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Sharp's Rifle. One of the earliest breech loaders, used in the Mexican war and during the civil war. The breech-block is hinged to the trigger guard and when the latter is pushed forward the block slides vertically downward and opens the breech; for the paper cartridge, its end being cut off by the sharp upper edge of the block when the guard is pulled back. It is fired by a percussion cap on the nipple of the block. The gas check is an undercut hollow in the front face of the block.

Sharswood, George. LL.D., 1810-1883. Pres. Phila. District Court 1848-67; law prof. Univ. Pa. 1850-67; Justice Pa. SupremeCourt 1867: Chief-justice 1878-82. Professional Ethics, 1854; Lectures on Common Law, 1856. His edition of Blackstone, 1859, is much used.

Shasta, Mt. Extinct volcanic peak in n. Cal. Elevation 14.442 ft.

Shastras, or Shasters. Commentaries on the Vedas, regarded as partaking of their sacredness and authority.

Shaubena, ab.1775-1859. Ottawa chief, lieutenant to Tecumseh 1807-13; opposed to Black Hawk 1832. Shave-Crass. See Scouring-rushes. Shaving. See Beard.

Shaw, Albert, b.1857. Ed. Minneapolis Tribune 1884-91. Icaria. 1884; Co-operation, 1886; Revenues, 1888; Municipal Government in Europe, 1895-96.

Shaw, Albert Duank, b. 1841. U. S. Consul at Toronto 1868-78, and at Manchester 1878-85.

Shaw, George, M.D., 1751-1813. Keeper in British Museum from 1791. Naturalist's Library, 24 vols., 1790-1813; Zoology, 11 vols., 1800-19; Lectures, 1809.

Shaw, Henry, b.1800. Anglo-American, founder of the St. Louis Botanic Garden 1870.

Shaw, Henry Wheeler ("josh Billings"), 1818-1885. American humorist. Works, 1877.

Shaw, Lemuel, LL.D., 1781-1861. Chief-justice of Mass. 1830-60.

Shaw, Robert Gould. 1837-1863. Col. 54th Mass., a colored regiment; killed at Fort Wagner, S. C.—His father, FRANCIS George, 1809-1882, was active in philanthropy.

Shaw, Thomas, b.1843. Prof, of Husbandry in Ontario 1888, and Minn. 1893. Agriculture, 1890; Weeds, 1893.

Shawl. Article of fine wool, silk, or wool and silk, manufactured in the fashion of a large handkerchief, used in female dress. The principal varieties are: those of Cashmere (see Cashmere Goat): Crape shawls woven of hard-spun silk yarn in the gum or natural condition; Grenadines, made of silk; Chine, made with the warp printed before weaving; Barege, a woolen fabric made at Bareges, France; and woolen shawls of various kinds. During the last thirty years the fashion for shawls has quite passed away.

Shawnees (shawanoes). Algonquin tribe of Indians of N. Y., driven before the invading Iroquois ab.1590. Some went s. and joined the Creeks (Tecumseh was half Shawnee, half Creek); some moved w. into Wis.; some joined the Delawares, and were concerned in Penn's treaty. The Western Shawnees moved e. and were driven into Tenn. by the Iroquois. The Southern Shawnees also emigrated n. and were driven s.w, into Ohio. They sided with the English in the Revolution. They now number ab. 1,600, prosperous and civilized, but much scattered among other tribes.

Shawmut. Indian village on site of Boston.

Shars's Rebellion. Outbreak in Mass. 1786-87, led by Daniel Shays (1747-1825); occasioned by the hard times after the Revolution. An attempt was made to seize the Springfield arsenal, but the militia put down the insurrection. Several of the insurgents were captured and sentenced to death, but afterward pardoned.

Shea, John Dawson Gilmary, LL.D.. 1824-1892. American writer, chiefly on R. C. history in the New World.

Sheaf. Figure composed of lines or planes all passing through the same point, its center.

Sheaffe,Sm Roger Hale. 1763-1851. B. in Boston; British officer from 1778; Major-gen. 1811; victorious at Queenstown 1812; defender of York (Toronto), and Baronet 1813; Lieut.gen. 1821; General 1828.

Shear. Stress caused by two parallel forces acting in opposite directions and very near together, as that exerted by the blades of a pair of shears. Shearing stresses are of frequent occurrence in all engineering constructions; the shearing strength of materials is usually much less than the tensile strength.

Shear. Tool for shaping plate metal, and cutting off

bar-metal by the action of a plane of metal. The shearing edge may be plane or curved, as for ship-plate work; it may be short, when the single driving mechanism used in punches will suffice (see Punch), or it may be long, when the holder must be driven at several points by such motions. The punch ;ind shear are often combined in one machine, the driving mechanism as far as the last shaft being in common; the last shaft has the punch at one end and the shear at the other. Shears for angle iron and other special shapes require complementary shapes for the two shear planes. Rotary shears are used for thin metal, like zinc, and consist of two disks with beveled edges which revolve in parallel planes, and slightly overlap each other. Such shears will cut to varying or compound curved lines, which reciprocating shears will not do even with curved blades, but they are applicable to thin work only. Where curves are to be sheared in heavy work, it has to be done by punching round holes on the perimeter, and cutting out the serrations afterward.

Shearman, Thomas Gaskell, b. 1824 in England. Legal and political writer in New York. Free Trade, 1881; Single Tax, 1887; Taxation, 1890-91.

Shears. 1. Bed of a machine tool, upon which the tool carriages slide, guided by the beveled edges or by the tracks on it. 2. Plural of shear, for shearing metal by power, and for the ordinary hand-implements. 3. Pair of long spars, framed together by iron bracing so as to resemble a very slender capital A, by which heavy weights of boiler and eu

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Plate Shearing Machine.

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gine are put into vessels, and the masts of such vessels are stepped. The upper end of the frame carries a purchase block, and the lower end is pinned to the ground. The spars have a slight slant forward from the bottom, and, by means of the guy ropes, a slight horizontal adjustment of the load is possible. Such temporary frames are used for erecting vertical poles or stacks; often called gin poles in this case.

Shearwater. 'See Skimmer, Fulmar, and Razor-bill.

Sheath. In Agrostology, basal portion of the leaf of grasses, which clasps the stem above the node from which the leaf is developed.

Sheathbill. Antarctic Ralline bird, with pigeon-like appearance, white color, and a sheath on the base of the upper mandible. It feeds on sea-weeds, crustaceans, and eggs.

Sheathing. Material used for protecting ships'bottoms from the attacks of the teredo and other marine animals. Lead was first used, then sheet copper, but now sheet yellow metal, composed of copper 60, zinc 40 parts. It also prevents fouling by sea-weeds. See Muntz Metal.

Shcba. Kingdom of s. Arabia, whose queen visited Solomon (I. Kings x.).

Shebeen. Houses in Ireland and Scotland, where intoxicating liquors are sold without a license.

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Nablous—Ancient Shechem.

was larger and had a greater population than the present Nablous. Nearby are various Scriptural localities, including Jacob's Well and the holy place of the Samaritans. Nablous pop. ab. 20,000.

Shechinah. Divine Indwelling or Presence in a visible form in Israel, as in the cloud and fire in the wilderness, or at the dedication of Solomon's temple; absent in the second t ern pie.

Shecut, John Linnaeus, M.D., 1770-1836. Physician at Charleston, S. C.; writer on medicine and electricity. Flora Caroliniensis, 1806.

Shedd, Joel Herbert, b.1834. Civil and hydraulic engineer; designer of the water-works at Providence, R. I.

Shedd, William Greenough Thayer, D.D., LL.D., 18201894. Prof. Univ. Vt. 1845-52, Auburn 1852, Andover 1853, and Union Theol. Sem., New York. 1863-90. Hist. Christian Doctrine. 1863; Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, 1867; Dogmatic Theology, 1889-94.

Shee, Sir Martin Archer, R.A., 1770-1850. Irish portraitpainter, pres. Royal Academy from 1830; knighted 1830.

ShccallH. See Sunn s.

Sheep. The Himalaya Mts. appear to be the center from which sheep of all species have originally spread. In N. America is Ovis montana. the Big Horn and the Musk-Ox. They seem to have come from Siberia. A few stragglers occupy the mountains of Europe and n. Africa. All the other wild species are Asiatic, and conlined to elevated peaks. Both male and

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Wool and mutton, the two products of sheep, have given rise to the types of the different breeds, though there has been an effort, attended with some success, to produce both profitably in one animal. The different breeds are treated under their respective names. An adult male is properly a ram. and when castrated a wether; the female is a ewe. the young a lamb. In England various terms are used to denote various ages and sexes, but they are unknown in the U. S.

Cheviot.—Breed of long-wooled English mutton sheep, with

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white faces. They come from the border between England and Scotland, and are active, hardy, and vigorous.

COTSWOLD.—Breed of long-wooled, white-faced English mutton sheep, much resembling the Leicesters. The wool grows more on the top of the head, and they are coarser-limbed and more robust. In U. S. they are generally preferred to the Leicester.

Dorset.—English breed of mutton sheep. The wool is medium in length and rather coarse. The face and legs are white, and both males and females have horns. Their bodies are long and well-formed, and they take on flesh readily and rapidly. They are chieflv valued for their prolificacy and heavy milking qualities, usually bearing two and often three lambs at a birth, and breeding twice a year.

Down Sheep.—Class of English mutton sheep. Several different breeds are recognized, differing in size and intensity of black markings. In general they bear wool of medium length and fineness. They are short-legged and squarely built, and the legs and faces are brown, gray-brown or black. The lambs are often dark-colored at birth. The best-known breeds are the Southdown, Shropshire Down, Hampshire Down and Oxford Down.

Leicester.—Breed of long-wooled, white-faced English mutton sheep. Their characteristics were greatly improved by Robert Bakewell. largely by means of close inbreeding. They are still one of the largest breeds, but somewhat lacking in vigor, though they have been used to improve most of the long-wooled breeds.

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the wool have been largely retained, the carcass has been increased in size and the folds of the skin have been obliterated. Several families of this breed, differing- but slightly in character, are known by separate names, as Blacktop. Dickinson, and Delaine Merinos. In 1896 there were 38.398.783 sheep in U. S. valued at $65,167,755. See Ovid^e and Wool.

Sheep-Berry. Viburnum leniago. Small tree of the natural family Caprifoliacem, native of the e. U. S.; known as Sweet Viburnum and Nanny-berry. The latter also indicates a related species, V. prunifolium.

Sheep Rot. Distemper caused by the presence of liverflukes, Distoma hepaticum, in the liver. The germs are swallowed with the food. Humid soil, herbage, and atmosphere also promote it. See Distomum.

Sheepshanks, John, 1787-1863. Art-patron who made a collection of the paintings of modern English artists and presented them to the English nation in 1856. They are stored at S. Kensington.

Sheepshead (diplodus). Acanthopterygian fish of the family Sparidce. It has broad cutting teeth in front and several rows of grinders like the Porgy. It is strictly confined to salt water in the North, but in Florida has been known to ascend rivers. Oyster and clam beds form its favorite feeding grounds. It bites off barnacles and young oysters when attached to rocks and timber. It is a game fish, and is caught with strong tackle. It averages 6 or 8 pounds in weight, and spawns at the mouths of rivers (probably in the South) early in the spring.

Sheep Stealing. Felony in Gt. Britain, formerly punishable with death. Sheep-Tick. See Hippoboscidje. Shecraz. See Shiraz.

Shecrncfts. Seaport in Kent. 52 m. e. of London; taken by the Dutch 1657; scene of a mutiny 1798; noted for its harbor and dockyard. Pop., 1891, 13,841.

Sheet. Rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a sail for extending and retaining it in a particular position.

Sheet Piling. Planks or timbers driven in close contact to form a coffer dam: to retain the sides of a trench in position,

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or to sustain a filling in of earth, masonry, or other material. The planks are usually tongueii and grooved and driven between two principal piles.

Shcffcy, Daniel, d.1880. M.C. from Va. 1809-17; noted for oratory.

Sheffield. City of w. Yorkshire, on the Don, at the mouth of the Sheaf, Eng.; celebrated for its manufactures of cutlery and hardware. Its importance is chiefly recent. Pop., 1891, 324.243.

Sheffield, John, Duke Of Buckinghamshire, 1649-1721. Official in three reigns; author of plays and poems.

Sheffield, Joseph Earle, 1793-1882. Benefactor of the Yale scientific school, named from him 1860.

Sheffield Scientific School. See Yale University.

Sheikh. Chief of an Arab tribe; also Mohammedan scholar, saint, or head of an order.

Shell, Richard Lalor, 1791-1851. Irish M.P. 1829-38; eminent as an orator, and, in early life, as an agitator; author of several successful plays. Sketches of the Irish Bar, 1822, repub. 1855.

Shekel. Hebrew weight, ab.220 grains; later, ab.150 B.C., a silver coin, usual value ab. 50c; struck also in gold and copper.

Shelbnrne, William Petty Fitz-maurice. Earl Of, 17371805. Cabinet Minister 1763, 1766-68, and 1782; Premier 1782-83; Marquis of Lansdowne 1784.

Shelby, Isaac, 1750-1826. Officer in border wars from 1774,

and in S. C. 1780-82; prominent at King's Mountain Oct. 7, 1780; Gov. of Ky. 1792-96 and 1812-16; in arms with Gen. Harrison in Canada 1813. A college and nine counties are named from him.—His father. Evan, 1720-1794. pioneer and Indian fighter, won the battle of Point Pleasant 1774.—His descendant, Joseph Orville, 1831-1897, was a Confederate general.

Sheldon, Edward L., 1849-1892. American writer and financier, in London from 1876. His Pocket Encyclopedia circulated widely.—His wife. May French, in. 1876, is an African traveler.

Sheldon, Edward Stevens, b.1851. Prof. Harvard since 1884; philological writer.

Sheldon, Gilbert. D.D.. 1598-1677. Bp. of London 1660, Abp. of Canterbury 1663: founder of the Sheldouian theater at Oxford 1669.

Sheldon, Henry Clay, D.D.. b.1845. Prof. Boston Univ. since 1875. Hist. Doctrine, 1886: Hist. Ch., 5 vols., 1894.

Sheldrake. 1. Tadorna. Large European marine duck, with head and neck green-black, white collar around lower neck, and broad chestnut-brown one at shoulders; primaries of wing green, the middle of under parts black, rest of plumage white. In Jutland the Danes protect this duck, providing holes for it to breed in; they remove the eggs, beyond six, of each nest, and after the nest is abandoned remove the fine down which lines it. 2. Lophodytes. Hooded or crested merganser of America. It has a black bill, white crest in male, reddish in female, and upper parts black or grayish brown respectively. See Anatin^;.

Shell. Hollow projectile with a bursting charge to be ignited by a fuse at or before striking. Shell-proof applies to magazines, covers for men and material, which will prevent shells from penetrating; more particularly applied to spherical shells, now practically obsolete, anil specifically called bomb-proof.

Shellac. See Lac.

Shelter, Alexander, b.1838. Russian novelist, poet, and historian of Communism.

Shelley, Harry Rowe, b.1858. American organist, composer of many secular and sacred songs, a cantata, Vexilla regis prodeunt, two symphonies, and many smaller pieces.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 1792-1822. English poet of delicate genius and lofty purposes, but erratic in opinions and conduct; expelled from Oxford 1811: resident in Italy from 1817; drowned in the Bav of Spezia. His chief works are Queen Mab, 1813; Alastor, l5l6; Revolt of Islam, 1818; Frometheus Unbound, 1820;

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Shell-Heaps. Heaps of shells occupying an area of 10 to 40 acres and from 10 to 100 ft. deep are found on the Atlantic coast of the western hemisphere, and are the deposits of the North American aborigines; the KlTCHEN-MlDDENS (q.v.) of Mollusk-eating peoples. Upon decomposition they yield a rich marl which is very fertile. The shells are also calcined and used for fertilizer.

Shell Lime. Made by calcining oyster shells; used like common lime for making mortar and purifying illuminating gas.

Shell Pump. See Sand Pump.

Shell-Sand. Sand consisting of shell fragments and containing some organic matter, found on the British coast. It is used asa manure, for soils deficient in lime and on reclaimed peat bogs, the lime neutralizing the organic acids in the peat and forming plant food.

Shelook. Hot dry wind in s. Arabia, not essentially different from the Sirocco.

Shelta, or Shelru. Secret jargon spoken by Irish beggars, tinkers and pipers.

Shelter. Any cover to protect troops while in active service, as tents; also, irregularities of the ground by which troops are protected from the direct fire of the enemy.

Sheltered Thermometer. One inclosed in any sort of shelter that protects it from the direct radiation of sun. sky, and ground, yet allows free access of air or wind and the attendant convection of heat.

Shelter Island. Summer resort w. of Gardiner's Bay, e. Long Island, 14 m. long by 4 m. wide. Pop., 1890, 920.

Shelton, Frederick William, 1814-1881. American author of tales and sketches.

Shem. Eldest of the three sons of Noah, and ancestor of the Hebrews and their related tribes.

Shenandoah. River of Va., w. of Blue Ridge, flowing •n.e. to the Potomac at Harper's Ferry. Length 170 m. Its valley was much fought over 1862-64.

Shenandoah. Borough of Schuylkill co., Pa., in one of the anthracite coal fields. Pop., 1890, 15,944.

Shenandoah. Confederate cruiser, which sailed from London as the Sea King, Oct. 8, 1864, destroyed a number of U.S. merchant ships, and did much damage to the whaling vessels in Bering Sea; a total of 38 ships were captured.

Shcnshin, Afanasy. b.1820. Russian poet and translator.

Shenstone, William, 1714-1763. English descriptive poet. The Schoolmistress, 1742.

Sheol. Place of departed spirits, alike good and bad. See Hades.

Shepard, Charles Upham, M.D., LL.D., 1804-1886. Assistant in geological survey of Conn. 1835; Prof, of Chemistry at Amherst 1845-52, and in S.C. Medical Coll. 1854-61; student especially of meteorites: discoverer of phosphatic deposits in S. C. Mineralogy, 1832-55.—His son and namesake, b.1842, was also prof, at Charleston 1867-83, and continued his work.

Shepard, Elliot Fitch, 1833-1893. Ed. New York Mail and Express from 1888.

Shepard, Thomas, 1605-1649. Pastor at Cambridge, Mass., from 1636. His writings were collected 1853.

Shepardson College. See Denison University.

Shepherd Dog. Dark-colored, shaggy dogab. 15 in. high, with semi-erect ears, and recurved bushy tail. It is very intel

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to sheep without the aid of man. They have a good deal of the wolf nature, and will kill sheep in a stranger's flock.

Shepherd Kings, or Hyksos. From the East, according to Manetho; conquered Egypt without a battle, destroyed the temples, enslaved the people, and ruled 511 years. Eusebiug assigns to them one dynasty and 103 years. R. S. Poole says dynasties XV. and XVI. were probably theirs. Rawlinson thinks they were Hittites. The last of them was Apeni or Apophis, under whom Joseph may have ruled Egypt. Their rule began, some say, 2200, some 1720 B.C.

Shepherd of Hermas. See Hermas.

Shepherd's-Pursc. Bursa-bursa pastoris. Weed of the natural family Crueiferce, bearing white flowers and triangular pods; native of Europe, but now found almost everywhere.

Sheplej , Ether, LL.D., 1789-1877. U. S. Senator 1833-36; Judge Me. Supreme Court 1836; Chief-justice 1848-55.—His son, George Foster, LL.D., 1819-1878. was U. S. Dist.-atty. for Me. 1853-61; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862: military gov. of New Orleans 1862, La. 1862-64, and Richmond ;i865; Judge Me. Supreme Court 1865, and U. S. circuit judge from 1869.

Sheppard, Elizabeth ("E. Berger"), 1830-1862. English novelist. Charles Auchester, 1853; Counterparts, 1854.

Sheppard, Jack, 1702-1724. English robber and jailbreaker, hero of many legends; celebrated by H. Ainsworth 1839.

Sheppey, Isle Of. At the mouth of the Medway, Kent; noted for its fossils and the gradual encroachment of the sea. Extent 9 m. by 4 m.

Sherbet. Sweetened fruit juices, diluted with water and cooled or frozen; in the latter case called Ices.

Shcrbrooke, Robert Lowe, Viscount, LL.D., D.C.L., 1811-1892. M.P. 1852; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1868-73; Home Sec. 1873-74; Viscount 1880.

Sheridan, Philip Henry, U.S.A., 1831-1888. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862. Major-gen. 1868; serving in the West till 1864; distinguished at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, Tenn.; commander of cavalry in Va. 1864, and next of the Army of the Shenandoah, with which he thrice

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defeated Gen. Early, turning the rout at Winchester, Oct. 19, into victory; Brig.-gen. U.S.A. Sept. 20. Major-gen. Nov. 8; prominent in the last actions of the war, Feb.-April 1865, especially at Five Forks; Lieut.-gen. 1869; Commander U.S.A. 1883; General 1888.

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley Butler. 1751-1816. Irish dramatist, orator, and wit. M.P. 1780-1812; owner of half Drury Lane Theater, London, from 1776, and later of the whole. His chief plays. The Rivals, 1775. School for Scandal, 1777, and The Critic, 1779, are notable for brilliant dialogue and characterization, but loose in plot. His habits were easy, and his later life was clouded by debts and poverty. Speeches, 5 vols., 1816. His grandfather, Thomas, D.D., 1684-1738, was a friend of Swift; his father, Thomas, 1721-1788, actor and elocutionist, pub. a Life of Swift and an English Dictionary, 1780; his mother, Frances (chamberlaine), 1724-1766, wrote several novels and plays.

Slier if, or Shereef. Descendant of Fatima, Mohammed's daughter.

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Sheriff1. Chief executive officer and conservator of the peace of a county. InGt. Britain lie is appointed by the Crown, and often possesses judicial functions, being the chief county judge in Scotland; in the U. S. he is generally elected by popular suffrage, and rarely has judicial powers.

SherifTmuir. Near Dumblane, Perthshire, Scot.; scene of an indecisive engagement, Nov. 13, 1715. between the rovalist troops under the Duke of Argyll and 8,400 Scottish rebels under the Earl of Mar.

Sherlock, William, D.D., 1641-1707. Dean of St. Paul's, London, 1691; prolific writer. His Discourse concerning Death, 1689, was much admired.—His son. THOMAS. D.D., 1678-1761. Bp. of Bangor 1728. of Salisbury 1734, and of London 1748. declined the primacy 1747, and was an eminent preacher and controversialist. Prophecy, 1725; Trial of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus, 1729.

Sherman, Frank Dempster, b. 1860. American poet. Madrigals. 1887; Lyrics, 1890.

Sherman, John, b.1823. Brother of the general; M.C. from Ohio 1855-61; U. S. Senator 1861-77 and 1881-97; pres. Senate 188.5-87; Sec. Treasury 1877-81; Sec. of State 1897. Speeches, 1879; Recollections of Forty Years, 1895.

Sherman, Roger, 1721-1793. Judge Conn. Superior Court 1766-89: assistant 1766-85; in Congress 1774-91; signer of the Declaration of Independence; one of the (official) f ranters of that document, of the Articles of Confederation, 1777, and of the Constitution, 1787; Mayor of New Haven from 1784; U. S. Senator from 1791.

Sherman, Thomas West, U.S.A., 1813-1879. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861, serving in S. C, Tenn., and La.; Major-gen. U.S.A. 1870.

Sherman, William Tecdmseh, U.S.A., 1820-1891. Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1861; Major-gen. May 1862, after the battle of Shiloh, Tenn.; prominent under Grant at Vicksburg and Chattanooga; commander of the Southwest 1864; famous for his

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march through Ga. and to the sea; captor of Atlanta Sept. 1, 1864, and of Savannah Dec. 21; Major-gen. 1864, Lieut.-gen. 1866, General 1869; in Europe 1872; retired 1874. Memoirs, 1875-86.

Sherry. Wine grown in Spain in the neighborhood of Jerez. It is originally white, made from white grapes, chiefly the Pedro Ximenes. It becomes dark with age or by the addition of arrope, made by boiling down grape juice. The grapes remain on the vines until they begin to dry, then are sprinkled with gypsum, pressed, and the juice left in the fermenting tubs till March. For Amontillado wines the grapes are eathered three weeks earlier, therefore the wine is drier. Montilla wines have more flavor and are used in the soleras or old stocks. Manzanilla wines are so called from the resemblance of their flavor to chamomile; they are generally lighter wines. Sherries have from 15 to 25 per cent of alcohol, from none up to 18 grs. of sugar per oz., and acidity equal to 8.5 to 5 grs. per oz. of tartaric acid. For export it is usually fortified by the addition of brandy. It is chiefly exported to England, 2,135,969 gals, being sent there 1891.

Sherwood, Mary Martha (butt), 1775-1851. English author, mainly of religious tales for the young. Lady of the Manor.

Sherwood, Sidney, b.1860. Prof, of Political Economy at Johns Hopkins Univ. 1892.

Sherwood Forest. In w. Nottinghamshire; once a royal hunting-ground; scene of Robin Hood"s legendary deeds. Extent 8 m. by 25 in.

Shetland. See Horse.

Shetland Islands. N.e. of Scotland; over 100. 23 inhabited; originally occupied by Picts; visited by Christian missionaries ab.800; rendezvous for northern vikings. They were under the rule of Norway in 876; and were annexed to Scotland 1471, and again in 1615. The Norse language had not quite died out ab.1775. Area 551 sq. m.j pop., 1891, 28,711. See Orkney Islands.

Shevchenko, Taras Grigorovich, 1814-1861. Russian lyric and epic poet, in youth a serf, and under government censure 1847-57.

Shewbread. Twelve unleavened cakes, renewed daily or weekly in the Jewish tabernacle and temple.

Shibboleth. Watchword or test of a party; first used by the Gileadites after routing the Ephraimites, who, being unable to pronounce the sh, were slain.

Shield. Piece of defensive armor, held on the left arm, from earliest times till firearms came into use, to protect the body in war; of various materials and sizes; still used by savages, and in heraldry.—Alsosteel plates to protect men serving machine-guns from small-arm projectiles; and rope mantlets, metal plates and similar devices to cover the embrasure throat in siege batteries.

Shield, William, 1748-1829. English composer of songs, anthems, and operas.

Shield-Fern. Ferns of the genus Dryopteris (Aspidium), growing in nearly all parts of the world; distinguished by the shield-shaped indusia which cover the sporangia when young; known also as Wood-fern.

Shields, Charles Woodruff, D.D., LL.D., b.1825. Prof. Princeton since 1865; writer on liturgies, 1864, and Ch. unity, 1891-94. Philosophia Ultima, 1877-89; United Oh. of the U. S., 1896.—His father, Patrick Henry, 1773-1848, was a pioneer and judge in Indiana.

Shields, James, 1810-1879. B. in Ireland; Judge 111. Supreme Court 1843; Brig.-gen. 1846-48, in war with Mexico; U.S. Senator from III. 1849-55, and from Minn. 1858-59; Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-63, serving in Va.

Shields, North. Town of Northumberland, on the Tyne, hear its mouth; old, but of recent commercial importance; part of Tynemouth (q.v.).

Shields, South. Seaport of Durham, dating from Roman times; on s. bank of the Tyne, opposite N. Shields. It has a pier a mile long, and large shipping interests. Pop., 1891, 78,481.

Shiltes, or Sheahs. Adherents of the great Mohammedan heresy, principally represented by Persia, which maintains Ali, Mohammed's cousin and son-in-law, to have been his true successor, rejecting the three intermediate caliphs. See MoHammedanism.

Shlllabcr, Benjamin Penhallow. 1814-1890. American humorist. Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington, 1854.

Shillelagh. Irish cudgel, named from a forest in s.w. Wicklow.

Shllleto, Richard, 1810-1876. English editor of Thucydides and Demosthenes.

Shilling. English silver coin, since 1504 pound or 19 pence; equal to 24.3 cents U. S.

Shiloh. Ancient city of Ephraim and sanctuary of Israel; site of the tabernacle and ark ab.1444-1116 B.C.; 20 m. n. of Jerusalem; ruined before 600 B.C.

Shiloh, Battle Of. In Hardin co., Tenn., near Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee, April 6-7, 1862. Gen. Grant, with ab. 33,000 men, was attacked and driven back by over 40,000 Confederates under Gen. A. S. Johnston, who was killed and succeeded by Gen. Beauregard. On the 7th the Union army, being heavily re-enforced, was victorious, with a loss of 1,754 killed and ab. 13,000 in all. The Southern losses were nearly equal.

Shim. Thin block of wood placed upon a cross tie under a railroad rail, to keep it in line and grade temporarily. Shims are mostly used in the winter, when it is difficult to move the cross tie.

Shimeall, Richard Cunningham. 1803-1874. American writer on prophecy. Bible Chronology, 1859.

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