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Hero and Leander, by Cornells Schut.

and Leander and Tribute to Ccexar. He was a student of Rubens, whose style he closely imitated.

Schiktz, Heinrich (sagittarius). 1585-1672. German composer, who introduced opera into Germany (Dafne, performed 1627), and in church music was a worthy predecessor of Bach.

Sell ii vn In v. See Schouvaloff.

Schuyler, Eugene, LL.D., 1840-1890. U. S. Minister to

Greece 1882-84; author of Turkestan, 1876; Peter the Great, 1884; American Diplomacy. 1886.—His father. GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1810-1888, pub. Colonial New York, 1885.

Schuyler, Montgomery, b.1843. American journalist.

Studies in American Architecture, 1892.

Schuyler, Peter, 1657-1724. First Mayor of Albany, N.Y., 1688; active in colonial affairs and in French and Indian wars, as was iiis nephew, Peter, 1710-1762.

Schuyler, Philip John. 1733-1804. Major-gen. 1775-79; commanding on the N. Y. frontier; sacrificed to intrigues and misrepresentations, and superseded by Gates on the eve of Burgovne's surrender; delegate to Congress 1777-81; U.S. Senator 1789-91 and 1797-98.

Schuylkill. River rising near Pottsville. Pa., and flowing s.e. past Reading and through Phila. to the Delaware. Length 130 m.

Schwab, Gustav, 1792-1850. Teacher and pastor at Stuttgart; lyric poet; biographer of Schiller, 1840.

Schwalbc, Gustav Albert, b. 1844. Prof. Jena 1873, Konigsberg 1881, and Strassburg 1883. Neurologie, 1881; Anatomie der Sinnesorgane. 1887.

Schwalber, or Chelidonius, d. 1521. German monk and Latin versifier.

Schwann, Theodor, 1810-1882. Prof, of Anatomy at Louvain 1838 and Liege 1848; discoverer of pepsin; author of the cell-theory. Structure of Plants and Animals, 1839, tr. 1847.

Schwanthalcr, Ludwig Michael. 1802-1848. Prolific Bavarian sculptor, prof. Munich Academy 1835.

Schwartz, Christian Friedrich, 1726-1798. German missionary in India from 1750.

Schwarz, BERTHOLD. German Franciscan monk, b. in Freiburg. Baden, in the 14th century, reputed inventor of gunpowder ab.1330; a monument was raised to his honor there 1853.

Schwarz, Marie Sophie (birath), 1819-1894. Swedish novelist. Man of Birth, 1858; .4 Child of the Time, 1878.

Schwarzburg-Rodolgtudt And -Soiidcr»haii8Cii.

German principalities, in the Saxon region. Areas, 363 and 333 sq. m.; pop., 85,863 and 75,510.

Schwarzcnberg. German house, ennobled 1417.—Adam, Graf Von, 1584-1641, Premier of Brandenburg, attempted to keep his country neutral during the 30 Years' War.—Karl Philipp, Prince^ 1771-1820, was Austrian Field-marshal 1800,

Envoy to Russia and France 1808-9, and victor at Dresden and Leipzig 1813.—His nephew, Felix Ludwig Johann Friedrich,


Felix Schwarzenberg.

1800-1852, was Austrian Chancellor from 1848.—His brother, Friedrich Johann, 1809-1885, became Abp. of Salzburg 1836, of Prague 1849, and Cardinal 1843.

Schwatka, Frederick, U.S.A., 1849-1892. Arctic explorer. He found the remains of Sir John Franklin's party 1878-80, traced the course of the Yukon River 1883, and led other expeditions in Alaska 1886 and 1891, and one in n. Mexico 1889.

Schwegler, Albert, 1819-1857. Prof. Tubingen 1847. Hist. Philosophy, 1848, tr. 1856.

Schwcitfgcr, Karl Ernst Theodor, b. 1830. Prof. Berlin

1873; writer on the eye.

Schwelghaueer, Johann, 1742-1830. Prof. Strassburg 1770; ed. Polybius, Epictetus, Athenasus, Herodotus, and other


Schwelnfurth, Georg August, b. 1836. German traveler in the Nile region 1864, and in the Soudan 1869-71; director Cairo Museum 1880-88. Plantce Nilaticce, 1863; Flora JEthir opicus, 1867; Heart of Africa, tr. 1874; Artes Africance, 1875.

Schwelnfurth Green, or Paris Green. Aceto-arsenite of copper. Used on wall-papers, as a dye and to kill vermin. Made by treating a basic acetate of copper with arsenious acid; poisonous. It was first made at Schweinfurth 1811.

Schwelnitz, Lewis David De, 1780-1834. Moravian minister at Salem. N. C, and Bethlehem, Pa.; noted botanist. Specimen Flora; America septentrionalis cryptogamicce. 1821; Monograph of the N. American species of the genus Carer. 1825. —His son, Edmund Alexander, D.D., 1825-1887, became a Moravian bishop 1870. Moravian Manual, 1859; Life of Zeisberger. 1870; Hist. Unitas Fratrum, 1885.—His son, George Edmund, M.D., b. 1858, Prof, of Ophthalmology in Jefferson Medical Coll. 1892, is prominent as a practitioner and writer.

Schweitzer's Reagent. Solution of hydrated cupric oxide in ammonia, used as a solvent for cellulose.

Schweizer-Sldler, Heinrich, 1815-1894. Prof. Zurich 1871; writer on Latin grammar.

Schwendener, Simon, b. 1829. Swiss botanist. Prof. Basel 1867, Tubingen 1877, Berlin 1878. Die periodischen Erscheinungen der Natur insbesondere der Pflanzenu-elt. 1856; Untersuchungen fiber den Ftechtenthallus, 1860; Die Algentypen der Flechtengonidien, 1869.

Schwenkfeld, Hans Caspar Von, 1490-1561. German reformer, denounced by Luther for alleged heresies; author of 90 books or tracts, collected in 4 vols. 1564—70. His views in part anticipated those of the Quakers. He endured persecution from all sides, as did his followers, mostly in Silesia and Svvabia. Some went to Holland, some to England, and a remnant exists in Pa. as a distinct sect.

Schwerln, Kurt Christoph, Graf Von, 1684-1757. Prus sian Field-marshal; prominent under Frederic II.; killed at Prague.

Sciadlacere. Sub-order of Protococcoidece.

Sclalola, Antonio, 1817-1877. Prof. Turin 1846-48 and 1852; Minister of Finance 1865, and of Instruction 1872; writer on political economy.

Sciatica. Disease whose chief symptom is pain in the back of the thigh, constant and gnawing, with exacerbations or paroxysms. As the disease progresses, the area of pain extends along the course of the sciatic nerve even to the foot. It is of long duration, and may be the result of several conditions or brought about by different causes.

Science. Systematic knowledge, distinguished from philosophy in that it investigates the laws rather Uian the nature of reality. Its method is that of observation, classification, and explanation by hypothesis and verification; its causes are .antecedent conditions of phenomena, and not metaphysical entities.

Science, Christian. Scheme propounded in Mass. 1866-67 by Mary Baker Glover, now Mrs. Eddy, and set forth in her Science and Health, 1875. and other books. It denies matter, claims that "God is Mind, and All-in-all," and includes "Metaph3-sical Healing," which refuses to be identified with Faithcure. An Association was formed 1876, a Ch. founded in Boston 1879, and a Journal begun 1883 by Mrs. Eddy. The movement had, in 1894, 300 societies, 26 teaching institutes, and 66 dispensaries. Some allege that its ideas were first mooted by Dr. P. P. Quimby, who d. 1865.

Science, Military. The fundamental principles of the art of war, and their application to the problems of war in actual service. It embraces (l)strategy, including logistics, by means of which the time, place and character of battles to be fought promise the greatest advantage in case of success and the least injury in case of defeat; (2) logistics, discipline, grand and minor tactics, and military engineering, by means of which an army can make itself stronger than the enemy at the time and place of actual combat. The principles never change, but the art undergoes important modifications with the improvements made in the material of war.

Scientific Frontier. Imagined 1878 by Beaconsfleld as possible and desirable between India and Afghanistan.

Scilly Islands. Group ab. 27 to 35 m. w. by s. of Land's End, Cornwall. The chief are St. Mary's, Tresco, St. Martin's,

St. Agnes, and Bryher. Sir C. Shovel and 2,000 men of his fleet were drowned here 1707. Area ab. 3,500 acres, pop. ab. 2,500.

Scimiter. Short Turkish sword, intended for cutting, and therefore having a curved and sharp blade.

Scineoidea. See Brevilinguia.

Scinde. See Sinde.

Scintillation. Twinkling of the stars. Its cause is somewhat uncertain, but is probably due to irregular refraction of the atmosphere, combined with interference of light.

Scio. Anciently Chios (q.v.).

Scion, or Cion. Shoot taken from a plant for grafting on another. See Grafting.

ScioppluH, or Scboppe, Kaspar, 1576-1649. Student of

German birth, whose energies were divided between classical learning and furious wordy wars against Protestants, Latin authors, Scaliger, James I., and others. He lived in Italy from 1618. Orammatica Philosophica, 1628.

Scioptic Ball. Hollow wooden ball which fits a socket in the window-shutter and is capable of being turned in different directions. Within it is a convex lens, by which images of outside objects can be formed in a darkened room.

Sclothericum Telescopium. Instrument devised by Molyneux for indicating the time, whether of day or nig-ht. It consists of a horizontal dial with a telescope adapted to it.

Scioto. River rising in w. central Ohio, and flowing e. and then s. to the Ohio at Portsmouth. Columbus and Cliillicothe are on its banks. Length 210 m., drainage area 6,480 sq. m.

Scipio, Publics Cornelius, d. 211 B.C. Roman Consul 218; twice defeated by Hannibal in n. Italy; killed in Spain.—His


Tomb of Scipio, at Tarragona, Spain.

son and namesake, Africanus Major, 237-ab.l83 B.C., was proconsul in Spain 210, took Nova Carthage, conquered the country, became Consul 205, carried the war into Africa, by victories there compelled the recall of Hannibal, whom he routed near Zama 202, made peace 201. and was honored as the greatest general of his time. He shared with his brother Lucius the victory over Antiochus 190. A later prosecution against him was defeated through popular clamor. He was brilliant, accomplished, magnanimous, and haughty.—His name came by adoption to iEMlLIUS Paulus (africanus Minor), 185-129"B.C., Consul 148 and 134. His chief exploits were the siege and destruction of Carthage 146, and of Numantia in Spain 133. Like his predecessor, he was a student and patron of letters.

Scire Facias. Common law writ founded on some record, as a judgment, recognizance or letters-patent, issued to enforce them or set them aside; generally superseded in U. S. by execution or by a motion.

Sclrocco. Abnormally warm, moist, sultry southerly wind over Italy and Sicily, formerly erroneously supposed to come from Africa, or again to be the same as the Fohn, but now believed to owe its oppressiveness entirely to its moisture. See Sirocco.

Scitaminaccie. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermm and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 36 genera and 450 species, widely distributed through tbe warmer regions of both hemispheres, including the Banana, Ginger, and Arrowroot.

Scinromorpha. Section of the order Rodentia, including Squirrels, Marmots, Beavers. Prairie-dogs, Woodchucks, Gophers, etc. They have complete clavicles, four lower molars, and five (sometimes four) upper ones. The molars are tuberculate in the Squirrels.

Sclater, Philip Lubley, F.R.S., b. 1829. English naturalist, writing especially on ornithology; ed. Ibis since 1860.

Sclerenchyma. Calcareous tissue composing the hard parts of corals. See also Sclerotic Parenchyma.

Scleres. Small mineral deposit of definite shape, in the

Srotoplasm of cell colonies; e.g., spicules of sponges. See Picule System.

Sclcrltes. See Sclerodermites.

Sclerobasic. Coral secreted as a central axis by the bases of the polyps, as in Alcyonarians.

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Sclerobaslca. See Antipatharia.

Sclerodermata (madreporaria). Group of Zoantharia, including the Madrepore Corals.

Sclerodermese. Family of Gasteromycetes.

Scleroderma See Plectognathi.

Sclerodermic. Tissue composed of Sclerites.

Sclerodermlte§. Calcareous spicules of the outer crust of sea fans. In the red coral they form a rig-id skeleton.

Sclerotic Parenchyma. Vegetable tissue composed of short cells with greatly thickened walls, as in the grit-cells of the pear and the dense tissues of nut-shells.

Sclerotlum. 1. Case containing spores and having a wall of tough material, half animal, half vegetable in nature^ which protects the spores through a dry season; formed in the Mycetozoa. 2. Compact form of the mycelium of Fungi.

Sclerotold. In Botany, structures resembling a sclerotium.

Sclopl§, Federigo Paolo, Count, 1798-1878. Historian of Italian law, 1840-64; pres. Senate 1861-64; pres. Geneva Tribunal of Arbitration 1871.

Sclot, Bernat. See D'esclot, Bernat.

Scoke. See Pokeweed.

Scoleclda. Group of Vermes, including the Entozoa and Rotifers (q.v.).

Scoleclte. Archicarp of certain Fungi.

Scolex. Tapeworm head, produced by budding from the walls of the cyst or bladder-worm in its first host.

Scollard, Clinton, b. 1860. American poet; prof. Hamilton Coll. 1888. Under Summer Skies, and On Sunny Shores, 1895, describe his Eastern and Italian travels.

Scollops. See Pectinid^e.

Scolopacldae (snipe). Family of Grallatores with long slender bill covered with soft sensitive skin. The legs are short in some forms, long in others.

Scolopendra. See Chilopoda.

Scopus, d. ab.350 B.C. Greek sculptor and architect, associated witli Praxiteles.

Scopoli, Johann Anton, 1723-1788. Prof. Pavia 1777. Flora carnioliea, 1760; Introductio ad historiam naturalem, 1777; Fundamenta botanica, 1783.

Scopularla. Form of spicule with four short tylote arms and one long needle-shaped arm; derived from a hexactine; present in the sponge Eurete.

Score. In Music, collocation of all the parts of a composition, i.e., the voices, for the different performers; used by the conductor in studying a work and in directing its performance. The rule followed in bringing the parts together is to group the wind instruments of wood, flutes, oboes, clarionets, bassoons, etc., on the uppermost staves of the page, the brass instruments, trumpets, horns, trombones, etc., in the middle, with the drums above the trombones, and the strings on the lowest five staves. When voices are employed, their parts appear between those of the brass and string choirs. In the case of an opera or other work employing a number of singers and an orchestra, an arrangement showing the vocal parts intact and the orchestral part transcribed for pianoforte is called a vocal score.

Scorel, Jan Van, 1495-1562. Dutch painter, active before the time of a distinct Dutch School; for some time in Rome, and historically important as a transmitter of Italian influence.

Scorcsby, William, D.D., F.R.S., 1789-1857. English explorer and scientist. Arctic Regions, 1820; Journal, 1823; Magnetical Investigations, 1839-52.

Scorlie. Volcanic slags and cinders which are more or less porous, due to the expansion of the gases in the melted material.

Scorpio. See Zodiac.

Scorplold. In Botany, inflorescence of many plants in the natural family Boraginacece and some other plants. It is a false raceme, coiled in the bud (and hence also known as helicoid).

Scorpion Crass. See Forget-me-not.

Scorpionlden, or Scorpiodea (scorpions). Arachnids with chelate cheliceraa, foot-like chelate pedipalps. the abdomen divided into an anterior broad praabdomen of seven segments and a narrow post-abdomen of six segments, with poi

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Scorpion and Spider Fighting.

to small animals, serious to children, but not fatal to adult man. Ammonia applied to the sting is a good antidote.

Scorza. Variety of epidote sand found in the beds of some Transylvanian gold-bearing streams.

Scot, Reginald, ab.1538-1599. English author. His Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, was far in advance of the time, and called forth answers from King James and many others.

Scotch Confession of Faith. Prepared by Knox Aug. 1560, in a preface and 25 articles; adopted by Parliament; confirmed 1567; standard till 1688, tliough displaced in effect by the Westminster Confession 1646-48.

Scotch Mist. Fine rain, whose particles of water are large enough to have a visible rate of descent and to slightly wet the surface of exposed objects.

Scotch Paraphrases. Pub. 1745 by a Committee of General Assembly; in number 45; little used; revised and enlarged 1781 to 67, with 5 hymns; appended to Scotch Psalms, and widely used.

Scotia. Concave molding, which, when seen from above, produces a strong shadow and is therefore commonly used in bases.

Seotists. Followers of Duns Scotus; largely Franciscans.

Scotland. Northern portion of the island of Great Britain and a part of the United Kingdom. The surface is hilly, becoming mountainous in the north. The coast is broken with numerous fiords and rocky islets. It was originally inhabited by Celts and was called Caledonia by the Romans, who subjugated only the s. portion. The Scots (Irish Celts) under Fergus invaded the Highlands 503 and founded a Scotch kingdom. Norwegians and Anglo-Saxons introduced Teutonic influences. William the Con

?ueror compelled Malcolm II. to do homage 1072. The effort of Edward I. to maintain supremacy was resisted by Wallace; Bruce achieved independence 1328. The Stuart dynasty bejjan with Robert it. 1371-90. The contests over succession caused many troubles and a border feud raged intermittently along the English boundary. The enmity of England drove S. into close relations with France; royalty allied itself with the


Fall of Foyers, near Inverness.

Church, and alienated the nobles, who, embracing Protestantism, were drawn toward England, and a reaction began against

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France, represented in Mary of Guise, wife of James V. Their daughter Mary was educated at the French court and married the Dauphine Francis; thus the two crowns seemed on the

Soint of being united. On the premature death of Francis, [ary returned, and, after many tribulations, was imprisoned and beheaded in England for conspiring against Elizabeth. Mary's son, James VI., succeeded to the .throne of England 1603. His son and grandsons ruled both countries, but the two were not definitively united in Great Britain until 1707. Area 29,785 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 4,033,103.

Scotland, Church Of. Established since 1557, with intervals of Episcopal intrusion under the Stuarts; model of AngloSaxon Presbyterianism everywhere.

Scotland, Free Church Of. Secession 1843 from the established Ch. on the right of congregations to a voice in choosing their ministers, embracing 470 out of over 1,200 ministers, and a third of the people.

Scotland, National Covenant Of. See National CoveNant.

Scotland, United Presbyterian Church In. Formed 1847 by union of the Associate and Relief bodies. See PresByterians.

Scott, Andrew, 1757-1839. Scottish peasant-poet.

Scott, Charles, 1733-1813. Col. 3d Va. regiment 1776, Brig.-gen. 1777; active in Pa., N. J., and N. Y., and against Indians 1791-94; Gov. of Ky. 1808-12.

Scott, David, 1806-1849. Scottish historical painter and illustrator.—His brother and biographer, William Bell, 18111890, was a poet, painter, and art-critic. Lectures, 1861; Little Masters, 1879.

Scott, Dred. See Dred Scott Case.

Scott, Elizabeth, ab.1708-1776. English hymnist, m. 1751 to Elisha Williams (q.v.) of Conn.—Her brother. Thomas, 1705-1775, pub. Job in Verse. 1771, and Lyric Poems, 1773. Two of his sacred songs are still in extended use.

Scott, Sir George Gilbert, 1811-1878. English architect, restorer or builder of 26 cathedrals; R.A. 1861, knighted 1872.

Scott, Gustavus Hall, U.S.N., 1812-1882. Commander 1856, Captain 1863, serving on the Atlantic coast; Commodore 1869, Rear-admiral 1873.

Scott, Hugh S. See Merriman, Henry S.

Scott, John Morin, 1730-1784. Delegate to Congress 1775 and 1780-83; Brig.-gen. 1776-77; N. Y. Sec. of State 1777-79.

Scott, Levi, D.D., 1802-1882. M. E. bishop 1852.

Scott, Michael, 13th cent. Semi-mythical magician, said to have tr. works of Aristotle from the Arabic; mentioned in Dante's Inferno; prominent figure in border traditions and ballads; used by Sir W. Scott.

Scott, Michael, 1789-1835. Scottish nautical novelist. Tom Cringle's Log, 1829; Cruise of the Midge, 1833.

Scott, Robert, D.D., 1811-1887. Prof. Oxford 1861; Dean of Rochester 1870; ed., with Dr. H. G. Liddell, a Greek Lexicon, 1845.

Scott, Robert Henry, F.R.S.. b. 1833 in Dublin. Head of British weather service 1867. Meteorology, 1883.

Scott, Robert Kingston, b. 1826. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-63; Gov. of S. C. 1868-72.

Scott, Thomas, D.D., 1747-1821. English divine, practical commentator of the Evangelical School. His Family Bible v-ith Notes, 1788-92, was widely circulated. Works, 10 vols., 1823-25.

Scott, Thomas Alexander, 1824-1881. Vice-pres. Pa.R. R. 1859; Asst. Sec. of War 1861-62; eminent in public services during the war; pres. Union Pacific R. R. 1871-72; pres. Pa. R. R. 1874-80.

Scott, Sir Walter, 1771-1832. Scottish poet and novelist; Baronet 1820. Beginning with translations from the German, 1796, and ballads, he pub. Minstrelsy of the Border, 1802-3, and won fame by The Lay of the Last Minstrel, 1805; Marmion, 1808; and The Lady of the Lake, 1810. His other metrical romances are inferior, and Byron soon surpassed him in poetry, though many of his lyrics have a peculiar charm. His chief fame rests upon the brilliant series, largely historical, and long anonymous, of "Waverley Novels," 1814-31. Among the finest are Ouy Mannering. 1815; Old Mortality, 1817; Rob Boy and The Heart of Midlothian, 1818; The Bride of Lammermoor, 1819; Ivnnhoe, 1820; Kenilworth, 1822. His Life of Bonaparte. 1827, and other solid works are less memorable. He spent large sums on building Abbotsford, and in 1826 the failure of publishing firms in which he was a silent partner burdened him with an enormous debt: refusing offers of aid, he labored for its payment with a heroic energy which shortened his life. His character commanded general respect and affec

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fill a prominent place in the vast treasure-house of English literature. Their effect is visible in the recent revival of historical and romantic fiction by Conan Doyle, Weyman, Hope, and others. The vast popularity which caused each of Scott's novels to be eagerly awaited by thousands is a thing of the

East; but he remains "the Wizard of the North" and master in is own field. His Journal was pub. 1890. Scott, W. Bell. See Scott, David.

Scott, Winfield, U.S.A., 1786-1866. Brig.-gen. 1814, Majorgen. 1815; prominent on the Canadian border 1813-14; Generalln-chief of the U. S. Army 1841; leader in the war with Mexico 1846-47, which resulted in the cession of Cal. and New Mexico to the U. S.; Whig candidate for Pres. 1852; Brevet-lieut.-gen. 1855; retired 1861.

Scottish Language. This is n. English modified by Celtic and Scandinavian influences and, as spoken in Edinburgh from 1450, this was the literary language of Scotland. Wyntoun, Dunbar, Douglas and James I. are among the chief contributors to this literature. See ENGLISH LITERATURE.

Scotus, Johannes. See Erigena.

Scotus, Johannes Duns. See Duns Scotus.

Scourge of God. Title of Attila, king of the Huns; said to have been conferred by a hermit.

Scouring Rushes. Plants of the genus Equisetum, natural family Equisetace^; (q.v.). The stems are rough from the abundance of silica in the epidermis, and are sometimes employed for scouring floors. E. hyemale is known also as Shave-grass.

Scour of Streams. Process of washing away a bed or bank by the current. A velocity of 1 ft. per sec. will move small gravel, of 2 ft. pebbles ab. an inch thick, and of 20 ft. stones 2 ft. in diameter.

Scranton. Capital of Lackawanna co., Pa., on the Lackawanna, in a region devoted to coal mining; settled 1840, chartered 1854 and 1866. Its industries consist mainly in the shipping of coal and the manufacture of iron and steel. Pop., 1890, 75,215.

Screen. In Architecture, any partition subdividing an apartment which is less than its entire height. It may be either solid or perforated, as in a rood-screen, which does not shut off the view, but merely marks the subdivision, and may be either of masonry or woodwork. In Gothic Architecture, screens were elaborately designed and carved, and often became features of architectural importance.

Screw. Right circular cylinder on the convex surface of which is a uniform projecting thread in the form of a helix. Across section of the thread may be of several different forms, the rectangular and the triangular being commonest. The distance between two adjacent threads measured parallel to the axis of the screw is called the pitch. The screw is usually

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used as a mechanical power to move a body through a small space with great force, as in the copying-press.

Screw-Gearing. Method of transmitting motion and power from one shaft to another by toothed wheels (see Gear Wheels), in which one or both has for its driving profiles the elements of a helix or screw. The shafts may he parallel, or not parallel and not intersecting. The former case is called transmission by helical gear; the latter is screw-gearing properly so called. In screw-gearing (sometimes called also wormand-wheel), the velocity transmitted from one shaft to another does not depend on the relative radii of the worm and wheel, but the driving shaft which carries the screw moves the wheel in one revolution through an angle subtended by the pitch of the wheel, which is the same as the linear pitch of the screw; that is, the number of turns will be as the fraction

( j~.—A——;—\)- The wheel can drive the worm only

Vno. of teeth of wheel/

when the pitch of the screw is so steep that the projected angle between the axis and the tangent to the helical elements is less than the angle of friction between the two surfaces of contact. Hence the adaptation of screw-gearing to hoisting machinery, since it can also hold the load when raised. The face of the worm wheel is often curved to the arc of the worm to give greater bearing surface, and the teeth elements made parts of the complementary helix to that of the worm.

Screw Pile. Iron pile furnished with screw blades at its foot, and sunk into the soil by turning it like a screw; used for foundations of lighthouses and ocean piers.

Screw Pine. Trees of the genus Pandanus, natives of

the Malayan and Polynesian islands, producing a tfj^l / abundance of aerial

roots, forming structures y of strange appearance. g£ Screw Turbine. Water wheel which moves by the pressure of water upon helicoidal blades attached to a vertical shaft. It is of low efficiency and but little used.

Screw-Worm. Larva of a green fly with red eyes, common ins.w. U.S., which lays its eggs in wounds, nostrils, etc., of man and other animals. The eggs hatch in a few hours into larvas that bore


Screw Pine.

into the flesh, making a putrescent, non-healing sore, and death ultimately ensues from blood poisoning. Carbolic acid should be applied, and the wound dressed with oil of tar and fish oil, to repel the flies.

Scribe, Augustin Eugene, 1791-1861. French dramatist, producer, alone or in partnership with others, of some 250 plays, from one act to five; best in light comedy. He never attained greatness, but was very successful in meeting stage requirements.

Scribes. Jewish scholars who devoted themselves to transcribing and interpreting the Mosaic Law. Their influence was great and ultimately eclipsed that of the priests. Their casuistry and worship of the letter drew down on them our Lord's severest indignation.

Scribner,, 1821-1871. Publisher in New York; founded Scribner's Mag. 1870, which became Tlie Century 1881.

Scrlbonlus Largus, 1st cent. Roman writer on medicine.

Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose, LL.D.. D.C.L., 1813-1891. Anglican divine, who wrote much on the N.T. and was one of its revisers; pensioned 1872.

Scrivener's Cramp. See Neurosis.

Scroblculate. In Botany, pitted surfaces

Scrofula. Constitutional condition manifested by the peculiar character of the processes of inflammation, particularly a degeneration of the Ivmphatic glands into cheese-like masses. The presence of Koch's bacillus of consumption in these products of inflammation makes it probable that it is a manifestation of tuberculosis.

Scroggs, Sir Willi AM. ab. 1623-1683. Chief-justiceof King's Bench 1678; impeached 1680 for misconduct during the Popisli Plot trials; pensioned.

Scroll. In Architecture, a spiral ornament often applied to consoles and like features. Its most common employment is in the Ionic capital, and when thus employed it is known as a volute.

Scrope, George Poulett, F.R.S., 1797-1876. M.P. 1883-68: born in London; best known for his Volcanoes of Central France, 1827. He studied the probable cause of their phenomena and their connection with the present state and past history of the earth.

Scrophulariaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Oamopetalo?, comprising ab.175 genera and ab.2,500 species, distributed throughout all parts of the globe; called the Figwort family.

Scruple. In Apothecaries' Weight, 4 of a drachm, A* of a lb. Troy, 20 grs.

Scruples of Conscience. Doubts as to what is right and what wrong in the case of special points in any given course of action.

Scud. Small detached clouds beneath any mass of clouds from which rain is falling; also called wrack.

Scudder, Horace Elisha, b. 1838. Biographer of Noah Webster. 1882, and (in part) of Bayard Taylor, 1884; author of Dream Children, 1863, and other juvenile books; ed. Rivirside Mag. 1867-71, and Atlantic Monthly since 1890. Man and Letters. 1888.—His brother, SAMUEL HUBBARD, paleontologist of U. S. Geological Survey 1886-92. and ed. Science 1883-85, has pub. much on Entomology.—Their niece, Vida DUTTON, b. 1861, pub. Life of the Spirit in English Poets, 1893.

Scudder, John, M.D., 1793-1855. American missionary in Ceylon 1820-36, and at Madras; founder of schools and hospitals; father of ten more missionaries, of whom Henrymartyn, D.D., b. 1822, labored in India 1844-63, and wrote much in Tamil and Sanskrit.

Scudery, Madeleine De, 1607-1701. French romancer, whose characters were real personages of her own time under ancient names; thus Conde is Artamene in Le Grand Cynis, 1649-53. This and Clelie, 1654-60, bore the name of her brother Georges, 16011667. who furnished the plots; they filied 10 vols, each, as did her Conversations. Her works were once highly esteemed.

Scudo. Italian coin, equal to five lire or francs, and U. S. dollar; so named as originally bearing a prince's shield or coat of arms.

Sculling. The propelling of a boat by an oar placed over the taffrail of a boat and plied from side to side; also applied to the rowing of boats, in which the oarsman uses a pair of sculls or short oars.

Sculplure. See the Appendix.

Sculpt ii red Stones. General name given to a

class of monuments of Sculptured Stone at Nigg, Ross-shire, the early Christian period, many being unhewn stone with rude inscriptions or ornamental designs. Those of Scotland are mostly uninscribed, but usually decorated; one of the most ornate being at Nigg.


Scurf. In Botany, epidermal scales.

Scurvy. Constitutional disease characterized by great debility, witli anaemia, spongv condition of the gums and a tendency to hemorrhages. It prevails among those who are forced to subsist for a long time on a diet which is lacking in fresh vegetables or their substitute. Hence it has been most prevalent among soldiers and sailors. The present precaution to provide the proper variety of diet for camps and vessels has made the disease a rare one. The juice of two or three lemons daily with plenty of fresh vegetables will suffice to cure, unless the disease is of long standing.

Scurvy Grass. Plants of the genus Cochlearia, ab. a foot high and having a small white flower. They have an acrid, biting taste and were of great benefit to sailors, before modern precautions against scurvy were known, for their antiscorbutic properties.

Scuta. Anterior ventral pieces of the shell of Barnacles.

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