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Sexual Generation. Stage of certain plants in which the sexual organs are borne and fecundation accomplished, there being in these plants another state or Asexual Generation where they are absent. The term is of especial application in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta.

Sexual Reproduction. Production of offspring from fertilized eggs. The eggs are cells more or less loaded with food yolk, for the early nourishing of the embryo; the fertilizing element is the sperm, a cell consisting of a head of nearly pure chromatin or idioplasm, and a propelling flagellum or tail. Fecundation consists in the union of the chromatin of the esg nucleus with that brought by the sperm, to form a new nucleus, whose subsequent divisions produce all the cells of the developing body. Much speculation has been given to explain the reason for this union, as many organisms hold their own by the much more efficient asexual reproduction. It has .been supposed to confer variability, and thus give a chance for natural selection to secure adaptability to a changing environment. It has also been supposed to be a rejuvenescence. Males and females are organisms specialized to produce each sort of cell, but in many cases both ova and sperms are produced by each organism, though self-fertilization rarely takes place. This in fact would defeat the object of sex. See Polar Globules. Gemmules, Heredity, and Variation.

Sexual Selection. Selection that arises during matingtime among animals, by which the strongest and best adapted males secure the females and so transmit these characters to the young; most efficient form of natural selection.

Seybert, Adam, M.D.. 1773-1825. M.C. from Pa. 1809-15 and 1817-19: naturalist. Statistical Annals of U.S., 1818.— His son, Henry, 1802-1883, was a mineralogist.

Seychelles. Group of 30 islets in the Indian Ocean, 600 m. n.e. of Madagascar; colonized from France 1742; held by Gt. Britain since 1794. It is a dependency of Mauritius. Mahe

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Seychelles Islands—Native turning Turtle.

is the largest, having an area of ab. 59 sq. m. The chief products are tropical fruits. Rain is frequent, and the regularity of the winds makes the islands healthful. Area ab. 100 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 16,440.

Seyflrarth, Gustavus. D.D., 1796-1885. Prof. Leipzig 182555, and Concordia Theol. Sem., St. Louis. 1855-71; archaeologist.

Seymour, Horatio. LL.D., 1810-1886. Gov. of N. Y. 185355 and 1863-64: active in support of government; Democratic candidate for Pres. 1868.

Seymour, Jane, ab.1510-1537. Maid of honor to Anne Boleyn, and her successor 1536 as (3d) queen of Henry VIII.

Seymour, Orioen Storrs, LL.D., 1804-1881. M.C. 185155: Judge Conn. Superior Court 1855-63. and Suprpme Court 1870; Chief-justice 1873-74.—His uncle. HORATIO, LL.D., 17781857, was U. S. Senator from Vt. 1821-33. r Seymour, Thomas Day, b.1848. Prof. Yale 1880: ed. Iliad. 1887-91.

Seymour, Thomas Hart. 1808-1868. Gov. of Conn. 185053; U. S. Minister to Russia 1853-57.

Seymour, Truman. U.S.A., 1824-1891. Brig.-gen. U. 8. Vols. 1862, serving chiefly in Va., Mil., and S. C.

Slav. Seaport of Tunis, 74 m. s. of Susa. It is famous for its olive gardens. Sponges, woolen stuffs, camels and olive oil are its chief articles of commerce. It is supposed to be the Taphroura of Ptolemv, and is principally inhabited bv Jews Pop. 42,500.

Sforza, Francesco, 1401-1466. Italian leader of condottieri, whose father was ennobled ab.1420; Duke of Milan (by usurpation) from 1450.—His grandson, Lodovico, 1451-1510, became Duke by murder and usurpation 1494, was attacked by the French, and imprisoned from 1500.—Of his sons. MassiMiliano, 1491-1530, was twice expelled; Francesco II., 14921535, Duke from 1522, was the last of his line: after him Austria seized Milan.

Sgambati, Giovanni, b.1843 at Rome. Pianist and composer, of German tastes; pupil of Liszt. His principal works are two quintets for pianoforte and strings, a concerto for pianoforte in G minor, and a symphony in D.

SgralBto, or Scratched Work. Italian method of decorating a plain surface. Colored plaster is laid on and this covered with a white one, after which the design is scratched through with an iron bodkin. The colored work shows through and makes the contrast.

Shabbatai Tsevi, 1626-1676. Jewish impostor, proclaimed as Messiah in Asia Minor 1665.

Shad. See Isospondyli and Clupeid^e.

Shad-Bush. See Service-berry.

Shaddock. Citrus decumana. Tree of the Orange family, native of China, cultivated in tropical regions for its pulpy, edible fruit, which sometimes attains the diameter of 18 in.

Shadow. Portion of space from which illumination from a source of light is cut off by an opaque body. See Lmbka.

Shadow Pictures. Made with the hands on the wall,or by means of designs cut from paper and placed behind a screen. Both methods are common in e. Asia. In Corea, children make shadow pictures with their hands, invariably to represent a Buddhist priest. In Japan, a bird-catcher is the usual figure. Japanese children also have a great variety of paper shadow pictures. In Siam and Java large images with movable limbs are employed in regular shadow dramas. A common name for such performances is Chinese Shadows.

Shadwell, THOMAS, 1640-1692. English dramatist; poet laureate 1688; satirized by Dryden in MacFlecknoe.

Shalfher, Taliaferro Preston, 1818-1881. American writer on telegraphy and inventor of methods of blasting.

Shaflites. One of the four principal sects of the Sunnites, the orthodox Moslems.

Shaft. Opening, vertical or nearly so, through which communication is main

surface a^dto inte- '^SB&i&F
rior of a mine, and in
which the operations
of hoisting, pumping,
etc., are carried on.
Shafts vary in shape
and in dimensions ac-
cording to the extent
of the mine and the
purposes for which
they are to be used,
some being circular,
some rectangular, and
some having other
polygonal shapes. A
common diameter for
a circular shaft is
from 12 to 15 ft.

Shaft. The portion of a column between the base and capital, often polished, if of different material, and octagonal, as in late Nor m a n work. In Early English they are of round, se pa rate stones. In the Decorated stvle they are

very small and "not separate. In the Perpendicular style they are round, filleted, and not separate.

Shaft and Shall ins. Cylindrical rods for tlie transmission of the effort ol the motor to the working point by means of their resistance to torsion. Older shafts were 1377

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SHAFTESBURY—SHAMROCK

also square or polygonal: modern shafts are always round. Largest shafts are those for marine practice either from engine crank to propeller wheel or to side paddle-wheel. Propeller shafts are forged with flanges on each end of the lengths to couple them together by means of bolts. The length nearest the wheel has the rings made upon it for the thrust bearing, and ends in the taper lit for the wheel. Some of the newest modern ones are hollow, to avoid the defective center likely to occur in large forgings. They are made of iron or of steel. Crank-shafts for engines are either forged solid or are built up by shrinking and keying the crank-arms upon the pins and shaft. Smaller shafting for transmission of power in shops is made either of turned or cold-rolled bars (see Cold-rolled) of solid iron or steel, and recently of hollow tubes for lightness with equal torsional stiffness. Such shafting is supported upon bangers, and carries the pulleys (see Hanqers and Pulley) necessary for the tools in use. Such shafting, being exposed both to twisting and bending from the weight of pulleys and strain of belts, will need to be stronger than if under torsion only. A solid shaft 22 in. in diameter is a very large one.

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper. 1st Earl, 16211683. M.P. 1640 and 1653; Baron and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1061; Earl 1072; Lord Chancellor 1072-73; thenceforth active in opposition: imprisoned 1077-78 and 1681; in exile 1082; brilliant and energetic, but selfish and changeable; satirized by Dryden as Achitophel.—His grandson and namesake, 3D Earl, 1671-1713. M.P. 1695-98, Earl 1099; philosophic writer of the freethinking or ' Deist" school, advocating the doctrine of a moral sense. His works were mostly collected inCharacteriitics, 3 vols.. 1711-14.—7th Earl, D.C.L., 1801-1885. M.P. 1820, Earl 1851; chairman of the Lunacy Commission from 1828; active in philanthropy; prominent in the extreme Evangelical school.

Shagreen. Leather made from skins of sharks and other fish, and used for covering boxes, etc. In Asia it is employed for shoes, binding of MSS., and other purposes.

Shah. Sovereign of Persia. See Nasr-ed-din.

Shahjahanpur. City of n. India, on a branch of the Ganges; founded 1647. Pop., 1891, 78,522.

Shall Jehail, d.1666. Mogul emperor of Delhi 1627; conqueror of neighboring kingdoms; able ruler, who had a splendid court, and built many notable edifices.

Shah-Nauich. Persian national epic. See Firdausi.

Shairp, John Campbell, 1819-1885. Scottish essayist, critic, and poet; prof. St. Andrews 1861, principal 1868; prof. Oxford from 1877. Culture and Religion. 1870; Poetic Interpretation of Nature, 1877; Aspects of Poetry. 1881; Burns, 1884.

Shaker*. Community of English origin, rejecting marriage, private property, war, and oaths; organized in America by Ann Lee 1776: nicknamed from the "dancing" at their services. Their chief seats are at New Lebanon and VVatervliet, N. Y. They have fifteen societies and ab. 1,728 members.

Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Greatest of drama

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Hathaway 1582; in London as actor and manager from ab. 1586 till ab.1611, when he retired to New Place in his native town. The records of his life are scanty, and in part (as the tale of deer-stealing) legendary and dubious. His magnificent Sonnets, pub. 1609. dedicated and mainly addressed to "Mr. W. H." (probably Wm. Herbert, later Earl of Pembroke), are intensely individual, and show that, while his conduct was not always exemplary, his soul was worthy of his genius. His early poems, Venus and Adonis and Lucreee, are less important. These are supposed to date from 1590-94; most of the sonnets are not much later. The plays, classified as tragedies, comedies, and histories, were not collected till 1623; 20 (out of 37 usually credited to him) were printed in his lifetime. Their respective dates are matters of controversy. Prof. Dowden places them under four periods, thus: — I., 1590-95. Titus Andronicus (if his at all), 1 Henry VI., Love's Labor's Lost, Corneay of Errors, Two Gentlemen of Verona, Midsummer Night's Dream, 2 and 8 Henry VI., Richard 111., Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, King John, Merchant of Venice.—II., 15951601. 1 and 2 Henry IV.. Henry V., Taming of the Shrew. Merry Wives of Windsor. Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Txcelfth Night. All's Well that Ends Well. Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida.—III., 1601-8. Julius Caesar. Hamlet, Othello, Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus, Timon.—IV., 1608-11. Pericles, Cymbeline, Tempest, Winter's Tale. Henry VIII. is Shakespeare's only in part. Other plays are doubtfully ascribed to him.

Shaking Table. Form of ore-dressing apparatus in which the pulp flows slowly over a plane surface, to which a shaking motion is imparted to facilitate the sorting of the material.

Shale. Clay more or less hardened, easily splitting into somewhat even flakes of stratification.

Shale, ALUM. Formed of coal. clay, and iron pyrites; occurring in nature in large quantities. Treated with sulphuric acid, it yields alum.

Shaler, Alexander, b.1827. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-65; engineer.

Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate. b.1841. Assistant in Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cambridge, 1865; Prof, of Paleontology at Harvard 1868; director of Ky. Geological Survey 1873-80; geologist to U. S. survey, Atlantic division, from 1884; Prof, of Geology at Harvard 1887; author of geological reports and popular scientific works.

Shallon. Caultheria shallon. Evergreen shrub of the natural family Ericaceae, native of n.w. N. America. Its fruit is used as food by Indians.

Shalloon. Worsted cloth made at Chalons-sur-Marne, France.

Shallot. Allium asalonicum. Biennial, bulbous herb of the Onion family, native of Palestine; cultivated and used as food by eastern nations.

Shaliiiancser. King of Assyria 727-722 B.C.; conqueror of Israel; deposed and succeeded by Sargon.

Sham a Ii is in. Primitive type of religion still generally existing among Ural-Altaic peoples; also, with the Eskimo and many aboriginal American tribes. The Shaman, or wizard priest, is believed to have the power of controlling the spirits and various powers to which all the occurrences of life are supposed to be due. By the aid of magic he exorcises demons, procures oracles, and harmonizes the relations of the spiritual with the living world. His practices frequently rest upon an elaborate cosmogony.

Shame. Disagreeable feeling accompanying the consciousness of action contrary to the standard of conduct or morality held by the agent. The ordinary feeling which accompanies a violation of decency is a product of social life and cannot be considered as innate.

Shammai, 1st cent. Jewish Pharisee of high degree, whose severity was opposed to Hillel's gentleness. The schools founded by these two doctors lasted 200 yrs. or more.

Shamo. See Gobi.

Shamokin. Borough of Northumberland co., Pa.. 19 m. e. of the Susquehanna; important for >ts anthracite coal mines. Pop., 1890,14.403.

Shamrock. National emblem of Ireland; plant with trifoliolate leaves, a clover, of which several varieties are used. Tradition declares that it was employed by

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Tower of Long-Hua, Shanghai. Shaper. 1. Friezing machine for wood.

St. Patrick to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity. The
Lesser Yellow Trefoil is the plant usually sold iu Dublin on
St. Patrick's Day.
Shatnyl. See Schamyl.

Shanghai. City of China, the most important of

its seaports; on the Wusung River, 12 m. above its mouth. It was first opened | to foreign trade 1843. It has a foreign quarter, comprising British, French, and American "Concessions," stretching ab. 2 m. along the Wu-sung. The tonnage of ships sailing hence was, in 1893. 3,264,985 tons. Pop. ab.400,000.

Shannon. Chief river I of Ireland, rising in theCuilcagh Mts. and flowing s. and s.w. to the Atlantic. Length 254 m., including lakes and canals; partly navigable.

Shannon, Wilson. 18021877. Gov. of Ohio 1838-40 and 1842-14: U. S. Minister to Mexico 1844; M.C. 185355; Gov. of Kansas 1855-56.

Shans. Siamese race, of Chinese origin, living in Indo-China since ab. 100 B.C. Their various tribes are scattered, but chiefly on the borders of Burmah, Siam, Tongkin, and China.

2. Properly, tool

for metal, which reciprocates in straight lines over the stationary work which receives the feed motions. The casting which carries and guides the reciprocating tool sometimes can be fed laterally on shears or a bed (traveling-head shaper) to finish extended surfaces whose straight line elements are short. The tool is usually driven with a Whitworth quickreturn crank motion. Such tools are specially adapted for surfaces of incomplete revolution (as crank!' hubs and rod-ends), and for small pieces where the traverse of the entire planer bed Shaper- would entail a waste

of power, and the necessity for accuracy and planeness of surface is not great. It is a combined lathe and planer.

Shapur, or Sapor. I. Sonof Ardashir. founder of the Sasanian empire of Persia. He reigned 242-272, and captured the Emperor Valerian 260, but seems not to have permanently extended his boundaries.—S. II., King 310-379. He maintained a war with the e. Roman Empire 337-363; Constantius was repeatedly defeated, Julian mortally wounded while on the retreat from Ctesiphon, and Jovian consented to a shameful peace. Later S. attempted the conquest of Armenia.—His son, S. III.. King 384-389, at once made peace with the Romans, but was slain by his nobles.

Sharks (squalides). Spindle-shaped Plagiostomes, with lateral gill-slits, eyelids with free edges, incomplete shoulder girdle, and no cranial fin-cartilages. The pectoral fins are borne more or less vertically. The teeth are in numerous rows and are dagger-shaped. The group falls into two subgroups, Cestraphori. including Cestracion, the Port Jackson Shark of Australia, the only living representative of a fossil group furnished with crushing teeth, and the Squali proper, which are subdivided into Cyclospondyli (Dog-fishes. Greenland Shark), Asterospondyli (Tropical sharks, Hammerhead), Disspondyli {Notidanus), and Tectospondyli (Squatinidce). The

fenera Carcliarias and Carcharinus include the Maneaters. he former contains a single species, C. rondetetii, which at

tains or exceeds a length of 40 ft. (The Basking Shark, Ceforlrinus maximvs, sometimes attains a length of 30 ft., but it rarely attacks man.) The second genus includes many species,

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Hammerhead Shark (Zygaena malleus).

of which the Great Blue Shark and the White Shark are the most formidable, approaching at times a length of 35 ft. They are very voracious and follow ships, swallowing anything thrown overboard.

Sharon. Fertile plain near the coast of Samaria and n. Judssa.

Sharon, William. 1821-1885. Senator from Nev. 1875-81; banker and mine owner.

Sharon Springs. Summer resort in Schoharie co., N.Y.. with sulphur springs, 59 m. w. of Albany.

Sharp, Abraham, 1651-1742. English mechanician and mathematician, connected with the Greenwich Observatory 1676-90. Geometry, 1717.

Sharp, Granville. 1734-1813. English philanthropist, prominent in opposition to slavery.—His grandfather, John, D.D.,' 1644-1714, was Dean of Norwich 1681-86 and Abp. of York from 1691.

Sharp, James, 1618-1679. Abp. of St. Andrews 1661; detested as an apostate trom the Scottish cause and tool of tyranny; murdered by Covenanters.

Sharp, William, 1749-1824. English engraver, remarkable for the cleanness and purity of his line. He engraved many plates after Guido, West, and Reynolds.

Sharpe, Charles Kirkpatrick. 1781-1851. Scottish collector, compiler, and lyric poet. Etchings, 1869; Correspondence, 1888.

Sharpe, Daniel, 1806-1856. English geologist and paleontologist, author of two important papers upon cleavage and the contortion of shells and trilobites under pressure.

Sharpe, Samuel, 1799-1881. English Orientalist; voluminous writer on Egyptian and biblical topics. Hist. Hebrew Nation and Literature, 1869.

Sharpies*, James, ab. 1750-1811. Anglo-American portraitpai n ter.

Sharpshooter. Expert rifleman in the U. S. service. With the present .30 caliber rifle a sharpshooter must attain an aggregate of at lenst 480 points in firing at ranges 200. 300, 500, 600. 800, and 1,000 yds., and at skirmish fil ing of 20 shots for each run down and back starting from 600 yds. and goinsr to 200 yds., and then back. The target for 200 and 300 yd. range is 6 ft. bv 4, bull's-eye 10 in. by 8, 4 ring 30 in. by 24, 3 ring 50 in. by'24; that for 500 and 600 yd. range is 6 ft. by 6. with bull's-eve"24 in. bv 18. 4 ring 48 in. bv 36, and 3 ring 54 in. by 72; that for 800 and 1,000 yd. range" is 6 ft. by 12. with bull's-eye 32 in. by 45, 4 ring 6 ft. by 51 in., and 3 ring 6 ft. by 6; bull's-eye counts 5, 4 ring 4, 3 ring 3, and outside of the 3 ring 2. In the skirmish firing, a standing, a kneeling and a lving down figure are grouped together 3 ft. apart and. when hit, count respectively 3, 4 and 5; 30 seconds only are allowed at a halt in skirmish firing and 20 shots in each run.

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Sharp's Rifle. One of the earliest breech loaders, used in the Mexican war and during the civil war. The breech-block is hinged to the trigger guard and when the latter is pushed forward the block slides vertically downward and opens the breech; for the paper cartridge, its end being cut off by the sharp upper edge of the block when the guard is pulled back. It is fired by a percussion cap on the nipple of the block. The gas check is an undercut hollow in the front face of the block.

Sharswood, George. LL.D., 1810-1883. Pres. Phila. District Court 1848-67; law prof. Univ. Pa. 1850-67; Justice Pa. SupremeCourt 1867: Chief-justice 1878-82. Professional Ethics, 1854; Lectures on Common Law, 1856. His edition of Blackstone, 1859, is much used.

Shasta, Mt. Extinct volcanic peak in n. Cal. Elevation 14.442 ft.

Shastras, or Shasters. Commentaries on the Vedas, regarded as partaking of their sacredness and authority.

Shaubena, ab.1775-1859. Ottawa chief, lieutenant to Tecumseh 1807-13; opposed to Black Hawk 1832. Shave-Crass. See Scouring-rushes. Shaving. See Beard.

Shaw, Albert, b.1857. Ed. Minneapolis Tribune 1884-91. Icaria. 1884; Co-operation, 1886; Revenues, 1888; Municipal Government in Europe, 1895-96.

Shaw, Albert Duank, b. 1841. U. S. Consul at Toronto 1868-78, and at Manchester 1878-85.

Shaw, George, M.D., 1751-1813. Keeper in British Museum from 1791. Naturalist's Library, 24 vols., 1790-1813; Zoology, 11 vols., 1800-19; Lectures, 1809.

Shaw, Henry, b.1800. Anglo-American, founder of the St. Louis Botanic Garden 1870.

Shaw, Henry Wheeler ("josh Billings"), 1818-1885. American humorist. Works, 1877.

Shaw, Lemuel, LL.D., 1781-1861. Chief-justice of Mass. 1830-60.

Shaw, Robert Gould. 1837-1863. Col. 54th Mass., a colored regiment; killed at Fort Wagner, S. C.—His father, FRANCIS George, 1809-1882, was active in philanthropy.

Shaw, Thomas, b.1843. Prof, of Husbandry in Ontario 1888, and Minn. 1893. Agriculture, 1890; Weeds, 1893.

Shawl. Article of fine wool, silk, or wool and silk, manufactured in the fashion of a large handkerchief, used in female dress. The principal varieties are: those of Cashmere (see Cashmere Goat): Crape shawls woven of hard-spun silk yarn in the gum or natural condition; Grenadines, made of silk; Chine, made with the warp printed before weaving; Barege, a woolen fabric made at Bareges, France; and woolen shawls of various kinds. During the last thirty years the fashion for shawls has quite passed away.

Shawnees (shawanoes). Algonquin tribe of Indians of N. Y., driven before the invading Iroquois ab.1590. Some went s. and joined the Creeks (Tecumseh was half Shawnee, half Creek); some moved w. into Wis.; some joined the Delawares, and were concerned in Penn's treaty. The Western Shawnees moved e. and were driven into Tenn. by the Iroquois. The Southern Shawnees also emigrated n. and were driven s.w, into Ohio. They sided with the English in the Revolution. They now number ab. 1,600, prosperous and civilized, but much scattered among other tribes.

Shawmut. Indian village on site of Boston.

Shars's Rebellion. Outbreak in Mass. 1786-87, led by Daniel Shays (1747-1825); occasioned by the hard times after the Revolution. An attempt was made to seize the Springfield arsenal, but the militia put down the insurrection. Several of the insurgents were captured and sentenced to death, but afterward pardoned.

Shea, John Dawson Gilmary, LL.D.. 1824-1892. American writer, chiefly on R. C. history in the New World.

Sheaf. Figure composed of lines or planes all passing through the same point, its center.

Sheaffe,Sm Roger Hale. 1763-1851. B. in Boston; British officer from 1778; Major-gen. 1811; victorious at Queenstown 1812; defender of York (Toronto), and Baronet 1813; Lieut.gen. 1821; General 1828.

Shear. Stress caused by two parallel forces acting in opposite directions and very near together, as that exerted by the blades of a pair of shears. Shearing stresses are of frequent occurrence in all engineering constructions; the shearing strength of materials is usually much less than the tensile strength.

Shear. Tool for shaping plate metal, and cutting off

bar-metal by the action of a plane of metal. The shearing edge may be plane or curved, as for ship-plate work; it may be short, when the single driving mechanism used in punches will suffice (see Punch), or it may be long, when the holder must be driven at several points by such motions. The punch ;ind shear are often combined in one machine, the driving mechanism as far as the last shaft being in common; the last shaft has the punch at one end and the shear at the other. Shears for angle iron and other special shapes require complementary shapes for the two shear planes. Rotary shears are used for thin metal, like zinc, and consist of two disks with beveled edges which revolve in parallel planes, and slightly overlap each other. Such shears will cut to varying or compound curved lines, which reciprocating shears will not do even with curved blades, but they are applicable to thin work only. Where curves are to be sheared in heavy work, it has to be done by punching round holes on the perimeter, and cutting out the serrations afterward.

Shearman, Thomas Gaskell, b. 1824 in England. Legal and political writer in New York. Free Trade, 1881; Single Tax, 1887; Taxation, 1890-91.

Shears. 1. Bed of a machine tool, upon which the tool carriages slide, guided by the beveled edges or by the tracks on it. 2. Plural of shear, for shearing metal by power, and for the ordinary hand-implements. 3. Pair of long spars, framed together by iron bracing so as to resemble a very slender capital A, by which heavy weights of boiler and eu

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Plate Shearing Machine.

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gine are put into vessels, and the masts of such vessels are stepped. The upper end of the frame carries a purchase block, and the lower end is pinned to the ground. The spars have a slight slant forward from the bottom, and, by means of the guy ropes, a slight horizontal adjustment of the load is possible. Such temporary frames are used for erecting vertical poles or stacks; often called gin poles in this case.

Shearwater. 'See Skimmer, Fulmar, and Razor-bill.

Sheath. In Agrostology, basal portion of the leaf of grasses, which clasps the stem above the node from which the leaf is developed.

Sheathbill. Antarctic Ralline bird, with pigeon-like appearance, white color, and a sheath on the base of the upper mandible. It feeds on sea-weeds, crustaceans, and eggs.

Sheathing. Material used for protecting ships'bottoms from the attacks of the teredo and other marine animals. Lead was first used, then sheet copper, but now sheet yellow metal, composed of copper 60, zinc 40 parts. It also prevents fouling by sea-weeds. See Muntz Metal.

Shcba. Kingdom of s. Arabia, whose queen visited Solomon (I. Kings x.).

Shebeen. Houses in Ireland and Scotland, where intoxicating liquors are sold without a license.

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Nablous—Ancient Shechem.

was larger and had a greater population than the present Nablous. Nearby are various Scriptural localities, including Jacob's Well and the holy place of the Samaritans. Nablous pop. ab. 20,000.

Shechinah. Divine Indwelling or Presence in a visible form in Israel, as in the cloud and fire in the wilderness, or at the dedication of Solomon's temple; absent in the second t ern pie.

Shecut, John Linnaeus, M.D., 1770-1836. Physician at Charleston, S. C.; writer on medicine and electricity. Flora Caroliniensis, 1806.

Shedd, Joel Herbert, b.1834. Civil and hydraulic engineer; designer of the water-works at Providence, R. I.

Shedd, William Greenough Thayer, D.D., LL.D., 18201894. Prof. Univ. Vt. 1845-52, Auburn 1852, Andover 1853, and Union Theol. Sem., New York. 1863-90. Hist. Christian Doctrine. 1863; Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, 1867; Dogmatic Theology, 1889-94.

Shee, Sir Martin Archer, R.A., 1770-1850. Irish portraitpainter, pres. Royal Academy from 1830; knighted 1830.

ShccallH. See Sunn s.

Sheep. The Himalaya Mts. appear to be the center from which sheep of all species have originally spread. In N. America is Ovis montana. the Big Horn and the Musk-Ox. They seem to have come from Siberia. A few stragglers occupy the mountains of Europe and n. Africa. All the other wild species are Asiatic, and conlined to elevated peaks. Both male and

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Wool and mutton, the two products of sheep, have given rise to the types of the different breeds, though there has been an effort, attended with some success, to produce both profitably in one animal. The different breeds are treated under their respective names. An adult male is properly a ram. and when castrated a wether; the female is a ewe. the young a lamb. In England various terms are used to denote various ages and sexes, but they are unknown in the U. S.

Cheviot.—Breed of long-wooled English mutton sheep, with

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white faces. They come from the border between England and Scotland, and are active, hardy, and vigorous.

COTSWOLD.—Breed of long-wooled, white-faced English mutton sheep, much resembling the Leicesters. The wool grows more on the top of the head, and they are coarser-limbed and more robust. In U. S. they are generally preferred to the Leicester.

Dorset.—English breed of mutton sheep. The wool is medium in length and rather coarse. The face and legs are white, and both males and females have horns. Their bodies are long and well-formed, and they take on flesh readily and rapidly. They are chieflv valued for their prolificacy and heavy milking qualities, usually bearing two and often three lambs at a birth, and breeding twice a year.

Down Sheep.—Class of English mutton sheep. Several different breeds are recognized, differing in size and intensity of black markings. In general they bear wool of medium length and fineness. They are short-legged and squarely built, and the legs and faces are brown, gray-brown or black. The lambs are often dark-colored at birth. The best-known breeds are the Southdown, Shropshire Down, Hampshire Down and Oxford Down.

Leicester.—Breed of long-wooled, white-faced English mutton sheep. Their characteristics were greatly improved by Robert Bakewell. largely by means of close inbreeding. They are still one of the largest breeds, but somewhat lacking in vigor, though they have been used to improve most of the long-wooled breeds.

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