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The 17-year Cicada (c) and pupa (a, b); d, position of eggs (e); / larva.

with their beaks. The ovipositor is a sort of pointed saw, by means of which a double row of punctures is made in twigs to receive the eggs. See Homopteea.

Seventh-Day Adventists. See Adventists.

Seventh-Day Baptists. Denomination founded in England 1600, in America 1665-71; called Sabbatarians till 1818. U. S. hud, 1895, ab. 90 congregations, 8,531 members, a college anil publishing house at Alfred Center, N. Y., and colleges at Milton, Wis., and Salem, W. Va.—A German sect of this name was founded 1728 at Ephrata, Pa., by C. Beissel (q.v.). A small remnant still exists.

Seven Up. See All Fours.

Seventh Son. In popular superstition, probably derived from the East, thought to possess peculiar powers of divining the future and revealing past events. Still greater powers are attributed to the seventh son of a seventh son, and so on. The survival of the notion is constantly illustrated by advertisements of astrologers and other charlatans.

Seven Wise Masters. Oriental tales of 10th century or earlier, existing in various forms in Arabic. Hebrew, Persian, and many languages of Europe. The chief is that of Sindbad.

Seven Wise Men. Traditional sages of ancient Greece; Thales of Miletus, Solon of Athens, Chilon of Sparta, Pittacus of Mitylene, Bias of Priene, Cleobulusof Lindus, and Periander of Corinth. Their chief maxims respectively were: Suretyship is the precursor of ruin; Know thyself; Consider the end; Know thy opportunity; Most men are bad; Avoid excess; Nothing is impossible to industry.

Seven Wonders of the World. In Antiquity, Pyramids of Egypt, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Temple of Diana at Ephesus, Colossus of Rhodes, Statue of Zeus by Phidias, and Pharos of Alexandria. These are variously given. In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum of Rome, Catacombs of Alexandria, Great Wall of China, Stonehenge, Leaning Tower of Pisa, Porcelain Tower of Nankin, and Mosque of St. Sophia at Constantinople.

Seven Years' War. 1756-63; third and final contest for Silesia, between Maria Theresa of Austria, in alliance with Russia, Poland. Saxony, France, and, from 1757, Sweden, and Frederick the Great, assisted by England. The first campaign, Frederick having anticipated his enemies and marched on Dresden, ended with the surrender of the Saxons. The campaigns of 1757 and 1758 ended with a slight advantage to the Prussians. See battles of Prague, Kolin, Rossbach, Leuthen, Grossjagerndorf, Zorndorf, Hochkirch. In the campaign of 1759 Frederick suffered many reverses and the severe defeat of Kunersdorf: the treasury was exhausted. See battles of Bergen, Minden, and Kunersdorf. In 1760 Frederick, with an army reduced, gained the victory of Liegnitz. and drove the Russians and Bohemians across the frontier; but Oct. 3 the Russians and Austrians took and plundered Berlin; the Swedes came down from the North, and Loudon from the South; Frederick turned upon and routed Daun, and drove out the rest; the French were defeated at Einsdorf and Marbourg. The campaign of 1761 opened well for Frederick on the Rhine; but the Russians and Austrians effected a junction in Silesia. Reverses in Pomerania and Silesia and the failure of subsidies from Britain made Frederick's prospects almost hopeless, when the death of the Czarina converted Russia into an ally, and Sweden retired from the contest. The campaign of 1762 was a series of successes for Frederick; France gave up the contest, and Maria Theresa reluctantly signed the peace of Hubertsberg. Feb. 15. 1763. Frederick was now Lord of Silesia. The prestige of the Prussian army was not lost till 1806.


Laurel-crowned bust of Severus.

Severinus. Pope May 28-Aug. 1, 640. He condemned the Monothelites.

Severtnus, St., d.482. Patron of Austria and Bavaria; missionary in Pannoniaand Noricum.

Severn. 1. River of England, rising in Wales and flowing e., s., and s.w. into Bristol Channel. Length 210 m.; mainly navigable. 2. River rising in n. Manitoba, and flowing n. anil n.e. to Hudson's Bay. Length ab. 350 m. Severn, Joseph, 1796-1879. English artist, friend of John | Keats; Consul at Rome 1861-72.

Severus, Flavius Valerius, d.307. Cajsar 306.

Severus, Marcus Aurelius Alexander. See Alexander Severus.

Severus, Lucius Septimus, 146-211. Emperor 193; commander of an army in Pannonia when proclaimed. He defeated his rivals, Pescennitis Niger, at Issus 194, and Albinus at Lyons 197; fought the Parthians 197-198; reformed the prietorians, deprived the Senate of power.' and went to Britain 208. where he built tinfamous wall (see Wall Of Hadrian) and died at York.

Sevier, JOHN, 1745-1815. Pioneer and Indian fighter, eminent for military and civil services during the Revolution and later; chief founder and organizer, with James Robertson, of Tenn.; Gov. of the State of Franklin 1785, and of Tenn. 1796-1801 and 1803-9; Brig.-gen. 1786; M.C. 1811-15. His is the greatest name in the early history of that region.—His nephew. Ambrose Hundley, 1801-1848, was M.C. from Ark. 1827-36, and U. S. Senator from 1836.

Sevier Lake. In w. Utah: salt; fed by S. River, and without outlet. Area ab. 200 sq. m.

Sevlgne, Marie (de Rabutin - ChanTal), Marquise, 16261696. French writer, famous for her LetteiS to her daughter, pub. 1726 and later.

Seville. Ancient city of s. Spain, on the Guadalquivir; important since Roman times; held by Moors 712-1248. It has a celebrated cathedral and some manufactures. Pop. ab. 150,000.

Seville, Treaty Of.

Signed Nov. 9, 1729, between Sp;iin.France, Holland and England, in opposition to PragMatic Sanction (q.v.). It guaranteed the succession of Don Carlos to the Italian duchies.

Sevres. Town of France, 10 m. s.w. of Paris, famous since 1756 for its porcelains. Seat of the national artistic porcelain works, founded 1745 at Vincennes and transferred here 11 years later, to which is attached a museum of ceramic art, the first in Europe. Pop., 1891, 6,902.

Sewage. Foul matter and water carried away by sewers.


Door of Cathedral at Seville.

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same as that of the water supplied to the town. Sewage may be regarded as water holding many foul materials both in suspension and in solution. It is carried away from the town or city by sewer pipes and usually emptied into a stream or harbor. Sometimes it is collected in tanks, where it is chemically precipitated, the precipitated sludge being used as a fertilizer, while the liquid effluent is so pure that it may be allowed to run into a stream without danger of pollution. The foul gases arising- in sewers from the decomposition of sewage are a source of danger if allowed to enter the houses, but are comparatively harmless if allowed to escape into the streets, where thorough dilution with air occurs. See Sewerage and Sewur.

Sewall, Samuel, 1663-1730. Judge at Boston 1692-1718; Chief-justice of Mass. 1718-28; noted for his Diary, 1673-1729, pub. 1878.—His grandnephew, Jonathan, 1728-1796, Loyalist, was Atty.-gen. of Mass. 1767, and Judge of Admiralty in New Brunswick from 1788.—A cousin, Stephen, 1734-1804, prof. Harvard 1764-85, pub. a Hebrew Grammar 1763.

Seward, Anna, 1747-1809. English poet. Letters, 6 vols., 1811-18.

Seward, William Henry. LL.D., 1801-1872. Gov. of N. Y. 1837-43; U. S. Senator 1849; anti-slavery and Republican leader; prominent candidate for presidential nomination I860; Sec. of State 1861-69; wounded by an assassin April 14, 1865; a statesman of earnest convictions and moderate temper. Works, 5 vols., 1853-84.—His cousin, Theodore Frelinuhausen, b.1835, musician, writer, and compiler, introduced the Tonic sol fa system 1877.—A cousin. George Frederick, b.1840. was U. S. Consul at Shanghai 1861-76. and Minister to China 1876-80.

Sewell, Elizabeth Missing. 1815-1884. English writer of novels, histories, and devotional books. Amy Herbert, 1844.

Sewell, Jonathan, LL.D., 1766-1839. Chief-justice of Lower Canada 1808-38.

Sewell, William, 1650-ab. 1725. Historian of the Quakers 1717-22: resident in Holland.

Sewer. Large pipe or brick tunnel constructed to carry sewage away from a town. The first sewers built were by the Romans; some of these are still in service. Sewers were not built in London until ab.1670; these were drains for removing surplus surface water. Till 1815 it was forbidden by law to discharge sewage into them, this being required to be conveyed into cesspools; after 1815 it was permitted to drain the houses into sewers, and in 1847 it was made compulsory. Sewers of small size are made circular in section, those of large size are of circular, oval or Q shape in cross-section, as may be required by the nature of the soil and foundation. The velocity of flow in a sewer is usually limited to 5 or 6 ft. per second, and it should be more than 2 ft. per second to prevent deposit. Sewers are frequently designed to carry the storm water of the streets as well as the house sewage; this is the combined system. See Cloaca Maxima.

Sewerage. Plant whereby sewage is conveyed out of a town, consisting of the main and lateral sewers, with their manholes, basins, tanks, and other appurtenances. All systems may be classed under two principles; removal by water under gravity, and removal by the use of air compression or exhaustion. Water carriage systems are of two kinds, the combined and the separate.

In the combined system the sewers carry not only the house sewage, but also the storm water of the streets. Basins are provided at the street corners to receive the storm water and collect the sand or gravel. Manholes are built at frequent intervals on the sewer line to allow deposits to be removed. The sewers are only partially filled with sewage under ordinary conditions, while during a storm they are fully filled and thorougly flushed. In a seacoast city collecting tanks are sometimes built where the sewage accumulates at high tide; these are provided with automatic gates, which open as the tide goes out. Large cities usually have the combined system.

In the separate system the sewers carry only the house sewage, while the rain water is conveyed away on the surface of tiie streets or by another system of drains. The sewer pipes are hence much smaller than in the combined system, and in order to flush them water is discharged into them at intervals from automatic tanks. This system is adapted to small cities and towns, particularly where the surface is hilly, so that the storm water can be led away without underground drains. Manholes are built on the main sewer lines, and lamp holes are sometimes put intermediate to them, so that obstructions can be detected and removed.

The pneumatic systems of sewerage are of two kinds, vacuum ;tnd plenum methods. The Liernur and Berlier systems, used in Holland and in France to a limited extent, collect the sewage in street basins; these are connected with pipes from which the air is exhausted by pumps at a central station. At stated intervals the matter in the basins is drawn by the suction into fctoe pipes and carried to a central station, whence it is conveyed


away by gravity or by pumping. The Shone system, used in England and in a few American cities, collects the sewage in basins, from which it is forced to a central station by compressed air. The Shone system was used at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago with very satisfactory results; its cost, however, is greater than that of the combined or separate system. From Berlin the sewage is conducted to sewage-farms and the resulting crops partially repay tiie expense. This plan is also used to some extent in Paris.

Sewing-Machine. Invented by Elias Howe 1845. A machine for sewing was first patented in England 1755. Sewing machines have sometimes been classified into two groups, the single thread and the double thread: sometimes into four classes, those which send the needle completely through the cloth as in hand sewing those which hook the thread into a


Etiaa Howe's Original Sewing Machine. Invented 1845,
patented 1840.

chain-stitch by a sort of crochet needle, those which form a loop by a second thread carried across the first by a shuttle, and those making the lock stitch, the same on both sides. The last is the best. Sewing machines have arrived at that state of perfection that they can do almost every kind of work that can be done with the needle.

Sex. Philosophers have believed that in the universe are two distinct principles, male and female, the co-operation of which was essential to creation of new forms. It was said, "the soul comes from the father, the body from the mother, in the creation of an individual." But modern biology has shown that, taking the living world as a whole, most reproduction takes place non-sexually; and also that when in sexual reproduction the egg is fecundated by a sperm, the essential phenomenon is the union of idioplasm derived from the father with a similar amount of idioplasm derived from the mother. This idioplasm is itself not sexed. but simply capable of assimilation and production of protoplasm of certain characteristics, including those of both sexes, on both the father's and the mother's side. Sexual differentiation is determined by external conditions, and is a special dimorphic case of polymorphic differentiation. Thus among bees, different treatments cause the eggs to develop into females, neuters, or drones, as the case may be. The object of sex is to produce offspring containing protoplasm united from two different sources or strains, in order to cause variation, and thus progress. To effect this the two sexes are more or less differentiated to perform special parts in the work.

Sexagenary. By sixties; applied to the division of the circle into six equal parts (sextants), of which the subdivisions have a scale of sixty.

Sexageslma. 2d Sunday before Lent.

Sexagesimal Arithmetic. See Logistic.

Sexivalent. Elements having a valence of VI.

Sextans. Constellation lying across the celestial equator s. of Leo. Mean right ascension 10b., declination 0.

Sextant. See Quadrant.

Sextic. Quantic of 6th degree.

Sexton. Subordinate officer of the church, whose duty it is to take care of the sacred vessels and vestments, to keepthe church clean, etc. Also called a sacristan.

Sex tils Empiricu§, ab.200. Empirical physician and skeptical or anti-dogmatic philosopher at Alexandria and Athens. His Ilyputyposes and Adversus Mathematicos were pub. 1842.

Sexual Dimorphism. See Dimorphism.

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Sexual Generation. Stage of certain plants in which the sexual organs are borne and fecundation accomplished, there being in these plants another state or Asexual Generation where they are absent. The term is of especial application in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta.

Sexual Reproduction. Production of offspring from fertilized eggs. The eggs are cells more or less loaded with food yolk, for the early nourishing of the embryo; the fertilizing element is the sperm, a cell consisting of a head of nearly pure chromatin or idioplasm, and a propelling flagellum or tail. Fecundation consists in the union of the chromatin of the esg nucleus with that brought by the sperm, to form a new nucleus, whose subsequent divisions produce all the cells of the developing body. Much speculation has been given to explain the reason for this union, as many organisms hold their own by the much more efficient asexual reproduction. It has .been supposed to confer variability, and thus give a chance for natural selection to secure adaptability to a changing environment. It has also been supposed to be a rejuvenescence. Males and females are organisms specialized to produce each sort of cell, but in many cases both ova and sperms are produced by each organism, though self-fertilization rarely takes place. This in fact would defeat the object of sex. See Polar Globules. Gemmules, Heredity, and Variation.

Sexual Selection. Selection that arises during matingtime among animals, by which the strongest and best adapted males secure the females and so transmit these characters to the young; most efficient form of natural selection.

Seybert, Adam, M.D.. 1773-1825. M.C. from Pa. 1809-15 and 1817-19: naturalist. Statistical Annals of U.S., 1818.— His son, Henry, 1802-1883, was a mineralogist.

Seychelles. Group of 30 islets in the Indian Ocean, 600 m. n.e. of Madagascar; colonized from France 1742; held by Gt. Britain since 1794. It is a dependency of Mauritius. Mahe


Seychelles Islands—Native turning Turtle.

is the largest, having an area of ab. 59 sq. m. The chief products are tropical fruits. Rain is frequent, and the regularity of the winds makes the islands healthful. Area ab. 100 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 16,440.

Seyflrarth, Gustavus. D.D., 1796-1885. Prof. Leipzig 182555, and Concordia Theol. Sem., St. Louis. 1855-71; archaeologist.

Seymour, Horatio. LL.D., 1810-1886. Gov. of N. Y. 185355 and 1863-64: active in support of government; Democratic candidate for Pres. 1868.

Seymour, Jane, ab.1510-1537. Maid of honor to Anne Boleyn, and her successor 1536 as (3d) queen of Henry VIII.

Seymour, Orioen Storrs, LL.D., 1804-1881. M.C. 185155: Judge Conn. Superior Court 1855-63. and Suprpme Court 1870; Chief-justice 1873-74.—His uncle. HORATIO, LL.D., 17781857, was U. S. Senator from Vt. 1821-33. r Seymour, Thomas Day, b.1848. Prof. Yale 1880: ed. Iliad. 1887-91.

Seymour, Thomas Hart. 1808-1868. Gov. of Conn. 185053; U. S. Minister to Russia 1853-57.

Seymour, Truman. U.S.A., 1824-1891. Brig.-gen. U. 8. Vols. 1862, serving chiefly in Va., Mil., and S. C.

Slav. Seaport of Tunis, 74 m. s. of Susa. It is famous for its olive gardens. Sponges, woolen stuffs, camels and olive oil are its chief articles of commerce. It is supposed to be the Taphroura of Ptolemv, and is principally inhabited bv Jews Pop. 42,500.

Sforza, Francesco, 1401-1466. Italian leader of condottieri, whose father was ennobled ab.1420; Duke of Milan (by usurpation) from 1450.—His grandson, Lodovico, 1451-1510, became Duke by murder and usurpation 1494, was attacked by the French, and imprisoned from 1500.—Of his sons. MassiMiliano, 1491-1530, was twice expelled; Francesco II., 14921535, Duke from 1522, was the last of his line: after him Austria seized Milan.

Sgambati, Giovanni, b.1843 at Rome. Pianist and composer, of German tastes; pupil of Liszt. His principal works are two quintets for pianoforte and strings, a concerto for pianoforte in G minor, and a symphony in D.

SgralBto, or Scratched Work. Italian method of decorating a plain surface. Colored plaster is laid on and this covered with a white one, after which the design is scratched through with an iron bodkin. The colored work shows through and makes the contrast.

Shabbatai Tsevi, 1626-1676. Jewish impostor, proclaimed as Messiah in Asia Minor 1665.

Shad. See Isospondyli and Clupeid^e.

Shad-Bush. See Service-berry.

Shaddock. Citrus decumana. Tree of the Orange family, native of China, cultivated in tropical regions for its pulpy, edible fruit, which sometimes attains the diameter of 18 in.

Shadow. Portion of space from which illumination from a source of light is cut off by an opaque body. See Lmbka.

Shadow Pictures. Made with the hands on the wall,or by means of designs cut from paper and placed behind a screen. Both methods are common in e. Asia. In Corea, children make shadow pictures with their hands, invariably to represent a Buddhist priest. In Japan, a bird-catcher is the usual figure. Japanese children also have a great variety of paper shadow pictures. In Siam and Java large images with movable limbs are employed in regular shadow dramas. A common name for such performances is Chinese Shadows.

Shadwell, THOMAS, 1640-1692. English dramatist; poet laureate 1688; satirized by Dryden in MacFlecknoe.

Shalfher, Taliaferro Preston, 1818-1881. American writer on telegraphy and inventor of methods of blasting.

Shaflites. One of the four principal sects of the Sunnites, the orthodox Moslems.

Shaft. Opening, vertical or nearly so, through which communication is main

surface a^dto inte- '^SB&i&F
rior of a mine, and in
which the operations
of hoisting, pumping,
etc., are carried on.
Shafts vary in shape
and in dimensions ac-
cording to the extent
of the mine and the
purposes for which
they are to be used,
some being circular,
some rectangular, and
some having other
polygonal shapes. A
common diameter for
a circular shaft is
from 12 to 15 ft.

Shaft. The portion of a column between the base and capital, often polished, if of different material, and octagonal, as in late Nor m a n work. In Early English they are of round, se pa rate stones. In the Decorated stvle they are

very small and "not separate. In the Perpendicular style they are round, filleted, and not separate.

Shaft and Shall ins. Cylindrical rods for tlie transmission of the effort ol the motor to the working point by means of their resistance to torsion. Older shafts were 1377



also square or polygonal: modern shafts are always round. Largest shafts are those for marine practice either from engine crank to propeller wheel or to side paddle-wheel. Propeller shafts are forged with flanges on each end of the lengths to couple them together by means of bolts. The length nearest the wheel has the rings made upon it for the thrust bearing, and ends in the taper lit for the wheel. Some of the newest modern ones are hollow, to avoid the defective center likely to occur in large forgings. They are made of iron or of steel. Crank-shafts for engines are either forged solid or are built up by shrinking and keying the crank-arms upon the pins and shaft. Smaller shafting for transmission of power in shops is made either of turned or cold-rolled bars (see Cold-rolled) of solid iron or steel, and recently of hollow tubes for lightness with equal torsional stiffness. Such shafting is supported upon bangers, and carries the pulleys (see Hanqers and Pulley) necessary for the tools in use. Such shafting, being exposed both to twisting and bending from the weight of pulleys and strain of belts, will need to be stronger than if under torsion only. A solid shaft 22 in. in diameter is a very large one.

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper. 1st Earl, 16211683. M.P. 1640 and 1653; Baron and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1061; Earl 1072; Lord Chancellor 1072-73; thenceforth active in opposition: imprisoned 1077-78 and 1681; in exile 1082; brilliant and energetic, but selfish and changeable; satirized by Dryden as Achitophel.—His grandson and namesake, 3D Earl, 1671-1713. M.P. 1695-98, Earl 1099; philosophic writer of the freethinking or ' Deist" school, advocating the doctrine of a moral sense. His works were mostly collected inCharacteriitics, 3 vols.. 1711-14.—7th Earl, D.C.L., 1801-1885. M.P. 1820, Earl 1851; chairman of the Lunacy Commission from 1828; active in philanthropy; prominent in the extreme Evangelical school.

Shagreen. Leather made from skins of sharks and other fish, and used for covering boxes, etc. In Asia it is employed for shoes, binding of MSS., and other purposes.

Shah. Sovereign of Persia. See Nasr-ed-din.

Shahjahanpur. City of n. India, on a branch of the Ganges; founded 1647. Pop., 1891, 78,522.

Shall Jehail, d.1666. Mogul emperor of Delhi 1627; conqueror of neighboring kingdoms; able ruler, who had a splendid court, and built many notable edifices.

Shah-Nauich. Persian national epic. See Firdausi.

Shairp, John Campbell, 1819-1885. Scottish essayist, critic, and poet; prof. St. Andrews 1861, principal 1868; prof. Oxford from 1877. Culture and Religion. 1870; Poetic Interpretation of Nature, 1877; Aspects of Poetry. 1881; Burns, 1884.

Shaker*. Community of English origin, rejecting marriage, private property, war, and oaths; organized in America by Ann Lee 1776: nicknamed from the "dancing" at their services. Their chief seats are at New Lebanon and VVatervliet, N. Y. They have fifteen societies and ab. 1,728 members.

Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Greatest of drama

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Hathaway 1582; in London as actor and manager from ab. 1586 till ab.1611, when he retired to New Place in his native town. The records of his life are scanty, and in part (as the tale of deer-stealing) legendary and dubious. His magnificent Sonnets, pub. 1609. dedicated and mainly addressed to "Mr. W. H." (probably Wm. Herbert, later Earl of Pembroke), are intensely individual, and show that, while his conduct was not always exemplary, his soul was worthy of his genius. His early poems, Venus and Adonis and Lucreee, are less important. These are supposed to date from 1590-94; most of the sonnets are not much later. The plays, classified as tragedies, comedies, and histories, were not collected till 1623; 20 (out of 37 usually credited to him) were printed in his lifetime. Their respective dates are matters of controversy. Prof. Dowden places them under four periods, thus: — I., 1590-95. Titus Andronicus (if his at all), 1 Henry VI., Love's Labor's Lost, Corneay of Errors, Two Gentlemen of Verona, Midsummer Night's Dream, 2 and 8 Henry VI., Richard 111., Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, King John, Merchant of Venice.—II., 15951601. 1 and 2 Henry IV.. Henry V., Taming of the Shrew. Merry Wives of Windsor. Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Txcelfth Night. All's Well that Ends Well. Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida.—III., 1601-8. Julius Caesar. Hamlet, Othello, Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus, Timon.—IV., 1608-11. Pericles, Cymbeline, Tempest, Winter's Tale. Henry VIII. is Shakespeare's only in part. Other plays are doubtfully ascribed to him.

Shaking Table. Form of ore-dressing apparatus in which the pulp flows slowly over a plane surface, to which a shaking motion is imparted to facilitate the sorting of the material.

Shale. Clay more or less hardened, easily splitting into somewhat even flakes of stratification.

Shale, ALUM. Formed of coal. clay, and iron pyrites; occurring in nature in large quantities. Treated with sulphuric acid, it yields alum.

Shaler, Alexander, b.1827. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-65; engineer.

Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate. b.1841. Assistant in Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cambridge, 1865; Prof, of Paleontology at Harvard 1868; director of Ky. Geological Survey 1873-80; geologist to U. S. survey, Atlantic division, from 1884; Prof, of Geology at Harvard 1887; author of geological reports and popular scientific works.

Shallon. Caultheria shallon. Evergreen shrub of the natural family Ericaceae, native of n.w. N. America. Its fruit is used as food by Indians.

Shalloon. Worsted cloth made at Chalons-sur-Marne, France.

Shallot. Allium asalonicum. Biennial, bulbous herb of the Onion family, native of Palestine; cultivated and used as food by eastern nations.

Shaliiiancser. King of Assyria 727-722 B.C.; conqueror of Israel; deposed and succeeded by Sargon.

Sham a Ii is in. Primitive type of religion still generally existing among Ural-Altaic peoples; also, with the Eskimo and many aboriginal American tribes. The Shaman, or wizard priest, is believed to have the power of controlling the spirits and various powers to which all the occurrences of life are supposed to be due. By the aid of magic he exorcises demons, procures oracles, and harmonizes the relations of the spiritual with the living world. His practices frequently rest upon an elaborate cosmogony.

Shame. Disagreeable feeling accompanying the consciousness of action contrary to the standard of conduct or morality held by the agent. The ordinary feeling which accompanies a violation of decency is a product of social life and cannot be considered as innate.

Shammai, 1st cent. Jewish Pharisee of high degree, whose severity was opposed to Hillel's gentleness. The schools founded by these two doctors lasted 200 yrs. or more.

Shamo. See Gobi.

Shamokin. Borough of Northumberland co., Pa.. 19 m. e. of the Susquehanna; important for >ts anthracite coal mines. Pop., 1890,14.403.

Shamrock. National emblem of Ireland; plant with trifoliolate leaves, a clover, of which several varieties are used. Tradition declares that it was employed by

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Tower of Long-Hua, Shanghai. Shaper. 1. Friezing machine for wood.

St. Patrick to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity. The
Lesser Yellow Trefoil is the plant usually sold iu Dublin on
St. Patrick's Day.
Shatnyl. See Schamyl.

Shanghai. City of China, the most important of

its seaports; on the Wusung River, 12 m. above its mouth. It was first opened | to foreign trade 1843. It has a foreign quarter, comprising British, French, and American "Concessions," stretching ab. 2 m. along the Wu-sung. The tonnage of ships sailing hence was, in 1893. 3,264,985 tons. Pop. ab.400,000.

Shannon. Chief river I of Ireland, rising in theCuilcagh Mts. and flowing s. and s.w. to the Atlantic. Length 254 m., including lakes and canals; partly navigable.

Shannon, Wilson. 18021877. Gov. of Ohio 1838-40 and 1842-14: U. S. Minister to Mexico 1844; M.C. 185355; Gov. of Kansas 1855-56.

Shans. Siamese race, of Chinese origin, living in Indo-China since ab. 100 B.C. Their various tribes are scattered, but chiefly on the borders of Burmah, Siam, Tongkin, and China.

2. Properly, tool

for metal, which reciprocates in straight lines over the stationary work which receives the feed motions. The casting which carries and guides the reciprocating tool sometimes can be fed laterally on shears or a bed (traveling-head shaper) to finish extended surfaces whose straight line elements are short. The tool is usually driven with a Whitworth quickreturn crank motion. Such tools are specially adapted for surfaces of incomplete revolution (as crank!' hubs and rod-ends), and for small pieces where the traverse of the entire planer bed Shaper- would entail a waste

of power, and the necessity for accuracy and planeness of surface is not great. It is a combined lathe and planer.

Shapur, or Sapor. I. Sonof Ardashir. founder of the Sasanian empire of Persia. He reigned 242-272, and captured the Emperor Valerian 260, but seems not to have permanently extended his boundaries.—S. II., King 310-379. He maintained a war with the e. Roman Empire 337-363; Constantius was repeatedly defeated, Julian mortally wounded while on the retreat from Ctesiphon, and Jovian consented to a shameful peace. Later S. attempted the conquest of Armenia.—His son, S. III.. King 384-389, at once made peace with the Romans, but was slain by his nobles.

Sharks (squalides). Spindle-shaped Plagiostomes, with lateral gill-slits, eyelids with free edges, incomplete shoulder girdle, and no cranial fin-cartilages. The pectoral fins are borne more or less vertically. The teeth are in numerous rows and are dagger-shaped. The group falls into two subgroups, Cestraphori. including Cestracion, the Port Jackson Shark of Australia, the only living representative of a fossil group furnished with crushing teeth, and the Squali proper, which are subdivided into Cyclospondyli (Dog-fishes. Greenland Shark), Asterospondyli (Tropical sharks, Hammerhead), Disspondyli {Notidanus), and Tectospondyli (Squatinidce). The

fenera Carcliarias and Carcharinus include the Maneaters. he former contains a single species, C. rondetetii, which at

tains or exceeds a length of 40 ft. (The Basking Shark, Ceforlrinus maximvs, sometimes attains a length of 30 ft., but it rarely attacks man.) The second genus includes many species,


Hammerhead Shark (Zygaena malleus).

of which the Great Blue Shark and the White Shark are the most formidable, approaching at times a length of 35 ft. They are very voracious and follow ships, swallowing anything thrown overboard.

Sharon. Fertile plain near the coast of Samaria and n. Judssa.

Sharon, William. 1821-1885. Senator from Nev. 1875-81; banker and mine owner.

Sharon Springs. Summer resort in Schoharie co., N.Y.. with sulphur springs, 59 m. w. of Albany.

Sharp, Abraham, 1651-1742. English mechanician and mathematician, connected with the Greenwich Observatory 1676-90. Geometry, 1717.

Sharp, Granville. 1734-1813. English philanthropist, prominent in opposition to slavery.—His grandfather, John, D.D.,' 1644-1714, was Dean of Norwich 1681-86 and Abp. of York from 1691.

Sharp, James, 1618-1679. Abp. of St. Andrews 1661; detested as an apostate trom the Scottish cause and tool of tyranny; murdered by Covenanters.

Sharp, William, 1749-1824. English engraver, remarkable for the cleanness and purity of his line. He engraved many plates after Guido, West, and Reynolds.

Sharpe, Charles Kirkpatrick. 1781-1851. Scottish collector, compiler, and lyric poet. Etchings, 1869; Correspondence, 1888.

Sharpe, Daniel, 1806-1856. English geologist and paleontologist, author of two important papers upon cleavage and the contortion of shells and trilobites under pressure.

Sharpe, Samuel, 1799-1881. English Orientalist; voluminous writer on Egyptian and biblical topics. Hist. Hebrew Nation and Literature, 1869.

Sharpies*, James, ab. 1750-1811. Anglo-American portraitpai n ter.

Sharpshooter. Expert rifleman in the U. S. service. With the present .30 caliber rifle a sharpshooter must attain an aggregate of at lenst 480 points in firing at ranges 200. 300, 500, 600. 800, and 1,000 yds., and at skirmish fil ing of 20 shots for each run down and back starting from 600 yds. and goinsr to 200 yds., and then back. The target for 200 and 300 yd. range is 6 ft. bv 4, bull's-eye 10 in. by 8, 4 ring 30 in. by 24, 3 ring 50 in. by'24; that for 500 and 600 yd. range is 6 ft. by 6. with bull's-eve"24 in. bv 18. 4 ring 48 in. bv 36, and 3 ring 54 in. by 72; that for 800 and 1,000 yd. range" is 6 ft. by 12. with bull's-eye 32 in. by 45, 4 ring 6 ft. by 51 in., and 3 ring 6 ft. by 6; bull's-eye counts 5, 4 ring 4, 3 ring 3, and outside of the 3 ring 2. In the skirmish firing, a standing, a kneeling and a lving down figure are grouped together 3 ft. apart and. when hit, count respectively 3, 4 and 5; 30 seconds only are allowed at a halt in skirmish firing and 20 shots in each run.

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