used in fowling pieces. See Case-shot and Chain-shot.

Shoulder Girdle. The three bones, scapula, clavicle and coracoid, which meet at the shoulder to support the arm or fore-leg. The coracoid is rudimentarv in most Mammals, and the clavicle also in Carnivora and Rodents, and absent in Ungulates and Cetacece.

Shoulder Joint. Articulation of the bone of the arm with the shoulder blade. It is a ball and socket joint: the shallow socket being made deeper by projecting processes of the shoulder blade.

Shoup, Francis Asbury, 1834-1896. Brig.-gen. C.S.A 1862-64; Prof. Univ. Miss. 1866, and at Sewauee, Tenn., 1883-88. Artillery Drill, 1864; Algebra, 1874.

Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, R.N., ab.1650-1707. Knighted 1689; Rear-admiral 1690; distinguished at Bantry Bay, La Hogue, and Malaga; shipwrecked near the Scilly Isles.

Showers of Fishes. Instances of this kind have occurred in various places, but mostly in tropical countries. Sometimes the fish are alive, weighing from 1 to 3 lbs., and are usually the kind found in nearby waters. They are picked up from the water by the partial vacuum produced in the center of a whirling column of air, like that of a tornado. Showers of frogs and of pollen from pine-trees have also occurred. In U. S. the latter has been transported by upper air currents more than 100 m.

Shrapnel. See Case-shot.

Shreve, Henry Miller, 1785-1854. Introducer of the first steamboat on the Mississippi 1815; inventor of improvements in steam vessels, of a snag-boat, and a marine battering ram; remover of obstructions iu Red River.

Shreve, Samuel Henry, 1829-1884. American civil engineer. Bridges and Roofs, 1873.

Shreveport. City of Caddo parish, n.w. La., on Red River, here navigable; chartered 1839; important shipping point for cotton. Pop., 1890, 11,979.

Shrews. Mouse-like Insectivora, with elongated muzzles; including many species living in woods and fens, feeding1 on small animals and nesting in the ground. Each female has 5 to 7 young in the spring. Sorex has well developed ears and

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Pointed House Mouse (Crocidura araned). Pointed Wood Mouse
(Sorex vulgaris).

moderate tail; Blarina has short tail and small ears. The common European Shrew and the Mole Shrew are examples. Neosorex, the Marsh Shrew, has fringed toes. Crossopus is the European Water Shrew. See MACROSCELIca: AND SoRICidje.

Shrewsbury. Capital of Shropshire; on the Severn. Near S., July 21. 1408, Henry IV. defeated the nobles, led by Percy (Hotspur), who was slain. Pop., 1891, 26,967.

Shrikes (laniidve). Passerine birds with hawk-like bills, short rounded wings, and long tail. Ab. 100 species exist, mostly Old World forms; also known as Butcher Birds (q.v.).

Lanius borealis, the Northern Shrike, is bluish ash above, with rump and shoulders whitish, wings black, and wavy white and black below: it is distinguished from the Loggerhead Shrike in having the black bars on side of head, meeting in front. The Drongo Shrike, Cuckoo Shrike, etc., are birds of other families that resemble shrikes superficially.

Shrimp (cranqon Vulgaris). Small, long-tailed crustacean much used for food in England and France; they are in season during the whole year, but the chief demand is in spring. In the U. S. they are eaten somewhat, but used chiefly for bait.

Shrine. Repository for the bones of saints and martyrs and other relics.

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Shrouds. Range of large ropes extending from the mastbeads to right and left sides of a ship, to support the masts. —Also the dresses of the dead.

Shrovetide. Specifically the period between the Saturday evening before Quinquagesima Sunday and the morning of Ash Wednesday; often restricted to Shrove Tuesday.

Shrove Tuesday. Day before Ash Wednesday; on it R. Catholics are shriven or confessed. The Mardi Gras of the French, with its merry-making, is Shrove Tuesday. It is a popular festival at New Orleans.

Shrubs. Woody plants, branching from the ground; generally less than 25 ft. high.

Shubrick, William Branpord, U.S.N., 1790-1874. Commander 1820, Captain 1831, Rear-admiral 1863.—His brothers, John Templar, 1788-1815, Edward Rutledge, 1794-1844, and IRVINE, 1798-1849, were also naval officers.

Shufeldt, Robert Wilson, U.S.N.. 1822-1895. Consul-gen. at Havana 1861; Commander 1863, Captain 1869, Commodore 1876, Rear-admiral 1883.

Shuffle - Board. Old English game, long a common amusement in taverns; played by two or four persons with a set of iron weights of a lb. or less each, which are slid along a board some 30 ft. long and 20 in. wide. The board is covered with One sand and has slightly raised edges to prevent the weights from sliding off. Ab. 5 in. from each end lines are drawn, which serve alternately as starting and finishing lines.

Shumagin Islands. Group of islands in lat. 55° N., long. 160° W., s.w. of the Alaska Peninsula, inhahited by seal hunters and fishermen. They were discovered in 1741 by Waxel. Coal is mined on one of the islands. Area ab. 600 sq. m.

Shumard, B. F., 1820-1869. Assistant geologist in the survey of Iowa, Wis., and Minn.; later under Profs. Swallow and Pumpelly in Mo.; State Geologist of Texas 1858.

Shunk, Francis Raws, 1788-1848. Gov. of Pa. from 1844.

Shunt. If in an electric circuit any two points be joined by an extra wire or conductor, a part of the current is deflected through this new channel, which is called a shunt. The application is very useful in reducing the strength of a current that is to pass through a galvanometer or other delicate instrument.

Shur. Name applied by the Hebrews to the desert bordering Esrvpt on the e. of the southern half of the Isthmus of Suez (Ex. xv. 22).

ShurtleflT, Nathaniel Bradstrket, M.D., 1810-1874. Boston genealogist and antiquarian.

Shushan. Ancient capital of PerBia. See Susa.

Shute, Samuel, 1653-1742. Gov. of Mass. 1716-27; at odds with the general court, and in England from 1723.

Shuttlecock. Probably introduced as a plaything from the East, though found among the Zuni Indians of New Mexico as a familiar toy, and, made of corn cob, stuck with a feather, among the remains of the Cliff Dwellers of Colorado.

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Shwan-Pan. Abacus (q.v.) of the Chinese.

Sialagogrues. Mercury, and other substances which increase the flow of saliva.

Sialkot. Town of n.w. India, 72 m. n. of Lahore. Its fort was defended against Sepoys 1857. Pop., 1891, 54,930.

Slam. Kingdom of Indo-China, between Burmah and Anam. It became known to the Portuguese 1511, and was explored by Mendez Pinto ab.1550. The Dutch traders gradually supplanted the Portuguese in the 17th century. Commerce with England was not much developed until the treaty of 1855; in 1856 the U. S. negotiated a similar treaty. The language indicates derivation from the same stock as the Hindus, in spite of the Mongolian type of features. The tradition is that the Siamese were freed from the Cambodian yoke in the 7th century, at which time many towns were founded, and they began to crowd the Cambodians toward the 8. The Malay annals have it that they reached the end of the peninsula ab.1160. Ab.1340 they invaded Cambodia; the wars lasted some 400 years. In the 15t h and 16th centuries, S. was often invaded by Burmese and Peguans, and in 1555 was reduced to dependence, from which it was soon delivered by a national hero. From 1592 to 1632 there was much intercourse with Japan. The present dynasty was founded by a successful general ab.1775. Some of her kings have been of quite different sort from the typical Oriental monarch, taking an enlightened interest in science and education. Area ab.250,000 sq. m., pop. ab.6,000,000.

Slam, GULF OF. Inlet in s. Asia from the China Sea, washing the shores of Siam, Cambodia, and French Cochin-China.

Slamang (hylobates Syndactylus). Gibbon Ape of Sumatra, whose second and third toes are united as far as the outer joint.

Siamese. Chinese form nearly a third of the population of Siam; another third includes the Laos, who came originally from Thibet, and occupy the n. and mountainous portion. There are also Malays and less important tribes that suggest interesting ethnological questions. The Siamese proper are inferior to the Laos, who are proud, independent, intelligent, and tolerant. The Siamese in general are passionless, will sell their children into slavery for debt, love gambling and amusements, are submissive and hospitable but idle, and though Buddhists nominally, have many superstitions. They are inclined to agnosticism, and favor the introduction of European culture. In color they are between the Chinese and the Malnys. Their chief occupation is agriculture, producing cotton, hemp, coffee and tobacco.

Siamese. Monosyllabic language of Farther India, subjected to strong Buddhistic influences in its linguistic forms and in its literature.

Siamese Twins. Chang and Eng (Left and Right), 18111874; connected at breast-bones; exhibited from 1829; settled in N. C, and married to sisters.

Sibbald, Sir Robert, 1641-1722. Scottish geographer, antiquarv, and naturalist. Scotia Illiistrata, 1684; Autobiography, 1837.

Slbbes,Richard, 1577-1635. English Puritan, whose works, collected in 7 vols. 1862-64, were once influential.

Siberia. That part of Russia within the limits of Asia.

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mass of elevation of Asia. This elevated region extends n.e. along the borders of the Sea of OkotsU and Bering: Sea, diminishing' in height and in breadth. N. of this elevated country the level drops gradually to a great plain, the Steppes, which extend n. to the Arctic Sea, forming near the coast vast areas of frozen swamp or Tundra. The climate varies with the latitude and the elevation, and is every where marked by great extremes of heat and cold. S. is sparsely populated, mainly in the s. and w. Agriculture is the chief occupation. There is some cattle-raising, mining in a few localities, and a considerable trade. A railroad across the country is in process of construction. Area 4,826,287 sq. m.; pop., "1892, 4,539,000, mainly in the s. and w., but increasing rapidly of late, through voluntary immigration from Russia and deportation of criminals and political prisoners. The treatment of the latter has made S. notorious. Principal towns, Omsk, Irkutsk, and Tomsk.

Siberians. Inn. Siberia the chief tribe is the Chukchee. They are nomadic fishers, but some possess reindeer. Both sexes dress alike, and usually go bareheaded. They are quicktempered, abhor a natural death, and, when infirmity comes, voluntarily submit to be harpooned. There are ab. as many Russians in Siberia as aborigines, and in the e. part intermarriage has occurred extensively. See Kamchatka, Ostiaks, Tungus. Samoyeds, Mongolians, Kalmuks, Hyperboreans, Tartars, and Yakuts.

Sibilants. In Phonetics, letters uttered with the hissing of the voice, as s.

Sibley, Henry Hastings, LL.D., b. 1811. Pioneer settler of Minn.: M.C. 1849-53; Gov. 1858; commander against the Sioux, whom he defeated Sept. 1802; opposer of State railway bonds 1858. and of their repudiation 1871.—His father, SOLOMON, 1709-1846, was M.C. 1820-23, and Judge of Mich. Supreme Court till 1836.

Sibley, Henry Hopkins, 1816-1886. Officer U.S.A., distinguished in the Mexican war; inventor of the S. tent; Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1861-65; in the Egyptian service 1869-74.—His father, George Champlain, 1782-1863, was an explorer in the West and Indian commissioner.—Their cousin, Hiram, 1807-1888, long pres. Western Union Telegraph Co., constructed a line to the Pacific 1861.

Slblhorp, John, F.R.S., 1758-1796. Prof, of Botany at Oxford 1784. Flora Oxoniensis, 1794; Flora Grozca, 20 vols., 1806-40.

Sibyl. Prophetess in ancient mythology, supposed to deliver inspired oracles. The number is first stated as one, but the sibyllae afterward became localized, and later ten are designated. They are regarded as of Asiatic origin, and are said to have wandered with their sacred books from place to place. One of the most famous is the Cumaean sibyl, who. according to the legend, offered the Sibylline books to Tarquin. Her price being- refused, she burned 3, and then 3 more, still demanding the original price, which the king at last paid. They were kept in the temple of Jupiter, consulted on emergencies, and burned with the temple 83 B.C. A later collection was destroyed in the 5th century. The later Sibylline Oracles are a collection of Greek verses, composed chiefly in the 2d and 3d centuries, apparently by Christians or Jews.

Sicilian Vespers. Massacre of the French (who acquired Sicily 1266) by the exasperated natives; it began at Palermo March 30, 1282, and 8,000 perished.

Sieilies, Two. Kingdom of Naples and Sicily from ab.1130. The Norman and Suabian kingdoms passed to Charles of Aniou 1205. The revolt of the island, 1282, split the kingdom into two sections, each called the kingdom of Sicily. The island passed to Aragon (1296-1458). Naples remaining in another branch of the same house. Both were united as the T. S. to Spain 1504. The island passed to the Duke of Savoy 1713, was again united to Naples under Charles VI. of Austria 1720, and transmitted to the Neapolitan Bourbons 1738-1860. At the last date they were joined to the kingdom of Italy. See Sicily.

Sicily. Island in the Mediterranean, off the extremity of Italy, from which it is separated by the Strait of Messina. Originally held by Sicani or Siculi, it was partly colonized by Phoenicians 800 B.C. or earlier, and by Greeks, who founded Syracuse and other cities ab.750-579. A Carthaginian invasion was repelled at Himera 480 B.C., and an Athenian fleet and army destroyed at Syracuse 413. The island was mainly held by Rome from 241, and became a province 210 B.C. It was conquered by Vandals 440. recovered by Belisarius 535, and held by Saracens 827-ab.l080. It, is noted for fertility, and notorious as the home of the Mafia. Length 185 m.,

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Siekel, Horatio Gates, 1817-1890. Brigade commander 1861-65, serving chiefly in Va.

Sickliigen, Franz Von, 1481-1523. German knight and warrior, protector of Reuchlin and GScolampadius; associated with Von Hutten in an aggressive but futile campaign against the Abp. of Treves; besieged and killed at Landstuhl.

Sickle-Pod. Arabis canadensis. Woodland herb of the natural family CrucifercK, with curved pods and small greenishwhite flowers, native of e. N. America.

Sickles, Daniel Edgar, b.1823. M.C. 1857-61 and 1893-95; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1801; Major-gen. 1862-68; distinguished in the Va. battles and at Gettysburg; Col. U.S.A. 1866-69; Minister to Spain 1869-73; prominent in Democratic politics; sheriff of New York 1890.

Sickles' Cut-off. Form of valve-gear for steamboat engines, in which the stem of the Steam Poppet-valve (q.v.) was released from its valve-rod (see Stevens* Valve-gear), So that the valve might close by gravity more quickly than it would if attached positively to a continuously moving gear. The descent should be retarded by a DASH-POT (q.v.). See also DROP Cut-off.

Sicula. Dagger-shaped spine, found at the proximal end of the polypary of a Graptolite, and representing the embryonic skeleton.

Slcyon. Ancient Greek city, 7 m. n.w. of Corinth; noted for bronze work and paintings. Apellesand Aratus were born here.

Siddlinrtba. See Buddha.

Siddim, Vale Of. Scene of a conflict recorded inGen. xiv.;

supposed to be covered by the Dead Sea.

Siddons, Sarah (kemble), 1855-1831. English actress of highest rank, supreme in Shakespearean and other tragic parts 1782-1812; at Covent Garden Theater 1803-12.

Side Arms. Such as are worn at the side, as the bayonet

and sword, but not the revolver or pistol.

Side-Lever Engine. Form for paddle-wheel ships of war; the head-links from the end of the piston rod, instead of passing upward to a single-beam overhead, passed downward to a double-beam, whose center was on the sole-plate of the engine. The pitman or connecting-rod rose from the beam or side-levers to the crank shaft above it. Such engines had a low center of gravity, and no part of them protruded above the deck exposed to hostile shot. See Beam and BACK-ACTING Engine.

Sidereal. Relating to the stars. Sidereal time is that reckoned by the apparent revolution of the stars.

Sidereal Clock. See Clocks.

Sidereal Period of a Planet. Time required to perform a complete revolution as seen from the sun.

Sidcritc. FeCOs. Native ferrous carbonate, commonly called spathic iron ore. It is a frequent mineral in veins of lead or silver ore; when found by itself in sufficient quantity and free from deleterious impurities, it is an important source

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