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Schaufelln, Hans Leonhard, ab.1487-1540. Historical painter of the German school. He was a pupil of Durer, whose manner he imitated so well that many of his pictures have been accredited to his master.

Schaufller, William Gottlieb, D.D., LL.D., 1798-1883. German-American missionary at Constantinople 183174. He tr. the Bible into OsmanliTurkish.

Schaumberg-Lippe. Principality of n.w. Germany. Area 131 sq. m.: pop., 1890. 39,183.

Schedone, Bartolommeo, 15601615. Italian painter.

Scheele,KAKL Wilhelm, 1743-1786. Swedish chemist, pioneer in nearly every branch, especially the organic. Air and Fire, 1777, tr. 1780: Memoires, 1785-88.

Schcele, Knut Henning Gazelitjs Von, b. 1838. Prof. Upsala 1879; Bp. of Gothland 1885; theological writer.

Sclieele'i Green. CuHAsO,. Cupric arsenite, made by adding an ammoniacal solution of arsenious acid to copper sulphate; poisonous.

Scheelite. CaWO,. Natural calcium tungstate, characterized by a specific gravity of ab. 6. Its usual mode of occurrence is in the older crystalline rocks, associated with several other minerals, in which tungsten or fluorine is a component.

Scheflfel, Joseph Viktor Von, 1826-1886. German poet. His most important works were his first, Der Trompeter von Sdkkingen, 1854, an epic, and Ekkehard, 1857, tr. 1896. a novel of the Middle Ages, which had an immense circulation. Next in popularity were his humorous lyrics, Qaudeamus, 1867, tr. 1872.

SchefTer, Art, 1797-1858. French painter, chiefly of religious subjects, whose reputation is possibly due, in part, to court influence. He was a devoted adherent of the Orleans.

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St. Elizabeth, by Schaufelin.

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He was not in sympathy with any of the schools of painting, but formed a style of his own, more sentimental than vigorous. Examples in the Louvre are St. Monica and Christ's Temptation.

Scheffler, Johann ("angelus Silesius"), 1624-1677. German hymnist, converted to R. C. Ch. 1653. His lyrics have much sweetness and beauty; his Ecclesiologia, 1677, is vehemently polemic.

Scheldt. River of Belgium, rising in n. France, flowing n.e. to Antwerp, and thence n.w. to the North Sea. Length 200 m.

Schelllng, Friedrich "wilhelm Joseph Von, 1775-1854. Prof, of Philosophy at Jena 1798, Wiirzburg 1803-8, Erlangen 1890. Munich 1827, and Berlin from 1841. His views were

pantheistic in type. Natural Philosophy, 1797; World-soul, 1799; Transcendental Idealism, 1800; Philosophy and Religion, 1804.

Schem, Alexander Jacob, 1826-1881. German-American journalist and cyclopedist; ed. Conversations-Lexicon, 1869-74.

Scliemnitz. Hungarian town 66 m. n. of Budapest, noted as being the oldest and most famous mining town of Hungary. It produces silver chiefly, but copper and lead are also found. The town has a noted school of mines.

Schenck, James Findlay, U.S.N., 1807-1882. Commander 1855, Commodore 1863; prominent in the attacks on Fort Fisher, N. C; Rear-admiral 1868.—His brother, Robert Cumming, 18091890, was M.C. from Ohio 1843-51 and 1863-70, Minister to Brazil 1851-53. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1861, Major.-gen. 1862-63, and Minister to England 1870-76.

Schenectady. Capital of S. co., N. Y., on the Mohawk, 17 m. w. of Albany; founded 1661; burned by Indians 1690; chartered 1798; site of Union Univ.. founded 1795. General Electric Co. have their works here. Pop., 1890, 19,902.

Schenk, August, 1815-1891. Prof, of Botany in Leipzig 1868. Flora der Uvigebung von Wiirzburg, 1848: Die'Spermatozoiden im Pflanzenreich, 1864; Die fossile Flora der Grenzschichten des Keupers und Lias Frankens, 1867; Mittheilungen aus dem Oesammtgebiete der Botanik, 1871.

Schenkel, Daniel. D.D., 1813-1885. Prof. Heidelberg from 1851; leader of the Protestantenverein; ed. Kirchliche Zeitschrift, 1860-72. and Bibel-Leocicon, 5 vols.. 1869-75. Das Wescn des Protestantismus, 3 vols., 1846-51; Dogmatik, 1858-59; Character of Jesus, 1864, tr. 1866. His later works are strongly humanitarian.

Scheiikcndorf, Max Von. 1783-1841. German patriot, whose songs were called forth by the war of liberation, and pub. 1815.

Scherer, Edmond Henri Adolphe. 1815-1889. French critic; prof. Geneva 1845-50; Deputy 1871. A. Vinet, 1853; Critique Religieuse, 1860; Litterature Coniemporaine, 9 vols.

Scherer, Wilhelm, 1841-1886. Prof. Vienna 1868-72. Strassburg 1872-77, and Berlin from 1877; historian of the German language (1868) and literature (1883). Goethe, 1886.

Schere§chewiky, Samuel Isaac Joseph, b. 1831. P. E. bp. to China 1877-83; tr. O. T. into Mandarin Chinese.

Scherr, Johannes, 1817-1886. German novelist and critic, historian of English literature (1854), biographer of Schiller, 1859, and Blllcher, 3 vols., 1862-63; prolific writer.

Scherzer, Karl Von, b. 1821. Austrian traveler; descriptive and scientific writer.

Scherzo. Generally, third movement in a musical composition of a cyclical kind, as a sonata or symphony; so called because of its playful or jocose character. It is the successor of the minuet, which, as a rule, it follows in form. It is commonly written in triple time, but nationalism and other influences have led to great freedom in this respect.

Schenchzer, Johann, 1684-1738. Botanist at Zurich. Agrostographia, 1719.

Schevcningen. Summer resort of s. Holland, near The Hague. Off it Van Tromp was defeated and slain by the English 1653.

Schlaparelll, Giovanni Virgi.nio, b. 1835. Director of Milan Observatory 1862. Shooting Stars, 1867.

Schldone, B. See Schedone.

Schiedam. Town of s. Holland, near Rotterdam; noted for its production of gin (schnapps). Pop., 1891, 25,260.

Schlele-curvc Pivot. Form for the end of thrust-shafts (see Pivot), named from the inventor of a method for easy drawing of the tractrix, or curve of equal tangents. Let a Tsquare be laid upon a drawing-board, upon whose blade fits a sliding block: let a ruler bear at one end a tracing point and a sufficient weight to press it down, and let its other end fit upon a pin on the sliding block. If this ruler be adjusted to be at right angles with the blade of the T-square, and the slider be then moved along the blade, the tracing-point will then describe a tractrix. It has the property of having the tangents equal at every point, and therefore the thrust along the axis at each section varies as the area of the ring of contact at that point, and the bearing wears equally all over.

Schlff, Moritz, b. 1823. Prof. Berne 1852, Florence 1862, and Geneva 1876; writer on physiology.

Schiller, Herman, b. 1839. Prof. Giessen 1876; writer on

education and Roman history.

1350

SCHILLER- SCHLEI EM ACHER

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Tell, 1804. His minor poems include The Song of the Bell and some noble ballads. His chief prose work is a History of the Tliirty Years' War, 1793. Through illness and poverty he was faithful to lofty standards: his character was worthy of his genius. His works filled 17 vols, in the edition of 1868-76. Most of his writings exist in English versions.

Schilling. Small base silver coin of Hamburg and some other German cities and states, value 2 cts.

Schilling, Johannes, b. 1828. German sculptor, prof. Dresden 1868. Luther, Worms; Schiller, Vienna.

Schimnielln, Oexmelin, or Esquemelin, ab.1645-1707. Flemish historian of the buccaneers. His book appeared in French 1684, and in Dutch 1700.

Schiinmclpcnninck, Mary Ann (galton), 1788-1856. English author.

Schlmmclpfennig, Alexander, 1824-1865. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-65.

Schimper, Wilhelm Philipp, 1808-1880. Prof, at Strass

burg. Recherches anatomiques et morphologiques surles mousses, 1850; Bryologia Europcea. 1836-55; Synopsis muscorum Eurojxeorum, 1860; Le terrain de transition dcs Vosges, 1862; Paleontologie vegetate, 1869.

Schinkcl, Karl Friedrich, 1781-1841. German architect; prof. Berlin Academy 1820.

Schipperke. Breed of dogs found in Belgium, belonging to the same group as the Pomeranian and Eskimo dogs.

Schism. Division in or separation from a Church; frequent from ab.250. The Great Schism is (1) that between East and West, beginning ab.880; (2) that of 1378-1429, when there were at once two claimants of the popedom, one in Avignon and one in Rome, and sometimes more. It was virtually ended by Council of Constance 1417.

Schist. Foliated rock; one with a tendency to split readily in one direction, due to a parallelism of arrangement of cleavable mineral components, such as mica, talc, or chlorite.

Schistose. Breaking into slabs like flagging stone, usually confined to crystalline rocks.

Schiziettceae. Family of ferns, mainly of tropical distribution, including various climbing species, as the Hartford Ferns. Schizcea pusilla. a minute fern with filiform leaves, occurring on the Atlantic seaboard of N. America, and known locally as Curley-grass, is one of the most interesting of the order.

Schizocarp. Dry fruits in which the carpels are indehiscent but split apart at maturity.

Scllizoctel. Body-cavity formed by primary splitting of a mass of mesoderm cells into two layers, as in Rotifers and Nematodes. In Chsetopods it is a secondary form of an Enteroccel (q.v.).

Schlzocoela. 1. Animals possessing a schizocosl. 2. Subgroup of Vermes, including the Ch^topoda (q.v.).

Schlzogenesls. Reproduction by fission.

Schizogenic. Method of formation of intercellular spaces in vegetable tissue, which develops them coincidently with tlie tissue.

Schlzognathoug. Skulls of birds, in which the maxillopalatine processes are separated by a cleft in the roof of the mouth. The vomer is long, pointed in front, and narrow behind. Examples are Plovers, Gulls, Penguins, Cranes, Fowls, Pigeons, Grouse. These have been included in a group called Schizognathoz or Schizorhina. Of the natatorial birds included there are two sections, Brevipennati and Longipennati.

Schizomyceles. Class of Protophyta, including those microscopic organisms in which chorophyll is wanting, and propagation effected by cell-division or splitting; known as Bacteria and Microbes.

Schizonemertea. Group of nemertean worms, characterized by the presence of deep longitudinal ciliated fissures on the sides of the head; the mouth is behind the brain, and the proboscis is unarmed.

Schlzopelmous (monopelmous). Common arrangement of the flexor tendons of the feet of birds, in which the first digit has its own tendon, the other toes a common tendon.

Schlzophycere. Division of Protophyta, including only those which contain chlorophyll.

Schlzopoda. 1. See Tragulina. 2. Small Thoracostraca with a large, soft, cephalothoracic shield, and eight pairs of biramous, thoracic feet, the anterior of which are not modified as maxillipeds, but, in many forms, bear gills. The abdomen ends in a strong telson, and bears appendages that are delicate in the female, but strong in the male. In Mysis the last appendages have auditory organs (otoliths) developed in the endopodite.

Schlzotrocha. Order of Rotifers, including forms having an anus, and with the trochal disk notched or lobed.

Schkuhr, Christian, 1741-1811. German botanist. Botanisches Handbuch der mehrsten theils in Deutschland, 1808; Enchiridion botanicum, 1805; Beschreibung und Abbildung der iheils bekannten, 1801; Deutschlands kryptogamisehe Gew&chse, 1810-47.

Schlagintweit, Hermann Von, 1826-1882. Explorer of the Alps and Himalayas, and writer on their physical geographv. India and High Asia, 1860-66. Associated in these tasks were his brothers Adolf. 1829-1857, and Robert, 18881885. Robert became prof, at Giessen 1863, visited the U.S. 1869 and 1880, and pub. books on California, the Pacific R.R., and the Mormons. Their brother, Eduard, 1831-1866, wrote on the Spanish war with Morocco, 1863, and the youngest, Emil, b. 1835, on Thibet, 186CM56.

Schlatter, Michael, 1716-1790. Organizer of the German Reformed Ch. in America 1747.

Schlechtendal, Diedrich Franz Leonhard Von. 17941866. Prof, of Botany in Halle 1833. Animadi'ersiones botanical in Ranunculeas, 1819-20; Flora Berolinensis, 1823-24.

Schlegel, August Wilhelm Von, 1767-1845. German critic of high rank and great influence, translator of Shakespeare, Dante, and Camoens; prof. Bonn from 1818. Dramatic Art and Literature, 1808, tr. 1815. Works, 12 vols., 1846-47.—His brother, Friedrich, 1772-1829, as gifted but more erratic, led the Romantic School and became a reactionist. He was one of the founders of comparative philology: his Sprache und Weisheit der Indier, 1808, was important for the study of Sanskrit. Hist. Literature, 1814, tr. 1859; Philosophy of"History, 1827, tr. 1835. Works, 15 vols., 1846. His poetry, like his brother's, is unimportant.

Schlegel, Elias, 1718-1749. German dramatist.

Schleicher, August. 1821-1868. Prof. Prague 1850, Jena 1857. He wrote on the Latin, German, and Slavonic tongues, developed Indo-Germanic philology, and considered the study of language a natural science.

Schlciden, Matthias Jakob, 1804-1881. German botanist. Orundzuge der u-issenschaftlichen Botanik, 1842-43; Zeitschrift fur xrissenschaftliche Botanik, with Karl Naegeli. 1844-46; Orundriss der Botanik, 1846: Die Pflanze und ihr Leben, 1847, tr. 1848; Handbuch der medizinisch pharmaeeutischen Botanik, 1852-57.

Schlelermacher, Friedrich Ernst Daniel, 1768-1834. Prof. Halle 1804-6, and Berlin from 1810; foremost of German theologians. He sought to unite the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, aimed to reconcile the philosophic with the religious spirit, developed a system wherein the feelings have as Targe place as the intellect, and exerted a deep and wide influence, especially by his Christian Faith, 1821-22. Monologues, 1800;

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tr. Plato. 1801-10; Systems of Ethics, 1803. His works, collected 1836-65. include 10 vols, of sermons, 11 on theology, and 9 or philosophy, besides letters, partly tr. 1860.

Schlegwig-HolRtein. Province of Prussia; held by Denmark till 1864; previously two duchies, at times united, oftener separate. Pop., 1890, 1,219,523.

Schllemann, Heinrich, D.C.L., 1822-1890. German-Russian merchant, naturalized in Cal. 1850; enthusiast for the Trojan legend; excavator at Hissarlik 1870-82, and elsewhere. Most important were his discoveries at Mvcena? 1876-88. Mykence, tr. 1877; Ilios, 1880; Orchomenos', 1881; Troja, 1883; Tiryns, 1886.

Schlippe'g Salt. Na,SbS.. Sodium sulphantimonate; made !>y dissolving antimony pentasulphide in sodium sulphide.

Sen logger, Friedrich Christoph, 1776-1861. Prof. Heidelberg 1819. Weltgcschichte, 9 vols., 1817-24; do., 18 vols., 184456; Hist. 19th Century, 1823, tr. 1843-52; Der alten Welt, 182634; Dante, 1855. His works are highly moral and have been very popular.

Schiothelni, Ernst Friedrich Von, 1764-1832. Chiefjustice in Gotha. Flora der Vortvelt, 1804; Die PetrefactenIcunde, 1820; Nachtr&ge zur 1'etrefactenkunde, 1822.

Schldzcr, August Ludwio Von, 1735-1809. Prof. Gottingen 1764. Allgemeine Nordische Qeschichte, 1772.

Sell I iit or, Andreas, ab. 1662-1714. German architect and sculptor, whose works are among the noblest art productions

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of the epoch. His principal works are Hie Great Elector and the Dying Warriors, both in Berlin.

Sell ly I or, Karl Johan. 1795-1888. Compiler of old Swedish laws, pub. in 12 vols, 1827-77.

Schmalkald, Articles Of. One of the Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Ch.; prepared by Luther at Wittenberg 1536; accepted by the League 1537.

Schmalkald, League Of. Organized 1531 for defense of German Protestantism by nine princes and eleven imperial cities; soon joined by others; led by Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Hesse; defeated at Muhlberg, April 24, 1547, by Charles V., and dissolved; revived 1552 by Maurice of Saxony.

Schmauk, Theodore Emanuel, b.1860. American Lutheran editor and author. Editor of The Lutheran since 1889. Negative Criticism, 1894.

Schmld, Christian Friedrich, 1794-1852. Prof. Tubingen 1821. Biblical Theology of N. T., tr. 1870.

Schnifd, Heinrich, 1811-1885. Prof. Erlangen from 1848. Dogmatik, 1843, tr. 1875; Dogmengeschichte, 1860.

Schmid. Leopold, 1808-1869. Prof. Giessen from 1839: opponent of ultramontauism. Oeist des Katholicismus, 1848-50.

Schmidel, Ulrich, ab.1511-ab.l570. Bavarian soldier, in S. America ab. 1535-52. His diary, pub. 1557, appeared in Latin 1599. It deals largely with Argentina.

Schmidt, Charles Guillaume Adolphe, D.D., b. 1812. Prof. Strassburg 1843-77. Hist, des Cathares, 1849; Early Christianity, 1853, tr. 1885.

Schmidt, Heinrich Julian, 1818-1886. Prussian journalist and critic; historian of German literature, 1850-86.

Schmidt, Henry Immanuel, D.D., 1806-1889. Prof. Columbia Coll. 1848-80. Hist. Education, 1842.

Schmidt, Johannes, b. 1843. Prof. Comparative Philology at Berlin 1876; writer on Indo-Germanic languages.

Schmidt-Rimpler, Hermann, b. 1838. Prof, of Ophthalmology at Marburg 1873. and Gottingen 1891. Augenheilkunde und Ophthahnoskopie, 1885.

S< limits. Leonhard, 1807-1890. German-English teacher; editor or author of many school-books; tr. Niebuhr, and Zumpt's Latin Grammar.

Schinolck, Benjamin, 1672-1737. German hymnist. His lyrics are highly popular at home, and several are familiar in English versions.

Schmollcr, Gustav, b. 1838. Prof. Halle 1864, Strassburg 1872, and Berlin 1882; writer on political economy. Zur Oeschichte der deutschen Kleingeicerbe im 19 Jahrhundert, 1870; Ueberdie Remdtate der Bevolkerungs und Moralstatistik, 1871; Strassburgs Bliithe und die Volkswirthschaftliche Revolution im 13 Jahrhundert, 1875; Strassburg zur Zeit der Zunftkdmpfe, 1875; Die Strassburger Tiicher und Weberzunft, 1878; Zur Sozial und Qewerbepolitik der Qegemcart, 1890.

Schmnckcr, Samuel Simon, D.D , 1799-1873. Prof. Gettysburg Theol. Sem., Pa., 1826-64; leader in the General Synod, and author of its formula of discipline, 1827, and of sundry doctrinal works. American Lutlieranism Vindicated, 1856.—Of his sons, Samuel Mosheim, 1823-1863, was an industrious book-maker; Beale Melancthon. D.D., 1827-1888, was eminent in liturgies, and a leader in the Pa. Synod and the General Council.

Schnabzlgcr Cheese. Green cheese from the canton of Glaris, Switzerland. The milk is coagulated with vinegar instead of rennet, and treated with zigerlec, a plant. In the U. S. it is called Sago and Sap Sago cheese.

Schnecbcrg. Mining town of Saxony, 20 m. s. w. of Chemnitz, producing tin, cobalt and silver. It manufactures chemicals and laces. Pop. 8,200.

Schncekoppe. Highest point of the Riesengebirge, between Bohemia and Prussian Silesia. Altitude 5,260 ft.

Schneider, Johann Gottlob, 1750-1822. Prof. Frankfort 1776; editor of Theophrastus and other classics, and of a Greek lexicon, 1797-1821. Scriptores Rei Rusticce, 4 vols., 1794-95.

Schneider, Karl Ernst Christoph, 1786-1856. Prof. Breslau from 1816; editor of Plato, Proclus, and Cresar.

Schneidewin, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1810-1856. Prof. Gottingen from 1837; editor of Sophocles, Pindar, and other classics.

Schnetz, Jean "victor, 1787-1870. French painter.

Schnitzer, Eduard. See Km In Pasha.

Schnizlein, Adelbert, d. 1868. Prof, of Botany in Erlangen. Die Flora von Bayern, 1847; Die Vegetationeverhaltnisse der Jura-und Keuperformation, 1848.

Schnorr von Karolgfeld, Julius, 1794-1872. Painter and illustrator; prof. Munich 1827, where he produced the

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Schofleld, John Mcallister, U.S.A., b. 1831. Prof. West Point 1855-60; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862; commanding in Mo. 1862-63; engaged under Sherman and Thomas 1864-65; Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1864; Sec. of War 1868-69; Major-gen. 1869; Supt. at West Point 1876-81; Lieut.-gen. 1895.

Schoharie. Local bed of sandstone in e. N. Y. See

Devonian.

Scholarship. Proceeds of an investment paid to a student for his maintenance at a school or college.

Scholasticism. Philosophic doctrine and method of the Middle Ages. As a method it was deductive logic, or the attempt to deduce all truth independently of experience; as a doctrine it was a combination of theology and Aristotelian philosophy. Its great exemplar is Aquinas.

Scholiasts. Writers of notes or glosses on the margins of ancient MSS. They flourished especially at Alexandria, and were more concerned often with the text itself than with the ideas it conveyed.

Scholium. Statement following a demonstration to apply, restrict, generalize, or illustrate the truth established.

Scholl, Maximilian Samson Friedrich, 1766-1833. GermanFrench historian of Latin and Greek literature, 12 vols., 181525; compiler of Cours d'histoire, 46 vols., 1830-36, and sundry political documents.

Scholten, Jan Hendrik, 1811-1885. Dutch rationalist, prof. Leyden 1843-81. Theology of Reformed Oh., 1848-50; Introduction to A'. T., 1853; Gospel of John, 1864; Pauline Gospel,

1870. His books were widely read in Germany and France. Schomann, Georq Friedrich, 1793-1879. Prof. Greifs

wald from 1823. Greek Antiquity, tr. 1880.

Schombcrg, Frederich Hermann, Duke Of, 1616-1690. German officer, in the French service 1650-85; distinguished as a tactician. He secured the recognition of Portugal's independence 1668, became Marshal 1675. was next in command to William of Orange 1688, was made Duke 1689, and fell in the battle of the Boyne.

Schomburgk, Sir Robert Hermann. Ph.D., 1804-1865. German-English traveler; explorer of Guiana; discoverer of the Victoriaregia, 1837: knighted 1844; British representative in Siam 1857-64; author of a History of Barbadoes, 1847, and several books on Guiana,

Schonbcln, Christian Friedrich, 1799-1868. Prof. Basel 1828; writer on chemistry; discoverer of ozone 1839; inventor of gun-cotton 1845.

Schonbcln's Test. Paper prepared with starch and potassium iodide, sensitive to the presence of ozone, which sets free the iodine, turning the starch blue.

Schonbcrg, Gustav, b. 1839. Prof. Bonn 1868, Freiburg

1871, and Tubingen 1873; economist. Arbeits&mter, 1871; Fxnanzverhaltnisse der Stadt Basel im 14 und IS Jahrhundert, 1879. He was joint-compiler of Handbuch der Politischen Oekonomie, 1882.

Schonbrunn. Immense palace near Vienna, erected for Maria Theresa 1744. Here the treaty of Viennajwas signed 1809 between Napoleon and Francis I. Cessions of territory were made by Austria to the Rhenish Confederation, to Napoleon, the King of Saxony, the Duke of Warsaw, and the Czar.

Schonfeld, Eduard, 1828-1891. Assistant to Argelander in his great survey of the northern heavens: director of the observatory at Mannheim 1859-75, and at Bonn 1875; best known for his work in stellar astronomy, particularly variable stars.

Schongauer, Martin, 1446-1488. German painter, of Colmar in Alsace.

Schonlein, Johann Lucas. 1793-1864. Prof. WQrzburg 1820, Zurich 1833, and Berlin 1839-59; introducer of improved methods of medical study.

School, PUBLIC. First in America was established in Boston 1635. National Schools were instituted in England 1811, in Ireland 1831.

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, LL.D., 1793-1864. Geologist with Gen. Cass to the Mississippi 1820; explorer of the Sources of the Mississippi 1832; in the U. S. service nearly 50 years; chiefly eminent as an ethnologist. His most important writings are on the history and customs of the aborigines. Algic Researches, 1839; Indian Tribes, 6 vols., pub. by Congress 1851-57.

Schoolmen. Leaders of thought in the Middle Ages, occupied almost wholly with theology and philosophy. They monopolized the limited learning of their times, and were pioneers in a manner; but their work was useful mainly for the avoidance of a mental vacuum. See SCHOLASTICISM.

School of Naples. See Naturalists.

Schools, Brothers Of Christian. R. C. order fouuded at Rheims 1684 by De la Salle; confirmed by the pope 1725; now widely extended. A similar society was formed in Ireland 1802.

Schools of Painting. These include the painters of a country, province or city, or a group of painters under the influence of one man. In Italy, the Byzantine school was paramount in the 12th and early 13th centuries, with Giotto and Cimabtie as the leading artists, and Pisa and Lucca the chief seats of this rude painting In the 13th and 14th centuries, Siena, with Martino and Lorenzetti, was more productive in development of the art, inaugurated by Giotto at Florence. The Florence school was the most important in Italy, and in the 15th century reached its climax, with Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Andrea del Sarto as its great lights. In the loth and 16th centuries the Umbrian school produced many painters of importance, with Piero della Francesco as its best example. In Padua was Andrea Mantegna, and at Arezzo, Spinello di Luca and Lorenzo di Bicci. The Venetian school was prominent in the 15th and 16th centuries, with Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto and Paul Veronese. TheBrescian school had Mo ret to in the 16th century, and Verona from the 13th to the 17th century had Pisanello, Domenico and Carazola. Bologna from the 14th to the 17th century produced the Caracci, Guido and Domenichino. Modena and Parma had many painters from the 14th to the 16th centuries, Correggio being the most prominent. Milan in the 15th and 16th centuries was an important school, created by Leonardo da Vinci. The Roman school consisted of the pupils of Raphael. The German school originated at Cologne in the 14th century; the leading artists here were Albert Durer, Hans Holbein and Overbeck. In the Flemish school, beginning with the 15th century, are the Van Eycks and the Van der Weydens, and later Rubens and Van Dyck. The Dutch school includes Rembrandt, its greatest painter, the Teniers and Wouverman in genre subjects; Ruysdael and Hobbema in landscape; Vandevelde in sea views, and Paul Potter in animal pictures. Spain produced Velasquez, Murillo and Fortunv. In France were Poussin. Lorrain. Vernet, Rousseau and Millet. England gave Lely, Hogarth. Reynolds, Gainsborough, Blake, Turner and Landseer.

Schooner. Vessel of small or moderate size, with two or sometimes more masts; classified as fore-and-aft and topsail;

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the latter having on the foremast square topsail and topgallantsail. which gives it the advantage before the wind; on the wind the former can sail closer to the wind.

Schoonmakcr, Augustus, 1828-1894. Atty.-gen. of N. Y. 1878-79; active for reform and education.

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1788-1860. German thinker and author, founder of philosophic pessimism. He asserted, in opposition to Hegelianism, that will rather than intellect was the primary principle in nature. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, 1819.

Schoppe, Kaspar. See Scioppius.

Schorl. Class of hard, dark-colored minerals; term now practically obsolete, except as indicating black tourmaline.

Schott, Charles Anthony, b. 1826 in Germany. Officer of U. S. Coast Survey from 1848: writer on meteorology.

Schott, Heinrich Wilhelm. 1794-1865. Director of Royal Garden in Schonbrunn. Synopsis Aroidearum, 1856; Prodromus Systematis Aroidearum, 1860.

Schottlsche. Dance introduced in England 1848, when it was also known as the German Polka. The music is almost the same as that of the polka, but should be played slowl}'.

Schouler, James. LL.D., b. 1839. American writer on law. Bailments, 188(1; Wills, 1887. His Hist. U. S. under the Constitution, 5 vols., 1880-91, is an important work.—His father,

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William. 1814-1872. journalist in Mass. and Ohio, pub. Hist. Mass. in the Civil War, 1868-71.

Schouten, Willem Corneus, 1567-1625. Dutch seaman, first to round Cape Horn 1615.

SHionv:iloir. Peter, Count, 1827-1889. Russian Minister to England 1873 and 1878.—His brother Paul, b. 1830, has been prominent as a general and diplomatist.

Schroder, Eberhard, D.D., b. 1836. Prof. Zurich 1863, Giessen 1870, Jena 1873, and Berlin 1875; O. T. critic and Assyriologist. Cuneiform Inscriptions and O. T., 1872, tr. 1885-86; Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples, tr. 1890.

Schrader, Heinrich Adolph, 1767-1836. Pror. of Botanv at Gottingen. Journal fur die Botanik, 1799-1803 and 1806-10; Flora Oermaniea. 1806.

Schrader, Julius Friedrich. b. 1815. Historical and portrait painter, prof. Berlin Academy 1851.

Schrader, Otto, b. 1855. Prof. Jena; antiquarian and philologist. Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples, tr. 1890.

Schrank, Franz Von Paula. 1747-1835. Prof, of Botany at Munich. Naturhistorische Briefe uber Oestrich, 1785; Anfangsgrunde der Botanik, 1785; Baiersche Flora, 1789; Sammlung naturhistorischer tind physikalischer Aufsdtze, 1796; Grundriss einer Naturgeschichte der PJlanzen, 1803; Flora Monacensis, 1811-18.

Schrcbcr, Johann Christian Daniel Von. 1739-1810. Prof, at Erlangcii. Beschreibung der Griiser nebst ihren Abbihhingen nach der Tiatur, 1769-1810; De Persea JEgyptiorum commentationes. 1790-92.

Schrelner, Olive (now Mrs. Crinwright), b. ab.1863. Anglo-African novelist. Story of an African Farm, 1883; Dreams, 1890; Trooper Peter Halket, 1897.

Schrevellus, Corneus, 1615-1664. Prof. Leyden 1642; ed. sundry classics. His Greek-Latin lexicon. 1654, was long and widely used.

Schreyer, Adolf, 1828-1895. German animal painter, especially of sheep.

Schrockh, Johann Matthias, 1733-1808. Prof. Wittenberg 1761. Ch. History, 45 vols.. 1768-1812.

SchrOder, Friedrich Ludwig, 1744-1816. German actor, eminent in Lear and other Shakespearean parts; manager at Hamburg 1771.

SchrOder, Sophie (burger), 1781-1868. German actress, noted till 1840 in tragic parts.—Her daughter, WlLHELMINE (mme. Devrient), 1804-1860, was a famous singer.

Schroter, Johann Hieronymus, 174.5-1816. Oberamtmann at Lilienthal near Bremen: there he built a small observatory, and for 34 years pursued the study of the heavens, particularly the planets.

Schnbart, Christian Daniel, 1739-1791. German poet and satirist, imprisoned 1777-87.

Schubert, Franz Peter, 1797-1828. Most fecund melodist of all times, pioneer in modern harmonization, and creator of

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of compositions, but was very poor. He wrote much, but not successfully, for the stage; none of his operas are in the current lists of to-day. Of his orchestral compositions two symphonies, one in C (his last, No. 9) and an unfinished one in B minor, are in the repertoires of practically all concert institutions. Of his chamber music the best known pieces are 9 string quartets in A minor and D minor and a quintet in C (Op. 163). His pianoforte and church compositions are very numerous, but all this mass of music is left in the shade by his songs with pianoforte accompaniment, which number ab. 800.

Schnchardt, Hugo, b. 1842. Prof. Halle 1873, and Gratz 1876; writer on philology.

Schueller, Gustav. 1787-1834. Prof. Tubingen. Grundsdtze der Agriculturehemie, 1831; Flora von Wurtemberg, with George von Martins, 1834; and many dissertations.

Schuercr, Emil, Ph.D., b. 1844. Prof. Giessen 1878, Kiel 1890. Hist. Jewish People, 1874, tr. 1886-90.

Schulte, Johann Frikdrich. b. 1827. Prof. Prague 1855, Bonn 1871; Old Catholic leader; prolific writer on Ch. history and law.

Schultens, Albert, 1686-1750. Prof. Fi anecker 1711, Leyden 1729. His Origines Hebrcea, 1724-38, is of historical importance.

Schulten, Joseph August. 1773-1831. Prof. Landeshut. Oestreichs Flora, 1794; Flora Austriaca, 1800; Geschichte und Literatur der Botanik, 1817.

Schultz, Hermann, b. 1836. Prof. Gottingen 1876; follower of Ritschl. O. T. Tlieology, 1869, tr. 1892.

Schultz, Karl Heinrich, 1798-1871. Prof. Berlin. Die Natur der lebendigen PJlanze, 1823-28: Natiirliches System des Pflanzenreichs, 1832; Sur la circulation et sur les vaisseaux lactifires dans les plantes, 1839: Die Anaphytose oder Verj&ngen der Pflanzen, 1843; Aeues System der Morphologie der Fflanzen. 1847.

Schultze, Karl August Julius Fritz, b. 1846. Prof. Jena and Dresden; writer on philosophy and education.

Schultze-Delltz§ch, Hermann. 1808-1883. Founder of the German co-operative movement; prominent in the Parliament of 1848. He founded the first co-operative loan society 1850. on English models. He devoted his life to the advancement of this movement, acting as counsel for the united societies for many years, and editing a periodical in their interests. Association, 1862; Vorschuss und Kreditvereine, 1863; Die Genossenschaften in den eingelnen Geuerbzweigen.

Scllllltze'8 Powder. Explosive containing nitrolignin as its main ingredient, introduced in Germany by E. Shultze soon after gun-cotton was invented. It is used mainly as a sporting powder. Nitrolignin is made by nitrating wood, from which all resinous matter has been removed, and then granulating it by grinding. See GUN COTTON and NITROCELLULOSE.

Schumacher, Heinrich Christian. 1780-1850. Prof. Copenhagen 1810-21; he founded Astronoviische Nachrichten, 1821, best known of astronomical journals.

Schumann, Robert, 1810-1856. German composer, leading spirit in the Romantic movement in music; profoundly poetical and original artist, keen and kindly critic. He founded a journal 1834 in which to champion musical progress, soon became a power, and was insane from 1854. Among his compositions are four symphonies, an opera, Genoveva, several concert overtures, one of the loveliest of pianoforte concertos, many small pieces for the pianoforte with poetical titles and contents, two cantatas. Paradise and the Peri, and The Pilgrimage of the Rose, music to part of Goethe's Faust, and to Byron's Manfred, three string quartets, other chamber pieces and many songs.—His wife, Clara Josephine (wieck), 1819-1896, m. 1840, was a pianoforte virtuoso. She played in public at 10, began her artistic travels at 13, and taught 1878-92 at a conservatory in Frankfort-on-the-Main.

Schurcr, EMli, b. 1844. Prof. Giessen 1878. Hist. Jeu-s, tr. 5 vols. 1886-90.

Schurman, Jacob Gould. LL.D., b. 1854 in Prince Edward Island. Prof. Cornell Univ. 1886, pres. 1892. Kantian Ethics, 1881; Darwinism, 1888.

Schurz, Carl. LL.D., b. 1829 in Germany. U. S. Minister to Spain 1861; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862, Major-gen. 1863-65, serving in Va. and at Gettysburg and Chattanooga; U. S. Senator from Mo. 1869-75; Sec. Interior 1877-81; ed. N. Y. Evening Post 1881-84; active in all political reforms. Life of Clay, 1887.

SchiiKtiele, Christian. 1824-1879. French-American historical painter, prof. Phila. Academy from 1868. Some of his works are well-known through engravings.

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