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Seed-Coats. Integuments of a seed, Testa and Tegmen. Seedling. Young plant produced from a seed. Seed-Vessel. Ripened wall of the ovary in plants; pericarp.

Seekers. English Puritan sect ab. 1650.

Seeland, or Zealand. Largest island of Denmark, op

?osite s. extremity of Sweden. Area 2,713 sq. m., pop. ab. 50,000.

Sceley, Sir John Robert, 1834-1895. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, 1863, and Cambridge 1869; knighted 1894. His Ecce Homo, 1865, a book of great power and brilliancy, was anonymous, as was Natural Religion, 1882. Roman Imperialism, 1869; Life of Stein, 1879; Goethe, 1893; Growth of British Policy. 1896.

Seelye, Julius Hawley, D.D., LL.D., 1824-1895. Prof. Amherst Coll. 1858, and its pres. 1877-90; M.C. from Mass. 1875-77. Christian Missions, 1875; Duty, 1891.—His brother, Laurens Clark, D.D., b. 1837. was prof. Amherst 1865-74; organizer and pres. of Smith Coll. 1874.

Seeinail, Berthold, 1825-1871. German-English traveler and botanist. Die Volksnamen der Amerikanischeti Pflanzen, 1851; Botany of the Voyage H.M.S. Herald, 1852-57; Palms and their Allies, 1856; Die Palmen, 1857.

Seer. Earlier name of prophets in Israel. I. Sam. ix. 9.

See-Saw. Children's sport, known to the Greeks; also called teeter. It consists of a reciprocal motion up and down of a balanced board on a support so placed that the ends may be occupied and swayed up and down. It is a common sport in Corea, where it is especially practiced by girls, and is known as "board jumping," the players standing erect on the ends of the board. It is also played in China and Japan.

See, the Conquering Hero Comes. Song com posed by Handel for his oratorio Joshua, 1748. and afterward introduced in his Judas Maccabceus, an earlier work. It has won world-wide popularity, and is frequently heard as a greeting to a popular hero at celebrations.

Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. 1767-1811. German explorer in Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. Diary, 1854-55.

Seewarle. German naval observatory, founded at Hamburg by Van Freeder 1867; reorganized 1875 by the German government under the admiralty, and devoted to every branch of marine meteorology.

Scgeste. Ruined city of n. w. Sicily, held by Carthage, Syracuse, and from 206 B.C. by Rome. There are hot springs


Theater at Segeste.

near the site, which was 6. m. from the sea. The place now shows nothing but fine ruins, including a Doric temple and a theater.

Seggarg. See Porcelain.

Segment. In Zoology, (1) ring-like parts or body-joints of an articulated animal; (2) parts of anv organism which has become divided into pieces, as an egg (during early development and cell division) or a jointed limb.

Segment. One of two or more geometric magnitudes which added form a given whole. When direction is considered (indicated by -)- and — signs), either segment or both may in magnitude exceed the whole. In connection with specific' forms, the term has limited meanings: a segment of acircle is limited by parallel chords; of a sphere, by parallel planes. Linear segments are limited by points, regardless of the manner of their determination. Surface and volume segments are limited by parallels.

Segmental Areli. One whose intrados is an arc of a circle less than ab. 70 degrees.

Segmental Organs, or Ducts. 1. Tubes situated, a pair, usually in each segment of worms and other Invertebrates, and functioning as excretory organs (invertebrate kidneys or nephridia). 2. Tubules of the embryonic kidney of Vertebrates. See Wolffian Body.

Segmentation. See Lobation.

Segmentation. 1. Division into parts of equal rank, as when structures are repeated in the embryonic development of an animal (like successive rings of an articulated animal, vertebra? of Vertebrates, and joints of limbs). 2. Cell division in the egg, which leads to the formation of the blastoderm or a Morula (q.v.).

Segmentation Cavity, or Blastoccel. Space left between the cells (blastomeres) of the segmenting egg.

Segneri, Paolo, 1624-1694. Italian Jesuit, eminent as a preacher. Some of his works, collected 1712, were tr. 1857-81.

Segner's Wheel. See Barker's Mill.

Segovia. Ancient city of central Spain, 82 m. n.n.w. of Madrid; important in the Middle Ages; pillaged by the French 1808. It has an old castle and a 16th-century cathedral. It is


Alcazar of Segovia.

surrounded by walls. The aqueduct which carried the waters of the Rio Frio into the city is the best specimen of Roman Architecture in Spain. Pop. ab.14,500.

Segregata. Order of the Linnasan class Syngenesia (natural family Composit(e), having a double involucre.

Segregated Vein. Body of mineral, or ore, resembling a true fissure vein in general form, but without the well-defined walls of such veins. It usually represents a local accumulation of mineral matter, a part or all of which may have been concentrated from portions of the adjacent country rock.

Segregation. Mass of ore of irregular shape, filling some previously existing opening, or derived from the surrounding rock.

Seguin, Edouard. 1812-1880. French physician, in U. S. from 1849; eminent for his treatment of the feeble-minded. Education des Idiots. 1839-43; Idiocy, 1866.

Segur, Louis Philippe, Comte De. 1753-1830. French author, envoy to Russia 1783-88. Galerie Morale et Politique, 1817-23; Memoires, l>-25. His works, collected 1824-30, till 33 vols.—His father, Philippe Henri, 1724-1801, and grandfather, Henri Francois. 1689-1751, were distinguished generals; his son. Philippe Paul, 1780-1873, wrote a notable account of the Russian campaign, 1824, histories of Russia, 1829, and of Charles VIII., 1835, and memoirs, 1873.

Scgura, Juan Lorenzo, 13th cent. Spanish poet, author

of an epic on Alexander the Great.

SeidI, Anton, b.1850 at Pesth. Conductor, especially of Wagner's music; pupil and sec. of Wagner 1872-78; conductor in Leipzig, Bremen, and since 1885 in New York.

Scidlitz Powders. Composed of 120 grs. tartrate of soda and potash and 40 grs. bicarbonate! of soda, inclosed in blue paper, and 38 grs. tartaric acid in a white paper. Each is se|>arately dissolved in water, mixed, and taken while the effervescence is going on. They are so named from Seidlitz in Bohemia, which has a mineral spring of similar constituents. It acts as an aperient.

Seigniorage. Amount of metal deducted by government before coinage to pay expenses of the process; equivalent to the difference between the face value of the coin and the bullion value of the silver or gold contained in it.

Seine. River of France, heading in the e. part and flow1365


ing n.w. through Paris to 'its mouth at Havre. Length 482 m., of which ab. 380 are navigable; drainage area 26,767 sq. m.

Seir. Mountain s.e. of Palestine, occupied by Edomites. See Edom and Esau.

Seirogpore. Kind of spore developed in the necklace-like chains in some of the red Alga, or Rhoaophyceat.

Seisin. Possession of a freehold estate in land.

Seismograph. Instrument for recording the time of occurrence or direction of motion of any earth disturbance; e.g., an earthquake or vibration caused by a distant explosion.

Seismology. Science of earthquakes. This branch of geology is of quite recent origin, but its development has been rapid. It is at present in the observational stage for the most part. Italy and Japan are the nations in which the most and best work is now done. Both are favorably situated for the purpose, being the seats of active volcanic action. The cause of the earthquake has long been one of Nature's grand secrets, but modern investigation has detected a sufficient cause in the movements that take place in the solid crust in consequence



of contraction. The accumulating strains and stresses result at last in causing slips among the strata. The jar thus produced is propagated through the rocks in the form of a wave of small height but great length. In a recent earthquake, e.g., the height of the wave was estimated at half an in. and its length as 28 m. The rate of propagation is usually ab. one m. per sec. Seismological observatories are now established in various parts of the world, and instruments of precision, whose principle is usually that of the pendulum, are employed to detect and register the intensity and direction of the shocks. See Earthquake.

Seismometer. Instrument for recording the intensity of any earth disturbance.

Seismoscope. Device for detecting the occurrence of any vibration or disturbance of the earth.

Seiss, Joseph Augustus, D.D., LL.D., b.1823. Pastor in Phila. from 1858; ed. Prophetic Times, 1863-75, and Lutheran, 1873-79; prolific writer. Apocalypse, 1869-81; Miracle in Stone, 1877.

Scjanus, .iELlus, d.81. Prefectof praetorians under Tiberius. He gained vast influence, aspired to imperial power, and had Tiberius' son Drusus poisoned, Agrippinaand her sons banished. Tiberius, who had shut himself up in Capreae, sent a letter to the Senate which resulted in his execution. His body was dragged through the streets and thrown into the Tiber.

Sekigahara. In Japan; scene of a battle. See Daimios.

Selachti (selachea, Selachoidea, Elasmobeanchii, ChonDROPTERYOIl; Sharks). Fishes, with cartilaginous skeleton, a segmented, vertebral column, and undivided brain-capsule; with large paired (ins and heterocercal caudal fin. The skin is shagreened with placoid scales, which in the transverse and vent rally placed mouth are transformed into several rows of characteristic teeth. There are five (sometimes six or seven) branchial pouches and clefts; also spiracles, which represent rudimentary hyoid clefts. There is no swim-bladder. A spiral-valve is present in the small intestine. The sense organs and brain are highly developed; the latter presents traces of convolutions. The heart possesses a muscular conus arteriosus, which contains several rows of valves. The pelvic fins of the male are modified to form copulatory organs. The

eggs may be laid in a capsule, or be retained in the uterus, and then the foetus may have a true placenta. Two sub-orders are included, Holocephali and Plagiostomi. See Squau. Selachostomi. See Chondrostei.

Selaginaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the' class AngiospernuB, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Qamopelalce. comprising 9 genera and ab. 140 species, natives of all parts of the Old World, the tropics and Australia excepted.

Selaglnellaceae. Class of the heterosporous Pteridophyta, comprising the orders Selaginellea?. and Isoetece; also called Ligulatece.

Sclah. Term of common occurrence in the Psalms, probably indicating a pause, while the instruments played an accompaniment, as signified in the Septuagint translation, Diapsalma.

Selangor. Malay state, in the peninsula, n. of Malacca; under British protection since 1874; noted for its tin mines. Area ab. 3,000 sq.m.; pop., 1891, 81,592.

Selborne, Roundell Palmer. Earl Of, D.C.L., b.1812. M.P. 1847-52, 1853-57,1861-72; knighted 1861, made Baron 1872 and Earl 1882: Solicitor-gen. 1861. Atty.-gen. 1863-66, Lord Chancellor 1872-74 and 1880-85. He compiled the familiar Book of Praise, 1862, and pub. Memorials, 1896.

Seidell, JOHN. 1584-1654. English antiquarian of great learning, imprisoned 1621 and 1629-31 for opposing royal encroachments; M. P. from 1623; lay member Westminster Assembly 1643. Titles of Honor, 1614; De Diis Syriis, 1617, partly tr. 1880; History of Tithes, 1618; Mare Clausum, 1635; De Jure Naturali, 1640; Table-talk, 1689.

Selection. See Natural Selection, Sexual Selection, and Hybridization.

Selcnates. Salts of selenic acid.

Selene. Greek moon-goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Theia.

Sclenga. River of Mongolia flowing into Lake Baikal. Length 700 m.

Selenic Acid. H,Se04. Liquid resembling sulphuric acid, unstable, readily passing to selenious acid; made by treating selenium with strong oxidizing agents in the presence of moisture; dibasic.

Sclenldcs. Derivatives of hydrogen selenide or compounds formed by the direct union of selenium with some other element.

Selenious Acid. H,SeO,. Crystallized, deliquescent solid, made by dissolving selenium dioxide in water; dibasic.

Selenite. Variety of gypsum, that occurs in crystals or in foliated forms, transparent, and with a prominent pearly luster.

Selenites. Salts of selenious acid.

Selenium. Se. At. wt. 79, 4.5-4.8. sp. ht. 5.92, mpt. 217° C. for cryst. selenium, valence II., IV., VI.; discovered by Berzelius 1817. It occurs in two modifications. Soluble selenium is a brick red or black powder; non-conductor of electricity. Insoluble or metallic selenium is obtained by cooling melted selenium rapidly to 210° C. It crystallizes from carbon disulphide. like sulphur. Selenium occurs in small quantities in a number of sulphides, and is extracted from the flue-dust of sulphuric acid factories by treating with oxidizing agents.

Selenium Bromide. Se,Br3. Selenium monobromide. Dark-red liquid; sp. gr. 3.60, bpt. 225° to;230° C; made by bringing bromine and selenium together in the proper proportions.

Selenium Dioxide, or Selenium Anhydride. SeO,. Solid, crystallized substance, made by burning selenium; soluble in water, forming selenious acid. It has the odor of rotten radish.

Selenium Iodides. Compounds of the formulas Se,I, and Sel, are known. They are wholly similar in properties to the Bromides (q.v.).

Selenium SfonOChlOlide. SejCl.,. Transparent, darkbrown, oily liquid, decomposing on boiling; obtained by passing chlorine over heated selenium.

Selenium Nitride. Se,N3. Bright, orange-yellow, amorphous powder, soluble in benzene and acetic acid; made by dissolving the tetrachloride in carbon bisulphide and passing ammonia into the solution.

Selenium Tetrabromlde. SeBr,. Bright reddishbrown powder, crystallizing from carbon disulphide in dark orange-red crystals; volatile at ordinary temperatures; made by treating the monobromide with bromine.

Selenium Tetrachloride. SeCl,. Bright yellow crystals which volatilize without melting; soluble in hot phosphorous oxychloride; made by treating selenium dioxide with phosphorous pentachloride.

Sclcnlureted Hydrogen. HaSe. Colorless gas of an

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unpleasant odor. It destroys the sense of smell temporarily, and is made by treating ferrous selenide with an acid.

Selenocentric. Pertaining to the center of the moon; e.g., selenocentric place of a heavenly body, place as seen from the moon's center.

Sclenodoilt Dentition. Teeth with the crowns adapted for grinding, as in the Ruminants. The ridgesof enamel upon the crowns are disposed into crescentie lobes, the convexities of which are turned inward in the upper teeth and outward in the lower.

Selcnodonlia (ruminantia). Section of artiodactyl (eventoed) Ungulates, whose molar teeth are adapted for cud-chewing and conform to the selenodont type. They have the metapodials united into a cannon-bone bearing four toes, the middle two alone reaching the ground. Molars are 6

times4; upper incisors are absent, and frequently canines also. The stomach is differentiated into compartments to subserve rumination. See Tylopa, Tkagulina, Pecoka, a n d Cavi



Description of the moon's surface, as geography is of the earth's.

Selenyl Chloride. S.-OC1,. Faintly yellow fuming liquid, solidifying below 0° to a crystalline mass which melts at 10° C.; bpt. 179.5° C. (cor.); decomposed by water; made by heating sodium chloride with selenium dioxide.

Seleucia. City on the Tigris. 40 m. n.e. of Babylon; built by Seleucus I.; important in first century; destroyed 105. Others of this name were in Syria and s. Asia Minor. Scleucidre. Syrian dynasty 318-65 B.C. Seleucus I., Nicator, d.280 B.C. General under Alexander; Satrap of Babylonia 321. The year of his recovery of Babylon from Antigonus, 312, was the starting-point of the era of the Seleucida?, long used. He took the title of king 306,


Ravine of Seleucia.


Tetradrachmon of Seleucus I., Nicator.

and extended his sway to the Oxus and Indus. By 281 he was master of so much of Asia as Alexander had conquered. In 280 he made an attempt to gain the vacant throne of Macedonia, but was assassinated.

Self-Conceit. Unduly high opinion of one's gifts or abilities.

Self-conjugate Triangle, or Self Polar. One whose vertices are respectively the poles of the opposite sides in reference to a given conic.

Self-Consciousness. State or act of being aware of one's self. Many psychologists deny the existenceof adirect sense of reaction or any immediate knowledge of anything but an object of knowledge." See CONSCIOUSNESS.

Self-Control. Habit of mind by which we resist the impulses of desire and affection, so as to conform to rules of virtue or prudence.

Self-Defense. See Assault.

Self-denying Ordinance. Passed in Parliament at Cromwell's instance, April 3. 1645. It required "that no member of either House should, during the war, enjoy or execute any office or command, civil or military." Cromwell was made an exception.

Self-Development. Process of growth toward the highest perfection of which any given soul is capable.

Sell-Esteem. Approval of one's own character, often, but not necessarily, exaggerated.

Self-Fertilization. That of the ovules of a flower by means of pollen from the anthers of the same flower.

Self-IIcal. See Hkal-all.

Self-induction. Faraday observed 1831 that on completing or breaking the current flowing in a helix an induced current is generated in a second wire wound outside the first. Henry showed 1832 that any variation in the strength of a current in a helix is also capable of inducing currents in the contiguous spires of the helix. The former is called MUTUAL Induction (q.v.). The latter is called self-induction, as representing the action of a coil on itself. It is also called Inductance. The coefficient of self-induction. L. depends on the coil itself, and is sometimes called its Inductance (q.v.). Since the quantity of electrification is proportional to the flow of force, (p, we may write 4>=1L, I being the current strength, or L=4&/L; i.e., this coefficient may be defined as the ratio of a flow of force to a current strength. Since the dimensions of

• the dimen

areM^L^T ".and those of I, MTL7T" sion of inductance being the quotient is simply a length. Therefore in the C.G.S. system the unit coefficient of inductance is a centimeter. For practical purposes a Quadrant (q.v.) has been adopted. Since an ohm is a quandrant per second (10" C.G.S. units), an ohm-second, or a secohm (so called by Ayrton and Perry), is the equivalent of a quadrant. In U. S. the unit coefficient of self-induction is called a Henry. See Coefficient Of Mutual Induction.

Self- Interest. One's own advantage considered as an end, as opposed to altruistic gratification.

Selllshness. Habit, principle, or instinct of making ourselves the principal object of our attention and solicitude.

Self-Eove. Desire of one's own pleasure or gain, considered as an ethical end; almost identical with egoism.

Self-regarding Duties. Those the performance of which tends directly or indirectly to promote one's own happiness.

Self-Sacrifice. Virtue of one who willingly incurs pain or dispenses with pleasure to procure benefits for another. Selignian, Jesse, 1827-1894. New York banker. Selim I., 1467-1520. Sultan from 1512; conqueror of Syria, Egypt, and Arabia; head of Islam; noted for ability, energy, and cruelty.—II., 1524-1574. Sultan from 1566. His fleet sus

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1071; Asia Minor was subjugated 1074-84, whence the Crusades. The Sultanate of Iconium (Konich) was the starting point of the Ottoman dynasty.

Selkirk, or Sealchralg, Alexander, 1676-1723. Scottish seaman, who lived alone on Juan Fernandez (q.v.), near Chili, 1704-9; afterward Lieut. R.N.; supposed original of Robinson Crusoe.

Selkirk, Thomas Dundas, Earl Op, 1771-1820. Colonizer of Manitoba 1811. Red River Settlement, 1817.

Selkirk Mt§. In s. British Columbia. Length ab.175 m.. greatest elevation 9,940 ft.

Sellalte. MgFr Magnesium fluoride. Rare mineral occuring with sulphur and anhydrite near Montiers, France.

Sellar, William Young. 182.r)-1890. Prof. St. Andrews 1853, and Edinburgh from 1863. Roman Poets, 1863-81.

Sellers, Coleman, b.1827. American mechanical engineer, as is his cousin, William, b.1824.

Solum. Capital of Dallas eo., Ala.; on the Alabama, here navigable; important during the civil war. Pop., 1890, 7,626.

Selnecker, Nicolaus, 1532-1593. German hymnist.

Sellers. Cold acidulous springs near Limburg, Prussia. They chiefly contain carbonate of soda, chloride of sodium, sulphates of soda, lime, magnesia and iron, and much carbonic acid. They are refrigerant, tonic, diuretic, and aperient.

Seltzer Water. See Selteks.

Selvage. Layer of clayey material, frequently found along the walls of metalliferous veins.

Selvas. Densely forested plains; especially the basin of the Amazon, which is covered with rich tropical forests.

Selwyn, Alfred Richard Cecil, F.R.S., b.1824. Chief of the Geological Survey of Victoria, Australia, 1852-69; since 1869 director of the Canadian Survey.

Selwyn, George. 1719-1791. English wit and social celebrity, M.P. from 1747.

Selwyn, Georoe Auoustus, D.D., 1809-1878. Bp. of New Zealand 1841, and of Lichfield 1867; eminent for missionary zeal and efficiency. His son. John Richardson, b. ab.1840, became Bp. of Melanesia, N. Z., 1872.

BemsBostomeae, or Semostome^e. Discophora with a large central mouth surrounded by four large, often multilobed, arms. The number of marginal tentacles, etc., varies greatly. Pelagia and Aurelia are examples. The former has wide gastric pouches and eight interradial marginal tentacles; the latter has branched radial canals, two marginal tentacles, and a fringe of small tentacles.

Semaphore. Device for producing signals by the various positions and motions of a set of arms which may be viewed from the distant station by a telescope. A similar method is employed for signaling between ships at sea, the arms being replaced by colored lights. The railroad signal presents the

appearance of a horizontal arm when set "at danger." When lowered at an angle of 45 degrees it indicates "caution"; when vertical, "safety."

Senielc. Daughter o f Cadmus, beloved by Zeus, who, at her rash request, visited her in his terrible splendors. She was consumed by the lightning, but her unborn child Dionysus was saved by the god.

Semi - Anthracite And Semi-Bituminous. Varieties of coal whose properties place them between the true anthracite and the true bituminous coals. See Coal.

Seml-Arlans. Those who, denying, with the Arians, that Christ is of one substance with the Father, maintained that He is of like substance; prominent at the Synod of Ancyra, 358. The compromise, being distasteful to both Arians and Catholics, gradually disappeared. Deviation from its normal


Semaphore at "Danger."

Semaphore at "Caution."

Seniieireular Deviation

position, produced upon a magnetic needle by vertical masses of iron or steel magnetized inductively by the earth. The phenomenon occurs on shipboard in the case of the compass

needle. In swinging the ship around there are two positions in which the influence would be a maximum, and two in which it would disappear; hence.the name.

Scmlcolltgatl. Grallatory feet of birds, having one toe behind and three in front, of which the middle and outer are united by a short web.

Semi-cubical Parabola. Curve of the third order, having, with the origin at the vertex, the rectangular equation, y"-=»2px'.

Seml-dlameter Of Sun And Moon. Angle subtended by the radius as seen from the earth. Mean semi-diameter of the sun, 16' 02"; of the moon, 15' 33".5.

Seminal. Anything pertaining to seeds.

Semini, Andrea, ab. 1525-1591. Painter of the Genoese school, who imitated Raphael. Most of his works are at Genoa


Andrea Semini

and Milan.—His father, Antonio, ab.1485-1547, was a pupil of Brea, whose stvle he modernized. His Nativity, at Savona, is in the style of Perugino.

Scmlnoles. Appalachian Indians of Muscogee stock, who lived in n. Florida. They differed from the allied Creek Indians in being hunters rather than agriculturists. Those now in Indian Territory number 3,000.

Seminole War. On the cession of Florida to the U. S., 1823. the Seminoles agreed to retire to the interior and not to molest the settlers. A treaty was made with some of their chiefs 1832 providing for the removal of the tribe to lands west of the Mississippi River. In 1835 troubles began, the treaty being repudiated by Osceola, whose wife was stolen and enslaved. Hostilities continued for several years. Osceola was captured 1837 under a flag of truce, and imprisoned: the tribe was driven into the everglades. In 1839 the chiefs signed another treaty, and after much delay were removed to the Indian Territory.

Scmipalmati. Swimming feet of birds that have three anterior toes, webbed half way, and a posterior toe.

Seml-Pelngians. School teaching that the Fall has weakened but not extinguished man's capacity for good, and that, though needing grace, he can co-operate with it; condemned 529, though its founder, Cassianus (q.v.), is in several dioceses honored as a saint.

Scnilplumae. Feathers that possess stiff stems like the penna; and soft vanes like the plumulaj, as do most of those beneath the contour feathers in birds.

Scmiramls. Legendary queen of Ninus. founder of Nineveh, after whose death she built great cities and opened roads in all parts of the empire, conquered Egypt and most of Ethiopia, but failed in an attempt on India; famed for her voluptuousness. The legend combines historical and mythical elements in inextricable confusion. She is said to have built a tomb for Ninus 10 stadia wide and 9 high, the city of Babylon, the hanging gardens, etc. Most of the stupendous works in Iran and by the Euphrates seem to have been ascribed to her.

Semitae. See Fascioles.

Semites. Name given by J. G. Eichorn, 1787, to designate

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a group of nations closely allied in manners, physical features and religion, who are descended from Shem.

Semitic Languages. Most important group outside the Indo-European. Its divisions are well marked. Syrian and Assyrian make up the Aramaic; Hebrew and Phoenician, the latter scantily represented, but giving us the priceless boon of the alphabet, are closely related; while Arabic, with related dialects, forms a third and important group. Oldest of the records are the famous cuneiform inscriptions; of literature, most venerable in every way are the Hebrew Scriptures. In like manner, the Koran practically begins Arabic literature.

Semitic Races. Supposed descendants of Shem; Hebrews, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Arabs, Abyssinians, and some others, so far as originally speaking languages akin to Hebrew.

Scmler, Johan.n Salomo, 172.5-1791. Prof. Halle from 1752; precursor of biblical criticism, moderate rationalist, and voluminous writer.

Semmertng. Mountain of Austria. 60 m. s. of Vienna; ht. 4,416 ft.; traversed by a railway to Trieste, built 1850-54.

Semitic*, Raphael, U.S.N, and C.S.N., 1809-1877. Commander of the Alabama, most destructive of Confederate cruisers, from Aug. 1863 till her destruction by the Kearsarge off Cherbourg June 19, 1864. See Winslow, John A.

Scmnopltltecidae. Family of Cynomorpha or dog-like Apes, having long tails, natal callosities, but no cheek-pouches. The fore limbs are shorter than the hind, progression on the ground js quadrupedal. Here are included, first, the genus Semnopitliecus of s.e. Asia, including the En tell us or Sacred Monkey of the Hindus, and the Proboscis Monkey of Borneo, with its greatly prolonged nose; second, Colubus of Africa, which differs from Semnopithecus in having a still shorter or rudimentary thu mb.

Semolina. Middlings of wheat, or flour thereof, used in Italy. France, and elsewhere, for soups and desserts.

Sempacli. Village of Switzerland, 9 m. n.w. of Lucerne. Here, July 9, 1386, 1,300 Swiss peasants defeated with great


Battle at Scmpaclj.

slaughter Leopold, Duke of Austria, and the flower of his chivalry. 4,000 horsemen, thus securing Swiss freedom. See Win


Semper, Gottfried. 1803-1879. German architect, prof. Zurich 1856-69.—His nephew. Karl, 1832-1893. prof. WQrzburg from 1866, pub. books of travel and on zoology.

Scmpringham. See Gilbertines.

Sen,KESHUB Chunder. 1838-1884. Hindu reformer; founder of the Brahino Somaj of India. 1866.

Senancour, Etienne Pivert De. 1770-1846. French author, notable for deep and sincere melancholy long before pessimism came into fashion; overlooked in his productive period, and of chiefly posthumous repute. His Obermaiui, 1804. called forth two of Matthew Arnold's finest poems.

Scnarmont, Henri Hurran De, 1808-1862. Prof, in Paris School of Mines; eminent as a crystallographer; author of many papers of much scientific value.

SenarmontitC. Sb20.. Antimony oxide, crystallizing in the isometric system; usually regarded as a product of alteration of the antimony sulphide, and not often found by itself in quantity to pay for working. Valentinite is a mineral of the same chemical composition, crystallizing in orthorhombic forms.

Senate. Supreme administrative council of ancient Rome,

dating from the time of the kings. It proposed legislation to the assemblies of the people, took measures against sudden danger, and, through the annual magistrates, governed the state. Its functions were nearer those of a ministry than of a legislature. The members held office for life, unless removed by the censor, or, in later times, by the emperor.

Senate Of The U. S. This consists of two Senators from each State, a total of 88 in 1897, who are elected by the State Legislatures for terms of six years. They receive $5,000 per annum, 20 cents a mile for traveling expenses to and from home, and $125 per annum for stationery. See Congress Of The U. S.

Scnebicr, Jean, 1742-1809. French naturalist. Sur Vinfluence de la lumiere solaire, 1782-83; Experiences sur Faction de la lumidre solaire dans la vtgttation, 1788; Physiologic vegetale, 1800.

Seneca, Lucius Ann^us. 3 B.C.-65. Roman courtier and Stoic philosopher, one of the most brilliant men of his time; in banishment 41-49; tutor of Nero, and reluctant adviser of some of his misdeeds; Consul 57: self-executed by Nero's order, opening the veins of his feet and arms in a hot bath. As a moralist his intentions and sympathies were good, but his practice fell much below his theories; his character lacked the strength, consistency, and noble simplicity of his great successors in Roman stoicism, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. His prose works have often been edited; some were tr. ab. 1680 and later. His nine tragedies follow Greek models.—His father, Annjeus. ab.54 B.C.-39, a rhetorician from Spain, wrote several treatises, of which five books of Controvershe survive.

Seneca Lake. In w. central N. Y.; length 36 m. n. to s.

Seneca Oil. Small quantities of surface petroleum, collected in early days in w. N. Y.

Senecas. See Hurons and Iroquois.

Sencfelder, Aloys, 1771-1834. German printer, inventor of lithography. Lehrbuch, 1818, tr. 1819.

Senelfe. Town of Belgium. 27 m. s.w. of Brussels; scene of two French victories, that of Conde over the Prince of Orange, Aug. 11, 1674. and that of Marceau over an Austrian force, July 2, 1794.

Senegal. River of w. Africa, rising in the Kong Mts. and flowing n.w. to the Atlantic. Length ab. 1,000 m. The country is very picturesque, resembling in its physical features all

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sorts of architectural forms, ruined castles, spires and pyramids; so much so, that it oftentimes is necessary to approach quite close to satisfy one's self to the contrary.

Sencgamnia. Reg-ion of w. Africa, between the Sahara and the Gambia, held in part by France since ab.1600, and more fully since ab.1855; area and pop. uncertain.

Sciicgambians. The natives are numerous tribes of negroes, some Mohammedans, others fetichists. Arabic is spoken n. and e. of the Senegal and a Berber admixture is there present. On the coast and s. of the Senegal .are the Wolofs, tall, glossy black negroes. In the center are the Mandingoes, Mohammedans, muscular, tall, and very cruel. In the s. are the gentler Fulah, also Mohammedans, of a reddish complexion and with straight hair, of Hamitic descent. Most of the negroes are polygamists; circumcision is widely practiced. A few hold the land; the rest are slaves.

Senescence. See Old Age, Diseases Of.

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