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ab.70.000. 2. Town of n. Albania, on Lake Suctari; besieged 1477 bv the Turks, and soon after ceded to them. Pop. ab.35.000.

Scutate. In Botany and Zoology, shield-shaped organs.
Scutch-Grass. See Grass, Bermuda.
Scutellatc. Diminutive of Scutate.

Scutcllated. Tarsi and feet of birds when clothed with scutella. See ScUTELLUM.

Scutcllum. In Botany, (1) shield like cotyledon of certain grasses; (2) shield-shaped sessileapothecia in lichens.—In Zoology, piece between the scutum and the post scutelluni in the dorsal part of the insect's thorax; (3) scales on a bird's foot.

Scutes (OF Snakes). Broad scales on the head and ventral surface of snakes. The labials line the margins of the jaws. The most anterior on the upper jaw is the rostral: this is followed in the median line by the anterior and posterior nasals, and the frontal, flanked on each side by the supra-ciliary; next come the parietals, and finally the many small occipitals. Between this series and the labials there are on each side the nasals, loreal, prasorbitals, postorbitals, temporals, and occipitals. Behind the chin scute come the anterior labials, then a double series of mental scutes, followed by the small cervicals, and finally the ventrals under the belly. The number and arrangement varies in different species.

Scutlbranchia. Broadly, Mollusks like the Patellidas and Aspidobranchia: in a restricted sense, subdivision of Aspidobranchia, including forms like Troclnis.

Scutum. In Zoology, largest piece, always present in the back (dorsum) of the insect's thoracic segments.—In Botany, ciliated, shield-like organs, especially the stigma of certain plants.

Scylax, ab.600 B.C. Greek of s.w. Asia Minor, who sailed from the Indus to the Red Sea. The Periplus, long credited to him. deals with a later and longer voyage.

Scylla and Charybdis. Two rocks in the strait between Sicily and Italy. In Homer, S. is a monster voiced

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Scyphlstoma. Young polyp that arises from the egg through the planula and gastrula stages in discophorous Jelly-fish. It has 16 tentacles, the first 4 of which were produced successively.

Scyphomedusae (acraspeda. Acalephs). Large Jellyfish with gastric filaments and covered sense organs on the lobed umbrella margin. The embryo develops through Seyphistoma, Strobila, and Ephyra1 forms, instead of hydioid stocks. The wide manubrium has 4 radial, oval arms or tentacles, often branched and sometimes fusing. The gastral filaments and generative organs are interradial in position. The sense organs are tentaculocysts. The groups included are Lucernarice, Peroviedusce, Charybdeida, and Discophora.

Scythe. Long, sharp, curved instrument for cutting grass. The shorter and stronger kind are used for cutting bushes. The introduction of mowing machines has almost put away its use.

Scythla. Ancient name for the region extending n., e. and s. of the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral. It was used by the Romans to designate the savage tribes from those regions. Its boundaries were undefined.

Scythian. Sometimes called Turanian or Mongolian; family of languages comprising the Finnish and Hungarian, Samoyedic, Turkish, Mongolian proper, and Tungusic. Of all these, the last has the most meager development.

Scythians. Probably part of the Mongol race from the steppes of central Asia. They were nomads, expert horsemen and bowmen, and lived in covered wagons. The Scythia of Herodotus is, in the main, the s.e. parts of Europe. That of later Roman writers is the region e. of the Volga and w. of China.

Scytonentace%. Order of Cyanophycea', comprising forms with filaments divided by transverse septa;, the ends being alike.

Scytoncmin. Brownish pigment contained in the cells of the Scytonernacece.

Sea. The sea covers 137.200,000 sq. m. of the 192.200.000 sq. m. comprising the earth's surface, or nearly three-fourths. Its mean depth is 12,480 ft. It is separated by land bodies into four great divisions, the Pacific (area 67,500,000 sq. m.), Atlantic (area 36.OCO.000 sq. m.), the Indian (area 28,700,000 sq. m.), and the Arctic oceans (area 5,000,000 sq. m.). A fifth division is sometimes added, comprising the southern parts of the first three, and known as the Southern or Antarctic Ocean. The differential action of the sun's heat upon the surface water of the sea produces currents, which, modified in direction by the earth's rotation and by the land outline, keep up a constant circulation. The specific gravity is ab. 1.027, being greater than that of pure water, owing to the salts held in solution. The surface temperature is at the equator ab 80° F., in the Polar legions ab.28° F. In confined bodies near the equator it rises higher. At great depths it falls to 35" F., and is nearly constant in all latitudes. See Ocean.

Sea, Great. In O. T., the Mediterranean, as opposed to the Dead Sea.

Sea, Molten. Huge bronze laver in the court of the Temple of Solomon. It rested on twelve bronze oxen, and was used for washing the sacrifices. Capacity 17,000 gals.

Sea-Anemone. See AcTiNiaa:.

Sen-Bear. See Fur Seals.

Sea Beggars. See Beggars Of The Sea.

Seabury, Samuel. D.D., 1729-1796. First P.E. bishop in the U.S.; elected in Conn. 1783, consecrated at Aberdeen, Nov. 14, 1784.—His grandson, Samuel, D.D., 1801-1872, edited The Churchman 1831-i9, and was prof. General Theol. Sem., New York, from 1862. where his son, William Jones, D.D., b. 1837, became prof. 1873.

Sea-Cats. See Chimera.

I Sea-Coast Artillery. Cannon of the heaviest caliber for the defense of harbors; that of the U. S. consists of the 8, 10, 12 and 16-in. caliber steel breech-loading rifled guns, and the 10 and 12-in. breech-loading rifled mortars. There are also some obsolete 15-in. smooth-bore cast iron Rodman guns, and some old 10-in. smooth-bore Rodmans converted into 8-in. rifled guns for the defense of secondary harbors.

Sea-Coast Carriages. Machines to maneuver the heavy guns by a small gun detachment. They are the barbette, to lire over the parapet; the casemate or turret, to fire through a port or embrasure; the disappearing, to fire over the parapet and to recoil under cover after discharge; and the mortar carriage.

Sea-Cow. See Sirenia (Cetacea-herbivora), and ManaTee.

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extensible proboscis. They inhabit the Antarctic and the American coasts of the Pacific, and are now scarce from overhunting for their oil. See Phocid.s:.

Sea-Fan. See Goroonid^e.

Sea Fog. Fog driven by wind from the ocean over the land.

Seagravc. Robert, 1693-ab.l760. English hymnist.
Sea-Hedgehog. See Plectognathi.
Sea-Home. See Lophobranchii.

Sea Islands. On s. coast of S. C; noted for their superior cotton and large negro population.

Seal. At Common Law, impression on an adhesive substance, attached to a legal document. Its form and its legal consequences have been modified by modern statutes.

Seal. See Seals.

Sea-Lavender. Species of Limonium, delicate salt-marsh herbs of the natural family Plumbaginacece, of wide geographical distribution; called also Marsh-rosemary.

Sea Lawn. Early collections of maritime usages which had acquired the force of laws. Those of Oleron were received in England ab.1175; in Flanders ab.1350 or earlier. The Gothland (Wisby) sea laws may be traced back to 1240; an edition was printed at Copenhagen 1505, and they were accepted in Scotland before 1583.

Sealed Orders. In the navy, orders given to the commanding officer which are not to be opened until the ship has put to sea.

Sea-Lettuce. Various large light-green seaweeds of the genus Ulva.

Sea Level. Mean height of the surface of the sea when tranquil. If we suppose a canal cut across a continent deep enough for the waters of the ocean to enter and fill it, the surface would mark the sea level along its line. This surface, either of our supposed canal or of mid-ocean, does not of necessity conform to that of an ellipsoid, for in consequence of want of homogeneity of the earth, and of the attractions of continental masses, the waters are in a manner heaped up where the attraction is greatest and depressed where it is least. Thus the mean surface in mid-ocean is believed to be many feet lower than along the shores of the great continents. This difference cannot be determined instrumentality, for the instruments are affected in precisely the same manner as the surface of ocean.

Sealing-Wax. The Hindus from time immemorial were accustomed to use Lac (q.v.) for sealing manuscripts. A good sealing wax is made by melting together 48 parts of shellac. 12 of Venice turpentine, 1 of Peru balsam and 36 of vermilion. The introduction of gummpd envelopes has, to a great extent, superseded the use of sealing-wax.

Sea-Lion. Breeding places and habits are much like those of fur seals. They are larger than the latter, and have only coarse hair as a covering-. The male sea-lion of the n. Pacific (Enmetnjnas stelleri) attains a length of 14 ft. and wt. of 1.000 lbs.; the female is much smaller. They are invaluable to the subsistence of the Aleuts, who drive them overland to their

villages, where they are slaughtered at leisure. The sea-lion most common off San Francisco is Zalophwt. 9 ft. long. Other


Sea-Liou (Otaria steiUri).

species live in the temperate parts of the Southern Oceans. See Otariad^e.

Seal Islands. See Lobos Islands.

Seal of Confession. Obligation of a R. C. priest to reveal communications of a penitent to no human being without the consent of the penitent.

Seal of Solomon. In Magic, six-rayed figure, composed of two superimposed or interlaced triangles; frequently confused with the pentacle, which is employed as a defense against demons.

Seals. See Pisnipedia, Walrus, Sea-lion, Fur Seals and Sea-elephant.

Sealsfleld, Charles (karl Postel), 1793-1864. Austrian ex-monk, traveler and novelist, for some years in America. Works, 18 vols., 1846.

Seam. Relatively thin layer in a series of strata, strikingly different in appearance from the adjacent layers; e.g., a seam of coal.

Seamen. Statutes generally require written contracts between sailors and their employers and contain various provisions for their protection; but while at sea they are subject to disciplinary punishment, not permitted in case of employes on shore.

Seamen, Missions To. Begun in London ab.1812, and in New York 1818; since carried on by various societies in these and other cities, American, British, Scandinavian, and German.

Seamless Tube. Wrought-iron or steel tube, made without joints or seams: this may be done by forging it upon a mandrill, or by a special machine for hollow rolling.

Sea of Cortes. See California, Gulf Of.

Sea of Sodom. See Dead Sea.

Sea-Otter. Valuable fur otter, hunted on islands off Alaskan coast. It is very shy, and attains a length of 4 ft.; its

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but at no set season. Full growth is not attained until it is 5 yrs. old, but the fur is valuable after 2 yrs.

Search (at Sea). Boarding a neutral vessel and examining her papers and cargo for the purpose of discovering whether she is violating her neutral duties.

Search Warrant. Judicial authority to search and seize persons or property. Its exercise is carefully regulated by constitutional and statutory provisions in the U.S.

Searlcs, William Henry, b. 1837. American civil engineer; author of Field Engineering, 1879; Railroad Spiral, 1882.

Sea-Rochet. Fleshy herbs of the genus Cakile, natural family Cruciferoe, natives of the sea-coast; of wide geographical distribution.

Sears, Barnas, D.D., LL.D., 1802-1880. Prof. Newton Theol. Inst. 1836-48; pres. Brown Univ. 1856-67. Luther, 1850.

Sears, Edmund Hamilton, D.D., 1810-1876. New England divine, author of two greatly admired Christmas hymns. Regeneration, 1853; 4th Gospel, 1872.

Sea-Serpents. Those now existing belong to the family Hydrophidje (q.v.), but those of the cretaceous period, the Pythonomorpha (q.v.), realized the wildest imaginings of those who in modern times report having seen sea-serpents of unknown length and undescribed species. They were true air breathers. Some scientists think it possible that monstrous serpent-shaped fish may exist at great depths in the ocean, and possibly visit the surface at times.

Sea-Shore. At Common Law, space between ordinary high and low water mark. It belongs to the State or its grantee, except in Mass. and a few other States, where it is the property of the littoral proprietor.

Sea-Sickness. Well known nausea and discomfort produced by the motion of a vessel in rough water; or (car-sickness) the swing of a rapidly moving railway train. Its pathology is uncertain, but is possibly a disorder of the sympathetic nervous system. No certain cure has as yet been devised, despite the many suggested.

Sea-Snakes. See Proteroglypha and Hydrophid^e.

Seasons, Change Of. Due to the fact that the earth's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, the angle being 66" 33'. When the earth is in that part of its orbit which causes the sun to appear above the equator, the result is summer; in the opposite case winter follows.

Sea-Swallow. See Solan-goose.

Seaton, William Winston, 1785-1866. Ed. Washington Intelligencer 1812-64; congressional reporter, with J. Gales, 1812-20. Register of Debates, 14 vols., 1829-37.

Seattle. Capital of King co., Wash., on an arm of Puget Sound; settled 1852, incorporated 1880; heavily injured by fire 1889; site of the State Univ. and several colleges. It exports large quantities of lumber, coal, fish, and grain; its manufactures are extensive and varied. Its recent growth has been rapid. Pop., 1890, 42,837, since much increased.

Sea-VrchlnM. See Echinoidea.

Sea-Wall. Retaining wall built to prevent waves from

washing away earth. The front is often curved to lessen the force of impact.

Sea-Water. See

Water and Salt

Sea-Weeds. Marine plants of the class AuaM (q.v.).

Scawell, Molly Elliott, b. 1859. American novelist. The Berkeleys, 1888; Throckmorton, 1890; Maid Marion, 1891; Marsac, 1896.

Sea -Worms. Worms living in salt water which eat timber; the most destructive one is Teredo navalis, which, however, is not a true worm, but a niollusk. See Ship-Worm.

Seha. Ancient kingdom of Ethiopia See Ps. lxxii. 10.

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Sebaceous Glands. Glandular organs distributed through the skin, except on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet, secreting an oily substance which, for the most part, discharges into hair follicles. This oily secretion is composed of stearin 24, extractin 12, salivary matter 11, albumen 24. calcium phosphate 20, calcium and magnesium carbonates 3.7, sodium chloride 3.7.

Sebaclc Acid. C^H^O,. Shining lamina?, mpt. 127° C; obtained by the oxidation of stearic acid and spermaceti, and by fusing castor oil with caustic potash.

Sebaldus, St. Patron of Nuremberg; canonized 1425. His history is legendary. His day is Aug. 19.

Sebastian, St. Soldier of Gaul, martyred ab.287; depicted bound to a tree and pierced by arrows. His day is Jan. 20, and in the East Dec. 18.

Sebastian, 1554-1578. King of Portugal 1557. He took Tangier 1574, again invaded Africa 1578, and was defeated and slain Aug. 4 at Alcazar. His people believed him still alive, and five impostors personated him.

Sebastian!, FRANgois Horace Bastien, Comte, 1772-1851. Corsican soldier and diplomatist, prominent in Napoleon's wars; General 1803, Marshal 1840.

Sebastlano del Plombo (luciani). See Piombo.

Sebastopol, or Sevastopol. Seaport of the Crimea, besieged by the allied armies of France and England Oct. 1854Sept. 1855. 120,000 French and 27,000 English were engaged in the siege. The Russian works were garrisoned by ab.



or Abyssinia, not far from the cognate Sheb;>


30,000 men, and mounted 800 guns. The Russians lost 84,000 men, the French 44,500, the British ab. 15,000. Since its restoration the town is important commercially and as a summer resort. Pop. ab. 30,000, besides a garrison of 12,000.

Scbiferous. Wax-bearing organs, as the fruit of the Bay berry.

Seblllot, Paul, b. 1843. French student of folk-lore; author of many books and papers on popular legends and superstitions, especially in Brittany.

Secant, In Geometry. Straight line which cuts a curve in two or more points, or plane which has two or more elements in common with a curved surface.

Secant, In Trigonometry. Ratio of the distance of any point on the terminal line of an angle from its vertex, to the projection of that distance on the initial line of the angle.

Secchi, Pietro Angelo, 1818-1878. Director of the observatory at Rome 1850: eminent for scientific activity, particularly in solar physics and meteorology.

Secession. Voluntary separation from any body by some of its members; as, most eminently, that of the Southern States from the federal Union 1860-61. The doctrine had been anticipated by that of the S. C. nulliflers 30 years before.

Seckendorf, Veit Ludwig Von, 1626-1692. German official, author of Deutsche Fiirstenstaat, 1656, and De Lutheranismo. 168M. the hitter in answer to L. Maimbourg.—His nephew. Count Friedricii Heinrich, 1673-1763, was a general and diplomatist in the service of Austria and Bavaria, twice in chief command, and twice imprisoned.

Seeker, Thomas, D.D., LL.D., 1693-1768. Bp. of Bristol 1735, of Oxford 1737: Dean of St. Paul's, London, 1750; Abp. of Canterbury 1758. Works, 12 vols., 1795. Secohm. See Self-induction. Second, juj'treth Palt of a mean solar day. Second Advent. Final coming of Christ to judge the world; predicted in the Gospels. Many in all ages have ex

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Secondaries. Quill-feathers (remiges) borne on the antebrachium (middle joint or section) of the bird's wing.

Secondary. In early geological science, all then known fossiliferous rocks; later, all strata containing extinct species of plants and animals; now nearly equivalent to Mesozoic.

Secondary, or Secondary Cyclones. Small barometric depressions, usually marked by local rains or thunderstorms, and producing minor irregularities in the course of the general isobars.

Secondary Alcohols. Derived from methyl alcohol, CH,.OH, by replacing two hydrogen atoms with two hydrocarbon radicals. Upon oxidation they yield a ketone, and then an acid or acids containing a smaller number of carbon atoms. They do not yield aldehydes. Example, secondary butyl alcohol: CH,.CaH5.CHOH.

Secondary Battery. See Accumulator and Storage Battery.

Secondary Coll. See Inductoiuum.

Secondary Compounds. Formed by replacing hydro

gen in a CH, group by a group or radical. Thus from propane, Hs.CHj.CH,, secondary propyl alcohol, CH3.CHOH.CH3, is derived.

Secondary Generator. See Transformer and ConVerter (electric).

Secondary Roots. Those other than the Primary Root (q.v.), appearing on various portions of the plant, as the climbing roots of the Ivy and Poison Vine, etc.

Secondary Sexual Characters. Any characteristics (as color markings, etc.), except those of the reproductive organs themselves, which distinguish males and females. An example is the spurs present on male fowl.

Seconds Pendulum. See Pendulum.

Secret, Discipline Of The. See Arcani Disciplina.

Secretaries Of State, War. Etc.. Of U.S. These officials are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The salary of the office is $8,000 per annum. See Cabinet.

Secretary-Bird (serpentarius). S. African, raptorial bird, with long legs (especially the tarsal portion), rather long neck and wings, and the two middle tail feathers much elongated. The back of the head bears a plume of backwardly

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glands, as their normal function; also, the substance so produced.

Secret Nailing. Boards so laid and nailed that the heads of the nails cannot be seen; also called blind nailing.

Secret Service moneys. In England, funds placed at the disposal of the Ministers of State, to be expended at their discretion, without giving an account.

Secret Writing. See Cryptography.

Section. In Architecture, an actual or imagined representation of a building or part of a building as it would appear if cut through at a certain line of the plan so as to expose its interior arrangement and construction. In important and complicated buildings, it is customary to prepare two drawings of vertical sections, one on the longer axis, called the longitudinal, and another at right angle to it, called the transverse section.

Section. Portion of surface included within lines of intersection with other surfaces. A plane section is formed by a plane cutting a surface.

Sectional Boilers. Form in which the generating elements are small and separate units, connecting together into one chamber, from which the outlets take off the steam. The units are spherical in cast-iron boilers, and of lap-welded tube in wrought-iron types. These boilers are portable when transportation is lacking for great weights; an accident to one part does not usually entail loss of the whole structure nor so appalling a disaster, since the water escapes gradually through a small outlet, and repair to the damaged part makes the whole boiler as good as before. The small diameters of the units insure quick transfer of heat through the thinner metal possible, whence the boilers are also light. The difficulties come from leakage of the increased joint area, from unequal expansion of different parts, and from insufficient dis- Sectional Boiler,

engagement area for steam from the water, whence wet steam and overheated metal will result, since the circulation will not be normal. In bad waters, also, scale will deposit in inconvenient places in such boilers. A sectional boiler is successful in proportion as it avoids or diminishes these difficulties. See Boilers.

Sector, PLANE. Portion of plane surface bounded by an arc and the two radii or radii vectors at its extremities. Its revolution about the axis of the curve produces a solid sector.

Secular Acceleration Of The Moon's Mean Motion. Halley found, by comparing the ancient records of eclipses with those observed in the Middle Ages, and these in turn with modern observations, that a change was going on in the moon's velocity. This has since been shown to be due to the change in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, and possibly in part to a lengthening of the day.

Secular Games. Supposed to be celebrated in Rome at the commencement of each Sajculum or period. From 249 B.C., a law made them obligatory every 100 years; but Augustus had this changed to 110 years. Horace wrote the Carmen Soeculare for this celebration, as is recorded upon a tablet discovered recently in Rome.

Secularism. Humanitarian scheme devised in London 1844, and pushed by local and national societies, led by 6. J. Holyoake and later by C. Bradlaugh. It aimed at ethical and social improvement, on temporal grounds, and in a spirit essentially democratic and anti-theological.

Secularization. Conversion of Ch. property to other uses, as in England under Henry VIII.. and later in France, Italy, and other countries; also transfer of authority, as over education and ma.'riage, from Ch. to State.

Secular Perturbations Of Comets And Planets. Such as go on for ages in the same direction; distinguished from periodic, which complete their cycle in the course of a fewyears at most.

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Seculars. 1. Priests not bound by monastic vows. 2. Bulk of Catholics, as living in the world and not following- a special rule of piety beyond their necessary Christian obligations.

Sccund. Axes of plants bearing lateral organs on one side only, or when these are all turned to one side, as the flower-heads in many kinds of Golden-rod.

Secillldlne. Inner coat of the ovule.

Secundum, Johannes (jan Everts), 1511-1536. Dutch author of Latin poems. Basia, 1589.

SecundUN, Ptjblius Pomponius, 1st cent. Roman tragic poet, Consul 44. Fragments only remain.

Sccurite. Flameless powder, consisting of granulated yellow grains, composed of a mixture of 218 parts of dinitronaphthalene with 720 parts of ammonium nitrate.

Security. Property of any kind, set aside as the basis on which a loan is made, to guarantee the creditor's rights.

Sedalia. Capital of Pettis co.. Mo., 95 ra. e. of Kansas Citv; founded 1861. It has some manufactures. Pop., 1890, 14,068.

Sedan. Town of n.e. France, on the Meuse, near the Belgian border; seat of a Huguenot theol. sem. till 1685; scene of a momentous battle Sept. 1, 1870, following on a series of desperate conflicts in the vicinity, Aug. 29, 30. 31. It lasted from 5 A.M. to 4 P.M., and involved 150,000 French under MacMahon and 250,000 Germans under the king and crown prince of Prussia. 14,000 French were wounded and 25,000 made prisoners; Napoleon III. surrendered next day with 83,000 more, 70 mitrailleuses, and 550 cannon.

Sedan Chair. Covered vehicle borne on poles by two men, conveying one seated passenger; familiar in England ab. 1600-1800, and not yet entirely disused. It took its name from


A Sedan Chair.

Sedan in France, where it was invented. They were often decorated with paintings by artists of note. Similar chairs carried on the shoulders by two or more men have long been in use in China.

Sedatives. Medicines which directly depress the vital forces, the chief of which are aconite, chloroform and hemlock. The term is rather loosely employed.

Seddon, James Alexander. 1815-1880. M.C. from Va. 1845-47 and 1849-51; Sec. of War C.S.A. 1862-64.

Sedeno, Antonio, d. 1538. Spanish conqueror of the Caribs of Trinidad 1530, and later.

Sedentaria. Fixed, as distinguished from free-swimming animals, belonging to the same group; e.g., the Vortieellidce, a division of order Peritricha of ciliated Infusorians.

Sedentaria (ascidi^e Composite). See Ascidiacea.

Sedentaria (tubicol^e. Cephalobranchia, CephaloBranchiata). Polychaitous Annelids that live in tubes. They have an indistinct head, which bears numerous thread-like tentacles and branched cirri, one of which may bear an operculum for closing the tube. They have a short proboscis, no jaws, and the branchias, parapodia, etc., are not largely developed. The body is often differentiated into thoracic, abdominal, and caudal regions. See Arenicola, Ch^etopterus, SaBella. and Serpula.

Sedge. Grass-like plants of the natural family Cyperaceoz, growing mainly in wet places in all parts of the world.

Sedgemoor. In Somersetshire, near Bridgewater; scene of Monmouth's defeat by royal troops July 6, 1685. and the collapse of his rebellion.

Sedgwick, Adam, LL.D., F.R.S., 1786-1873. English geologist, to whom we owe our knowledge of the true position and succession of the Paleozoic strata of Devon and Cornwall,

of the geological relation of beds in n. and n.w. England, afterward called Permian, and of the general structure of N. Wales. Prof. Cambridge from 1818. He made the Woodwardian Museum one of the most complete in the kingdom.

Sedgwick, Catherine Marie, 1789-1867. American novelist and author of tales for the young. Redwood, 1824; Hope Leslie, 1827; Live and Let Live, 1837; Letters to my Pupils, 1862.—Her father. Theodore, LL.D., 1746-1813, was M.C. 1789-96 and 1799-1802, U. S. Senator 1796-99, and Judge of Mass. Supreme Court from 1802.—His grandson, Theodore, 1811-1859. pub. Measure of Damages, 1847, and Statutory/ and Constitutional Law, 1857.—Their ancestor, Robert, d.1656, was a general under Cromwell.

Sedgwick, Daniel, 1815-1879. London bookseller, whose collections, studies, and reprints supplied a nucleus and almost a basis for English hymnology.

Sedgwick, John, U.S.A., 1813-1864. Brigade and division commander in the Army of the Potomac 1861-63: in command of the Sixth Corps Feb. 1863; distinguished at Fair Oaks. Antietam. Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and the Wilderness; killed at Spottsylvania.

Sedilia. In Ecclesiastical Architecture, the seats provided for the persons who take part in the performance of the service. They are sometimes incorporated with the walls and of the same material, but more often are movable and constructed of wood.

Sedimentary. Rocks formed by sedimentation.

Sedimentation. Settling down of rock material suspended in water.

Sedition. Acts or words tending toward treason, but not legally reaching its guilt and penalties. It tends to incite resistance to lawful authority. In the military service it is associated with mutiny, and military persons when found guilty of crimes of this nature by courts-martial are punished under the provisions of the Articles of War.

Sedlcy, Sir Charles, 1639-1701. English dramatist and poet.

Sedlcy, William Henry,1806-1872. British-American actor.

Seduction. Illegal enticement of a servant from the master, especially that of a daughter and her sexual defilement; resulting in legal damage to the master: by statute often made a criminal offense.

Sedulius, Ccelius, ab.450. Latin poet, whose Carmen Paschale is chiefly a harmony of the Gospels. His hymn, A solis ortus cardine, is used in English versions.

See, Apostolical. Bishopric of Rome, as the only apostolically founded church in the West.

See, Horace, b.1835. American designer of improvements in the engines of U. S. navy and other vessels.

Seed. Ripened plant ovule containing an embryo. The embryo is the essential part of the seed; the other structures are subsidiary to its protection, nurture, and germination.

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B, embryo-sac, showing a, suspensor; b, embryo or segmented ovum;
c, nuclei; d. vacuoles.

C, section of a seed, showing a. the mlcropyle; 6, embryo with em-
bryonic root; '■, embryonic stem; d, cotyledons; f, external seed-
coat; /, endosperm; g, perisperm.

Seeds rich in ferment readily lose their power of germination; those rich in starch survive longest. See the various terms relating to the structure of seed above.

Seed-Bagging. Method of introducing and establishing a water-tight packing at any desired point in an artesian-, salt-, or oil-well, between the central tubing and the rock wall, by means of a strong bag fastened to the outside of the tube and filled with flaxsend. The seed, on swelling, adapts itself to the irregularities of the rock surface and thus prevents the downflow of water into the well's surface. Rubber and leather are also used.

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