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Sclerobaslca. See Antipatharia.

Sclerodermata (madreporaria). Group of Zoantharia, including the Madrepore Corals.

Sclerodermese. Family of Gasteromycetes.

Scleroderma See Plectognathi.

Sclerodermic. Tissue composed of Sclerites.

Sclerodermlte§. Calcareous spicules of the outer crust of sea fans. In the red coral they form a rig-id skeleton.

Sclerotic Parenchyma. Vegetable tissue composed of short cells with greatly thickened walls, as in the grit-cells of the pear and the dense tissues of nut-shells.

Sclerotlum. 1. Case containing spores and having a wall of tough material, half animal, half vegetable in nature^ which protects the spores through a dry season; formed in the Mycetozoa. 2. Compact form of the mycelium of Fungi.

Sclerotold. In Botany, structures resembling a sclerotium.

Sclopl§, Federigo Paolo, Count, 1798-1878. Historian of Italian law, 1840-64; pres. Senate 1861-64; pres. Geneva Tribunal of Arbitration 1871.

Sclot, Bernat. See D'esclot, Bernat.

Scoke. See Pokeweed.

Scoleclda. Group of Vermes, including the Entozoa and Rotifers (q.v.).

Scoleclte. Archicarp of certain Fungi.

Scolex. Tapeworm head, produced by budding from the walls of the cyst or bladder-worm in its first host.

Scollard, Clinton, b. 1860. American poet; prof. Hamilton Coll. 1888. Under Summer Skies, and On Sunny Shores, 1895, describe his Eastern and Italian travels.

Scollops. See Pectinid^e.

Scolopacldae (snipe). Family of Grallatores with long slender bill covered with soft sensitive skin. The legs are short in some forms, long in others.

Scolopendra. See Chilopoda.

Scopus, d. ab.350 B.C. Greek sculptor and architect, associated witli Praxiteles.

Scopoli, Johann Anton, 1723-1788. Prof. Pavia 1777. Flora carnioliea, 1760; Introductio ad historiam naturalem, 1777; Fundamenta botanica, 1783.

Scopularla. Form of spicule with four short tylote arms and one long needle-shaped arm; derived from a hexactine; present in the sponge Eurete.

Score. In Music, collocation of all the parts of a composition, i.e., the voices, for the different performers; used by the conductor in studying a work and in directing its performance. The rule followed in bringing the parts together is to group the wind instruments of wood, flutes, oboes, clarionets, bassoons, etc., on the uppermost staves of the page, the brass instruments, trumpets, horns, trombones, etc., in the middle, with the drums above the trombones, and the strings on the lowest five staves. When voices are employed, their parts appear between those of the brass and string choirs. In the case of an opera or other work employing a number of singers and an orchestra, an arrangement showing the vocal parts intact and the orchestral part transcribed for pianoforte is called a vocal score.

Scorel, Jan Van, 1495-1562. Dutch painter, active before the time of a distinct Dutch School; for some time in Rome, and historically important as a transmitter of Italian influence.

Scorcsby, William, D.D., F.R.S., 1789-1857. English explorer and scientist. Arctic Regions, 1820; Journal, 1823; Magnetical Investigations, 1839-52.

Scorlie. Volcanic slags and cinders which are more or less porous, due to the expansion of the gases in the melted material.

Scorpio. See Zodiac.

Scorplold. In Botany, inflorescence of many plants in the natural family Boraginacece and some other plants. It is a false raceme, coiled in the bud (and hence also known as helicoid).

Scorpion Crass. See Forget-me-not.

Scorpionlden, or Scorpiodea (scorpions). Arachnids with chelate cheliceraa, foot-like chelate pedipalps. the abdomen divided into an anterior broad praabdomen of seven segments and a narrow post-abdomen of six segments, with poi

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Scorpion and Spider Fighting.

to small animals, serious to children, but not fatal to adult man. Ammonia applied to the sting is a good antidote.

Scorza. Variety of epidote sand found in the beds of some Transylvanian gold-bearing streams.

Scot, Reginald, ab.1538-1599. English author. His Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, was far in advance of the time, and called forth answers from King James and many others.

Scotch Confession of Faith. Prepared by Knox Aug. 1560, in a preface and 25 articles; adopted by Parliament; confirmed 1567; standard till 1688, tliough displaced in effect by the Westminster Confession 1646-48.

Scotch Mist. Fine rain, whose particles of water are large enough to have a visible rate of descent and to slightly wet the surface of exposed objects.

Scotch Paraphrases. Pub. 1745 by a Committee of General Assembly; in number 45; little used; revised and enlarged 1781 to 67, with 5 hymns; appended to Scotch Psalms, and widely used.

Scotia. Concave molding, which, when seen from above, produces a strong shadow and is therefore commonly used in bases.

Seotists. Followers of Duns Scotus; largely Franciscans.

Scotland. Northern portion of the island of Great Britain and a part of the United Kingdom. The surface is hilly, becoming mountainous in the north. The coast is broken with numerous fiords and rocky islets. It was originally inhabited by Celts and was called Caledonia by the Romans, who subjugated only the s. portion. The Scots (Irish Celts) under Fergus invaded the Highlands 503 and founded a Scotch kingdom. Norwegians and Anglo-Saxons introduced Teutonic influences. William the Con

?ueror compelled Malcolm II. to do homage 1072. The effort of Edward I. to maintain supremacy was resisted by Wallace; Bruce achieved independence 1328. The Stuart dynasty bejjan with Robert it. 1371-90. The contests over succession caused many troubles and a border feud raged intermittently along the English boundary. The enmity of England drove S. into close relations with France; royalty allied itself with the

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Fall of Foyers, near Inverness.

Church, and alienated the nobles, who, embracing Protestantism, were drawn toward England, and a reaction began against

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France, represented in Mary of Guise, wife of James V. Their daughter Mary was educated at the French court and married the Dauphine Francis; thus the two crowns seemed on the

Soint of being united. On the premature death of Francis, [ary returned, and, after many tribulations, was imprisoned and beheaded in England for conspiring against Elizabeth. Mary's son, James VI., succeeded to the .throne of England 1603. His son and grandsons ruled both countries, but the two were not definitively united in Great Britain until 1707. Area 29,785 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 4,033,103.

Scotland, Church Of. Established since 1557, with intervals of Episcopal intrusion under the Stuarts; model of AngloSaxon Presbyterianism everywhere.

Scotland, Free Church Of. Secession 1843 from the established Ch. on the right of congregations to a voice in choosing their ministers, embracing 470 out of over 1,200 ministers, and a third of the people.

Scotland, National Covenant Of. See National CoveNant.

Scotland, United Presbyterian Church In. Formed 1847 by union of the Associate and Relief bodies. See PresByterians.

Scott, Andrew, 1757-1839. Scottish peasant-poet.

Scott, Charles, 1733-1813. Col. 3d Va. regiment 1776, Brig.-gen. 1777; active in Pa., N. J., and N. Y., and against Indians 1791-94; Gov. of Ky. 1808-12.

Scott, David, 1806-1849. Scottish historical painter and illustrator.—His brother and biographer, William Bell, 18111890, was a poet, painter, and art-critic. Lectures, 1861; Little Masters, 1879.

Scott, Dred. See Dred Scott Case.

Scott, Elizabeth, ab.1708-1776. English hymnist, m. 1751 to Elisha Williams (q.v.) of Conn.—Her brother. Thomas, 1705-1775, pub. Job in Verse. 1771, and Lyric Poems, 1773. Two of his sacred songs are still in extended use.

Scott, Sir George Gilbert, 1811-1878. English architect, restorer or builder of 26 cathedrals; R.A. 1861, knighted 1872.

Scott, Gustavus Hall, U.S.N., 1812-1882. Commander 1856, Captain 1863, serving on the Atlantic coast; Commodore 1869, Rear-admiral 1873.

Scott, Hugh S. See Merriman, Henry S.

Scott, John Morin, 1730-1784. Delegate to Congress 1775 and 1780-83; Brig.-gen. 1776-77; N. Y. Sec. of State 1777-79.

Scott, Levi, D.D., 1802-1882. M. E. bishop 1852.

Scott, Michael, 13th cent. Semi-mythical magician, said to have tr. works of Aristotle from the Arabic; mentioned in Dante's Inferno; prominent figure in border traditions and ballads; used by Sir W. Scott.

Scott, Michael, 1789-1835. Scottish nautical novelist. Tom Cringle's Log, 1829; Cruise of the Midge, 1833.

Scott, Robert, D.D., 1811-1887. Prof. Oxford 1861; Dean of Rochester 1870; ed., with Dr. H. G. Liddell, a Greek Lexicon, 1845.

Scott, Robert Henry, F.R.S.. b. 1833 in Dublin. Head of British weather service 1867. Meteorology, 1883.

Scott, Robert Kingston, b. 1826. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-63; Gov. of S. C. 1868-72.

Scott, Thomas, D.D., 1747-1821. English divine, practical commentator of the Evangelical School. His Family Bible v-ith Notes, 1788-92, was widely circulated. Works, 10 vols., 1823-25.

Scott, Thomas Alexander, 1824-1881. Vice-pres. Pa.R. R. 1859; Asst. Sec. of War 1861-62; eminent in public services during the war; pres. Union Pacific R. R. 1871-72; pres. Pa. R. R. 1874-80.

Scott, Sir Walter, 1771-1832. Scottish poet and novelist; Baronet 1820. Beginning with translations from the German, 1796, and ballads, he pub. Minstrelsy of the Border, 1802-3, and won fame by The Lay of the Last Minstrel, 1805; Marmion, 1808; and The Lady of the Lake, 1810. His other metrical romances are inferior, and Byron soon surpassed him in poetry, though many of his lyrics have a peculiar charm. His chief fame rests upon the brilliant series, largely historical, and long anonymous, of "Waverley Novels," 1814-31. Among the finest are Ouy Mannering. 1815; Old Mortality, 1817; Rob Boy and The Heart of Midlothian, 1818; The Bride of Lammermoor, 1819; Ivnnhoe, 1820; Kenilworth, 1822. His Life of Bonaparte. 1827, and other solid works are less memorable. He spent large sums on building Abbotsford, and in 1826 the failure of publishing firms in which he was a silent partner burdened him with an enormous debt: refusing offers of aid, he labored for its payment with a heroic energy which shortened his life. His character commanded general respect and affec

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fill a prominent place in the vast treasure-house of English literature. Their effect is visible in the recent revival of historical and romantic fiction by Conan Doyle, Weyman, Hope, and others. The vast popularity which caused each of Scott's novels to be eagerly awaited by thousands is a thing of the

East; but he remains "the Wizard of the North" and master in is own field. His Journal was pub. 1890. Scott, W. Bell. See Scott, David.

Scott, Winfield, U.S.A., 1786-1866. Brig.-gen. 1814, Majorgen. 1815; prominent on the Canadian border 1813-14; Generalln-chief of the U. S. Army 1841; leader in the war with Mexico 1846-47, which resulted in the cession of Cal. and New Mexico to the U. S.; Whig candidate for Pres. 1852; Brevet-lieut.-gen. 1855; retired 1861.

Scottish Language. This is n. English modified by Celtic and Scandinavian influences and, as spoken in Edinburgh from 1450, this was the literary language of Scotland. Wyntoun, Dunbar, Douglas and James I. are among the chief contributors to this literature. See ENGLISH LITERATURE.

Scotus, Johannes. See Erigena.

Scotus, Johannes Duns. See Duns Scotus.

Scourge of God. Title of Attila, king of the Huns; said to have been conferred by a hermit.

Scouring Rushes. Plants of the genus Equisetum, natural family Equisetace^; (q.v.). The stems are rough from the abundance of silica in the epidermis, and are sometimes employed for scouring floors. E. hyemale is known also as Shave-grass.

Scour of Streams. Process of washing away a bed or bank by the current. A velocity of 1 ft. per sec. will move small gravel, of 2 ft. pebbles ab. an inch thick, and of 20 ft. stones 2 ft. in diameter.

Scranton. Capital of Lackawanna co., Pa., on the Lackawanna, in a region devoted to coal mining; settled 1840, chartered 1854 and 1866. Its industries consist mainly in the shipping of coal and the manufacture of iron and steel. Pop., 1890, 75,215.

Screen. In Architecture, any partition subdividing an apartment which is less than its entire height. It may be either solid or perforated, as in a rood-screen, which does not shut off the view, but merely marks the subdivision, and may be either of masonry or woodwork. In Gothic Architecture, screens were elaborately designed and carved, and often became features of architectural importance.

Screw. Right circular cylinder on the convex surface of which is a uniform projecting thread in the form of a helix. Across section of the thread may be of several different forms, the rectangular and the triangular being commonest. The distance between two adjacent threads measured parallel to the axis of the screw is called the pitch. The screw is usually

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used as a mechanical power to move a body through a small space with great force, as in the copying-press.

Screw-Gearing. Method of transmitting motion and power from one shaft to another by toothed wheels (see Gear Wheels), in which one or both has for its driving profiles the elements of a helix or screw. The shafts may he parallel, or not parallel and not intersecting. The former case is called transmission by helical gear; the latter is screw-gearing properly so called. In screw-gearing (sometimes called also wormand-wheel), the velocity transmitted from one shaft to another does not depend on the relative radii of the worm and wheel, but the driving shaft which carries the screw moves the wheel in one revolution through an angle subtended by the pitch of the wheel, which is the same as the linear pitch of the screw; that is, the number of turns will be as the fraction

( j~.—A——;—\)- The wheel can drive the worm only

Vno. of teeth of wheel/

when the pitch of the screw is so steep that the projected angle between the axis and the tangent to the helical elements is less than the angle of friction between the two surfaces of contact. Hence the adaptation of screw-gearing to hoisting machinery, since it can also hold the load when raised. The face of the worm wheel is often curved to the arc of the worm to give greater bearing surface, and the teeth elements made parts of the complementary helix to that of the worm.

Screw Pile. Iron pile furnished with screw blades at its foot, and sunk into the soil by turning it like a screw; used for foundations of lighthouses and ocean piers.

Screw Pine. Trees of the genus Pandanus, natives of

the Malayan and Polynesian islands, producing a tfj^l / abundance of aerial

roots, forming structures y of strange appearance. g£ Screw Turbine. Water wheel which moves by the pressure of water upon helicoidal blades attached to a vertical shaft. It is of low efficiency and but little used.

Screw-Worm. Larva of a green fly with red eyes, common ins.w. U.S., which lays its eggs in wounds, nostrils, etc., of man and other animals. The eggs hatch in a few hours into larvas that bore

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Screw Pine.

into the flesh, making a putrescent, non-healing sore, and death ultimately ensues from blood poisoning. Carbolic acid should be applied, and the wound dressed with oil of tar and fish oil, to repel the flies.

Scribe, Augustin Eugene, 1791-1861. French dramatist, producer, alone or in partnership with others, of some 250 plays, from one act to five; best in light comedy. He never attained greatness, but was very successful in meeting stage requirements.

Scribes. Jewish scholars who devoted themselves to transcribing and interpreting the Mosaic Law. Their influence was great and ultimately eclipsed that of the priests. Their casuistry and worship of the letter drew down on them our Lord's severest indignation.

Scribner, Chari.es, 1821-1871. Publisher in New York; founded Scribner's Mag. 1870, which became Tlie Century 1881.

Scrlbonlus Largus, 1st cent. Roman writer on medicine.

Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose, LL.D.. D.C.L., 1813-1891. Anglican divine, who wrote much on the N.T. and was one of its revisers; pensioned 1872.

Scrivener's Cramp. See Neurosis.

Scroblculate. In Botany, pitted surfaces

Scrofula. Constitutional condition manifested by the peculiar character of the processes of inflammation, particularly a degeneration of the Ivmphatic glands into cheese-like masses. The presence of Koch's bacillus of consumption in these products of inflammation makes it probable that it is a manifestation of tuberculosis.

Scroggs, Sir Willi AM. ab. 1623-1683. Chief-justiceof King's Bench 1678; impeached 1680 for misconduct during the Popisli Plot trials; pensioned.

Scroll. In Architecture, a spiral ornament often applied to consoles and like features. Its most common employment is in the Ionic capital, and when thus employed it is known as a volute.

Scrope, George Poulett, F.R.S., 1797-1876. M.P. 1883-68: born in London; best known for his Volcanoes of Central France, 1827. He studied the probable cause of their phenomena and their connection with the present state and past history of the earth.

Scrophulariaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Oamopetalo?, comprising ab.175 genera and ab.2,500 species, distributed throughout all parts of the globe; called the Figwort family.

Scruple. In Apothecaries' Weight, 4 of a drachm, A* of a lb. Troy, 20 grs.

Scruples of Conscience. Doubts as to what is right and what wrong in the case of special points in any given course of action.

Scud. Small detached clouds beneath any mass of clouds from which rain is falling; also called wrack.

Scudder, Horace Elisha, b. 1838. Biographer of Noah Webster. 1882, and (in part) of Bayard Taylor, 1884; author of Dream Children, 1863, and other juvenile books; ed. Rivirside Mag. 1867-71, and Atlantic Monthly since 1890. Man and Letters. 1888.—His brother, SAMUEL HUBBARD, paleontologist of U. S. Geological Survey 1886-92. and ed. Science 1883-85, has pub. much on Entomology.—Their niece, Vida DUTTON, b. 1861, pub. Life of the Spirit in English Poets, 1893.

Scudder, John, M.D., 1793-1855. American missionary in Ceylon 1820-36, and at Madras; founder of schools and hospitals; father of ten more missionaries, of whom Henrymartyn, D.D., b. 1822, labored in India 1844-63, and wrote much in Tamil and Sanskrit.

Scudery, Madeleine De, 1607-1701. French romancer, whose characters were real personages of her own time under ancient names; thus Conde is Artamene in Le Grand Cynis, 1649-53. This and Clelie, 1654-60, bore the name of her brother Georges, 16011667. who furnished the plots; they filied 10 vols, each, as did her Conversations. Her works were once highly esteemed.

Scudo. Italian coin, equal to five lire or francs, and U. S. dollar; so named as originally bearing a prince's shield or coat of arms.

Sculling. The propelling of a boat by an oar placed over the taffrail of a boat and plied from side to side; also applied to the rowing of boats, in which the oarsman uses a pair of sculls or short oars.

Sculplure. See the Appendix.

Sculpt ii red Stones. General name given to a

class of monuments of Sculptured Stone at Nigg, Ross-shire, the early Christian period, many being unhewn stone with rude inscriptions or ornamental designs. Those of Scotland are mostly uninscribed, but usually decorated; one of the most ornate being at Nigg.

SCIip. See PORGY.

Scurf. In Botany, epidermal scales.

Scurvy. Constitutional disease characterized by great debility, witli anaemia, spongv condition of the gums and a tendency to hemorrhages. It prevails among those who are forced to subsist for a long time on a diet which is lacking in fresh vegetables or their substitute. Hence it has been most prevalent among soldiers and sailors. The present precaution to provide the proper variety of diet for camps and vessels has made the disease a rare one. The juice of two or three lemons daily with plenty of fresh vegetables will suffice to cure, unless the disease is of long standing.

Scurvy Grass. Plants of the genus Cochlearia, ab. a foot high and having a small white flower. They have an acrid, biting taste and were of great benefit to sailors, before modern precautions against scurvy were known, for their antiscorbutic properties.

Scuta. Anterior ventral pieces of the shell of Barnacles.

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ab.70.000. 2. Town of n. Albania, on Lake Suctari; besieged 1477 bv the Turks, and soon after ceded to them. Pop. ab.35.000.

Scutate. In Botany and Zoology, shield-shaped organs.
Scutch-Grass. See Grass, Bermuda.
Scutellatc. Diminutive of Scutate.

Scutcllated. Tarsi and feet of birds when clothed with scutella. See ScUTELLUM.

Scutcllum. In Botany, (1) shield like cotyledon of certain grasses; (2) shield-shaped sessileapothecia in lichens.—In Zoology, piece between the scutum and the post scutelluni in the dorsal part of the insect's thorax; (3) scales on a bird's foot.

Scutes (OF Snakes). Broad scales on the head and ventral surface of snakes. The labials line the margins of the jaws. The most anterior on the upper jaw is the rostral: this is followed in the median line by the anterior and posterior nasals, and the frontal, flanked on each side by the supra-ciliary; next come the parietals, and finally the many small occipitals. Between this series and the labials there are on each side the nasals, loreal, prasorbitals, postorbitals, temporals, and occipitals. Behind the chin scute come the anterior labials, then a double series of mental scutes, followed by the small cervicals, and finally the ventrals under the belly. The number and arrangement varies in different species.

Scutlbranchia. Broadly, Mollusks like the Patellidas and Aspidobranchia: in a restricted sense, subdivision of Aspidobranchia, including forms like Troclnis.

Scutum. In Zoology, largest piece, always present in the back (dorsum) of the insect's thoracic segments.—In Botany, ciliated, shield-like organs, especially the stigma of certain plants.

Scylax, ab.600 B.C. Greek of s.w. Asia Minor, who sailed from the Indus to the Red Sea. The Periplus, long credited to him. deals with a later and longer voyage.

Scylla and Charybdis. Two rocks in the strait between Sicily and Italy. In Homer, S. is a monster voiced

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Scyphlstoma. Young polyp that arises from the egg through the planula and gastrula stages in discophorous Jelly-fish. It has 16 tentacles, the first 4 of which were produced successively.

Scyphomedusae (acraspeda. Acalephs). Large Jellyfish with gastric filaments and covered sense organs on the lobed umbrella margin. The embryo develops through Seyphistoma, Strobila, and Ephyra1 forms, instead of hydioid stocks. The wide manubrium has 4 radial, oval arms or tentacles, often branched and sometimes fusing. The gastral filaments and generative organs are interradial in position. The sense organs are tentaculocysts. The groups included are Lucernarice, Peroviedusce, Charybdeida, and Discophora.

Scythe. Long, sharp, curved instrument for cutting grass. The shorter and stronger kind are used for cutting bushes. The introduction of mowing machines has almost put away its use.

Scythla. Ancient name for the region extending n., e. and s. of the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral. It was used by the Romans to designate the savage tribes from those regions. Its boundaries were undefined.

Scythian. Sometimes called Turanian or Mongolian; family of languages comprising the Finnish and Hungarian, Samoyedic, Turkish, Mongolian proper, and Tungusic. Of all these, the last has the most meager development.

Scythians. Probably part of the Mongol race from the steppes of central Asia. They were nomads, expert horsemen and bowmen, and lived in covered wagons. The Scythia of Herodotus is, in the main, the s.e. parts of Europe. That of later Roman writers is the region e. of the Volga and w. of China.

Scytonentace%. Order of Cyanophycea', comprising forms with filaments divided by transverse septa;, the ends being alike.

Scytoncmin. Brownish pigment contained in the cells of the Scytonernacece.

Sea. The sea covers 137.200,000 sq. m. of the 192.200.000 sq. m. comprising the earth's surface, or nearly three-fourths. Its mean depth is 12,480 ft. It is separated by land bodies into four great divisions, the Pacific (area 67,500,000 sq. m.), Atlantic (area 36.OCO.000 sq. m.), the Indian (area 28,700,000 sq. m.), and the Arctic oceans (area 5,000,000 sq. m.). A fifth division is sometimes added, comprising the southern parts of the first three, and known as the Southern or Antarctic Ocean. The differential action of the sun's heat upon the surface water of the sea produces currents, which, modified in direction by the earth's rotation and by the land outline, keep up a constant circulation. The specific gravity is ab. 1.027, being greater than that of pure water, owing to the salts held in solution. The surface temperature is at the equator ab 80° F., in the Polar legions ab.28° F. In confined bodies near the equator it rises higher. At great depths it falls to 35" F., and is nearly constant in all latitudes. See Ocean.

Sea, Great. In O. T., the Mediterranean, as opposed to the Dead Sea.

Sea, Molten. Huge bronze laver in the court of the Temple of Solomon. It rested on twelve bronze oxen, and was used for washing the sacrifices. Capacity 17,000 gals.

Sea-Anemone. See AcTiNiaa:.

Sen-Bear. See Fur Seals.

Sea Beggars. See Beggars Of The Sea.

Seabury, Samuel. D.D., 1729-1796. First P.E. bishop in the U.S.; elected in Conn. 1783, consecrated at Aberdeen, Nov. 14, 1784.—His grandson, Samuel, D.D., 1801-1872, edited The Churchman 1831-i9, and was prof. General Theol. Sem., New York, from 1862. where his son, William Jones, D.D., b. 1837, became prof. 1873.

Sea-Cats. See Chimera.

I Sea-Coast Artillery. Cannon of the heaviest caliber for the defense of harbors; that of the U. S. consists of the 8, 10, 12 and 16-in. caliber steel breech-loading rifled guns, and the 10 and 12-in. breech-loading rifled mortars. There are also some obsolete 15-in. smooth-bore cast iron Rodman guns, and some old 10-in. smooth-bore Rodmans converted into 8-in. rifled guns for the defense of secondary harbors.

Sea-Coast Carriages. Machines to maneuver the heavy guns by a small gun detachment. They are the barbette, to lire over the parapet; the casemate or turret, to fire through a port or embrasure; the disappearing, to fire over the parapet and to recoil under cover after discharge; and the mortar carriage.

Sea-Cow. See Sirenia (Cetacea-herbivora), and ManaTee.

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extensible proboscis. They inhabit the Antarctic and the American coasts of the Pacific, and are now scarce from overhunting for their oil. See Phocid.s:.

Sea-Fan. See Goroonid^e.

Sea Fog. Fog driven by wind from the ocean over the land.

Seagravc. Robert, 1693-ab.l760. English hymnist.
Sea-Hedgehog. See Plectognathi.
Sea-Home. See Lophobranchii.

Sea Islands. On s. coast of S. C; noted for their superior cotton and large negro population.

Seal. At Common Law, impression on an adhesive substance, attached to a legal document. Its form and its legal consequences have been modified by modern statutes.

Seal. See Seals.

Sea-Lavender. Species of Limonium, delicate salt-marsh herbs of the natural family Plumbaginacece, of wide geographical distribution; called also Marsh-rosemary.

Sea Lawn. Early collections of maritime usages which had acquired the force of laws. Those of Oleron were received in England ab.1175; in Flanders ab.1350 or earlier. The Gothland (Wisby) sea laws may be traced back to 1240; an edition was printed at Copenhagen 1505, and they were accepted in Scotland before 1583.

Sealed Orders. In the navy, orders given to the commanding officer which are not to be opened until the ship has put to sea.

Sea-Lettuce. Various large light-green seaweeds of the genus Ulva.

Sea Level. Mean height of the surface of the sea when tranquil. If we suppose a canal cut across a continent deep enough for the waters of the ocean to enter and fill it, the surface would mark the sea level along its line. This surface, either of our supposed canal or of mid-ocean, does not of necessity conform to that of an ellipsoid, for in consequence of want of homogeneity of the earth, and of the attractions of continental masses, the waters are in a manner heaped up where the attraction is greatest and depressed where it is least. Thus the mean surface in mid-ocean is believed to be many feet lower than along the shores of the great continents. This difference cannot be determined instrumentality, for the instruments are affected in precisely the same manner as the surface of ocean.

Sealing-Wax. The Hindus from time immemorial were accustomed to use Lac (q.v.) for sealing manuscripts. A good sealing wax is made by melting together 48 parts of shellac. 12 of Venice turpentine, 1 of Peru balsam and 36 of vermilion. The introduction of gummpd envelopes has, to a great extent, superseded the use of sealing-wax.

Sea-Lion. Breeding places and habits are much like those of fur seals. They are larger than the latter, and have only coarse hair as a covering-. The male sea-lion of the n. Pacific (Enmetnjnas stelleri) attains a length of 14 ft. and wt. of 1.000 lbs.; the female is much smaller. They are invaluable to the subsistence of the Aleuts, who drive them overland to their

villages, where they are slaughtered at leisure. The sea-lion most common off San Francisco is Zalophwt. 9 ft. long. Other

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Sea-Liou (Otaria steiUri).

species live in the temperate parts of the Southern Oceans. See Otariad^e.

Seal Islands. See Lobos Islands.

Seal of Confession. Obligation of a R. C. priest to reveal communications of a penitent to no human being without the consent of the penitent.

Seal of Solomon. In Magic, six-rayed figure, composed of two superimposed or interlaced triangles; frequently confused with the pentacle, which is employed as a defense against demons.

Seals. See Pisnipedia, Walrus, Sea-lion, Fur Seals and Sea-elephant.

Sealsfleld, Charles (karl Postel), 1793-1864. Austrian ex-monk, traveler and novelist, for some years in America. Works, 18 vols., 1846.

Seam. Relatively thin layer in a series of strata, strikingly different in appearance from the adjacent layers; e.g., a seam of coal.

Seamen. Statutes generally require written contracts between sailors and their employers and contain various provisions for their protection; but while at sea they are subject to disciplinary punishment, not permitted in case of employes on shore.

Seamen, Missions To. Begun in London ab.1812, and in New York 1818; since carried on by various societies in these and other cities, American, British, Scandinavian, and German.

Seamless Tube. Wrought-iron or steel tube, made without joints or seams: this may be done by forging it upon a mandrill, or by a special machine for hollow rolling.

Sea of Cortes. See California, Gulf Of.

Sea of Sodom. See Dead Sea.

Sea-Otter. Valuable fur otter, hunted on islands off Alaskan coast. It is very shy, and attains a length of 4 ft.; its

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