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St. Thomas.

Grant secured the purchase of the island for the U. S. for $7,500,000. but the Senate refused to ratify the treaty. Area 33 sq. m.; pop.. 1890. 12,019.

St. Victor, Adam Of. See Adam Of St. Victor.

St. Victor, Hugo Of, 1097-1141. Flemish mystical theologian.

Saint-Victor, Paul De, 1827-1881. French author and journalist, noted for elaborately brilliant style. Hommes et Dieux, 1867; Ij-s Deux Masques, 1879-83; Victor Hugo, 1885.

St. Vincent. One of the Windward Is., W. Indies, 105 m. vv. of Barbadoes; discovered 1498: held by Caribs till 1795, and since by the British. Area 132 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 41,054.

St. Vincent, Cape. See Cape St. Vincent.

St. Vincent, John Jervis, R.N.. Earl, 1734-1823. Admiral 1795, Earl 1797.

St. Vitus'* Dance. See Chorea and Dancing Mania.

Saka. Siamese game of backgammon, played on the same board and in the same manner as the European game, except that the tunicula or little tower of the classical writers, through which the dice are thrown, is retained, the dice being discharged into it from a cannon-shaped ivory cylinder called Krabok.

Sakuntala. Sanskrit dramatic poem by Kalidasa. tr. 1789.

Sakyamunl. See Buddha.

Sala, George Augustus Henry, 1828-1895. English journalist, novelist, and descriptive writer; founder of Temple Bar. Life, 1895.

Salaam. Oriental salutation, usually accompanied by the words meaning "Peace be with you!" In India the body is inclined, sometimes almost to the ground, with the palm of the right hand upon the forehead. Strict Mohammedans never give the salaam to an unbeliever.

Salaberry, Charles Michel De, 1778-1829. Canadian officer, prominent in the war of 1812-15.

Salad. Lettuces, endive, and other herbs eaten raw, dressed with vinegar, oil, and other condiments. They contain more of the mineral matter than when boiled.

Saladin, 1137-1193. Ruler of Egypt 1171 and Syria 1184. He invaded Palestine with 80.000 men, routed the Christians at Tiberias July 4,1187, and took Jerusalem Oct. 2. This gave rise to the 3d Crusade, 1189, and a series of brilliant conflicts between S. and Richard Coeur de Lion, followed by a 3 years' truce, Sept. 1192.

Salado, Rio. River of Argentina, rising in the Andes and flowing s.e. to the Parana; near 1,000 m. long.

Sal Alembroth. Made from corrosive sublimate. Its composition is expressed by HgCl,2NH4Cl.H,0.

Salamanca. Town of w. Spain, on the Tormes, 110 m. n.w. of Madrid; taken 222 B.C. by Hannibol, 1055 by Christians from Moors, and 1812 by the French, who were defeated by Wellington July 22, 1812. Its university, founded 1243, was famous and important till after 1600: it has a library of 80,000 vols., and ab. 400 students. Pop. ab.22,000.

Salamander. In America, loosely, most of the tailed Amphibians; in Europe, a single family distinct from New World forms. The common European animal has a skin which secretes much fluid, enabling it to withstand fire to a considerable degree. In s. U. S., the Gopher (Geomys) is called a salamander.

Salamaudrina (caducibranchiata, Myctodera, SalaMandroida). Sub-order of Urodela, characterized by ha\ing no external gills or gill apertures. They have four-toed front feet and five-toed hind limbs. The.eyes are furnished with lids. The skin is covered with warty glands. The land Salamanders are viviparous, but the larva? are deposited in the water. The aquatic Salamanders, known as Tritons or Newts, lay fertilized eggs upon plants in the water. The vertebra? are opisthoccelous. The general appearance of these animals is Lizard-like. See Axolotl, Amblystoma, and Salamander.

Salami*. Island s.w. of Attica, held successively b}T Mcgara and Athens; memorable for the decisive defeat of the Persian fleet 480 B.C. by the Greeks under Themistocles. It

Salam is.

is irregular in shape, the surface is mountainous and wooded in some parts; on the coast, wheat, wine, and olives are grown.

Sal Ammoniac. NH.Cl. Ammonium Chloride (q.v.). It is found occasionally as a natural mineral substance in volcanic regions, like those of Italy and the Hawaiian Islands.

Salamstone. Reddish and bluish colored varieties of sapphires from Ceylon.

Salary Grab. General increase in Federal salaries 1878; especially retroactive section of act of March 4, which raised the salaries of members of Congress for the two years preceding. This was repealed in consequence of popular indignation, but the salaries of the President and Justices were not reduced.

Sains, Mariano, 1797-1867. Mexican general 1839; prominent in the war of 1846-47; banished 1860-62.

Salaverry, Felipe Santiago De, 1806-1836. Peruvian general 1834; supreme chief or dictator 1835; executed.

Salband. Term used in the same sense as Flucan and Selvage (q.v.).

Saldanlia Olivelra e Daun, Joao Carlos, 1791-1876. Portuguese Marshal 1833: in exile 1836-46; Duke 1846; Premier 1847-49. 1851-56. and 1870; Ambassador at Rome 1862-64 and 1866-69, and to England from 1870.

Sale. Transfer of property, or contract to transfer it, for a price in money; generally, in English law, movable personal property. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a transaction is sale or bailment, lease or mortgage: but if it is to evenutate in the transfer of the general property in a chattel for a money consideration, it is a sale. In case of a contract for the present sale of a specific chattel, title passes upon the formation of the contract, though the seller has a right to retain the chattel until the price is paid; in case of a contract to sell in the future, title will pass as soon as the chattel is unconditionally appropriated to the contract by the act or assent of both parties. At common law, no one can give a better title to goods than he possesses (except in case of sales in market overt in England): but this has been modified to some extent by Factors' acts and other statutes.

Sale, George, ab.1690-1736. English translator of the Koran, 1734; eminent as an Oriental scholar.

Sale, Sir Robert Henry, 1782-1846. Anglo-Indian officer from 1795; Major-gen. and Knight 1839 for services in Afghanistan, especially at Ghazni; besieged at Jellalabad Nov. 1841April 1842, but victorious; niortallv wounded in battle with the Sikhs.

Salem. Poetical name of Jerusalem; as previously of a

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city, probably in middle Palestine, of which Melchizedek (q.v.) was king (Gen. xiv.).

Salem, or Shelam. Town of s. India, 120 m. s.w. of Madras; noted for its cotton manufactures. Pop., 1891, 67,750.

Salem. City of Essex co., Mass., on the n. shore of Massachusetts Bay, 16 m. n.e. of Boston; settled 1626, chartered 1836; seat of the Essex Institute and the Peabody Academy of Science. It has some fisheries and varied manufactures, principally of leather. Ab.1780-1825 its foreign commerce was extensive, but of late it has dwindled greatly. Pop., 1890, 30,801.

Salem. Capital of Oregon since I860: in Marion co., on the Willamette, 52 m. s. of Portland; founded ab. 1835, chartered 1853: site of Willamette Univ. (q.v.), opened 1844. Pop., 1890, 4,515, since much increased.

Salem Witchcraft. Mania against so-called witchcraft which raged generally in the American colonies, and with special violence at Salem, Mass. 19 persons were put to death 1692, and 150 lay in prison awaiting their fate, when the popular reaction against the excitement set in.

Saleratus. Term applied in the U. S. to a baking powder, consisting of a mixture of salt, cream of tartar, and carbonate of soda. Formerly potassium bicarbonate.

Salerno. Town of s. Italy, 33 m. s.e. of Naples; settled from Rome 194 B.C.; Robert Guiscard's capital 1077; sacked b3' Henry VI. 1195; seat of a university 1150-1817, and of a school



of medicine famous ab.900-1300: it began to decay by reason of the introduction of Arabian medical knowledge, and was dissolved by Napoleon I. in 1811. Pop. ab 39,000.

Sale*. Francis De. See Francis Of Sales.

Salcttc, La. Village of s.e. France, 28 m. s.s.e. of Grenoble; noted for alleged appearances of Virgin Mary 1846 and later; ■hence a place of pilgrimage till disapproved 1879 by the pope.

Saleyer Is. Group of ab.30 in E. Indies, s.w. of Celebes. Area near 300 sq. m., pop. ab.50,000, chiefly Malays.

Salford. Suburb of Manchester. Pop., 1891, 198,139.

Salicaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermaz and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising two genera (Sali.v. the willows, and Populus, the poplars and as:pens) and ab.200 species, most widely distributed throughout the temperate and frigid zones of the n. hemisphere; called the Willow family.

Salicetum. Garden devoted to the cultivation of willows.

Salicln. CiaHn.07. White crystalline glucoside, found in willow bark, and in the bark and leaves of poplars; decomposed by boiling with water into dextrose and saligenin. It is given in intermittent fevers.

Salle Law. Legal manual regulating the succession to private property, and supposed to exclude females and their descendants from succession to thrones. It regulated the succession to the French crown, and was the cause of the 100 vears' war with England. It was operative also in Spain 1713-1830.

Salicylic Acid. C„H,:OH.COOH. Orthohydroxybenzoic Jicid; white crystalline substance, melting at 155° C, soluble in hot water; prepared by the decomposition of methyl salicylate by alkalies, but commonly by the action of carbonic acid upon sodium phenylate; important antiseptic, largely used in pharmacy, in the manufacture of methyl salicylate, and for the preservation of beer, cider, and manufactured preserves.

Salicylic Aldehyde. C,H,:OH.CHO. Orthohydroxyfcenzaldehyde, formed by the oxidation of saligenin, and found

in Spiraea; liquid, bpt. 196.5° C, with a strong odor; easily oxidized to salicylic acid; made by treating phenol with chloroform and caustic soda.

Salicylic Methyl Ether. See Methyl Salicylate.

Salient Angle. Interior angle of a polygon less than 180°.

Salient Polygon. One in which all angles are salient.

Salient Polyhedron. One all plane sections of which are salient polygons.

Salieri, Antonio, 1750-1825. Italian opera composer and conductor, pupil of Gluck; Court Chapelmaster at Vienna 17881824; teacher of Schubert. His intrigues against Mozart led to the Action that he had poisoned Mozart.

Saligenin. C,H4:OH.CH,OH. Orthohydroxybenzyl alcohol; white plates, melting at 82° C.; prepared by the decomposition of salicin. It gives salicylic aldehyde and acid upon oxidation.

Salli. College of priests at Rome, dedicated by Numa to the service of Mars. Every March, with songs and dances, they made solemn processions about the city and the sacred places.

Sail meter. See Hydrometer.

Saline. Place where salt is obtained by the evaporation of natural brines.

Saline Plants. Plants growing on the seashore or in salt water. Few of them are aquatic, except Sea-weeds. See Eel Grass and Saltworts.

Salisbury, or New Sarum. Capital of Wiltshire, 84 m. w.s.w. of London; noted for its fine cathedral, erected 12201330. The cathedral is 473 ft. long and the spire 404 ft. high.

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The old cathedral was at Old Sarum, 2 m. off, and was removed 1220. Old Sarum was an important town in Roman times. Pop., 1891, 17,362.

Salisbury, Richard Anthony, 1761-1829. English botanist. Paradisus Londinensis, 1806-7; Genera of Plants, 1866.

Salisbury, Richard Neville, Earl Of, d. 1661. Yorkist chief in the War of the Roses; executed.

Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil. MarQuis Of, b. 1830. M.P. 1853; Viscount Cranborne 1865; Sec. for India 1866-67 and 1874; Marquis 1868; Conservative leader; Foreign Sec. 1878-79: leader, with Disraeli, of opposition 187985; Premier 1885, 1886-92. and since 1895.

Salisbury, Robert Cecil. Earl Of. 1550-1612. Son of Lord Burleigh; Minister of Elizabeth and James I.; Earl 1605; Lord High Treasurer 1608.

Saliva. Mixed secretion of the salivary glands and of the mucous glands of the mouth, an alkaline fluid whose most important constituent, in man, is ptyalin, a substance changing starch into grape sugar in an alkaline medium. The other uses of saliva are chiefly mechanical, moistening the food dur

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ing masticatioo, rendering the resulting bolus more easily swallowed. The composition of saliva is water 99.4, ptyalin 0.14, mucus 0.15. fat 0.13, sulphocyanides 0.01, salts 0.17; also globulin and mucin in small quantities.

Salivary Glands. Three pairs of racemose glands secreting the saliva. The parotid, situated in front of the external ear down to the angle of the jaw; the submaxillary, just below the base of the lower jaw; and the sublingual, on the floor of the mouth. They communicate with the cavity of the mouth by means of ducts, through which the saliva flows.

Sallust, Caius SallusTius Crispus, 86 - 34 B.C. Roman historian of great merit, from whom we have a history of the Conspiracy of Cataline, another of the War with Jugurtha, and

fragments of a general hisSa ivary Glands: . tr> t na T> n

, *•* , Ji « ... w .,, tory of Rome from 78 B.C.

1, the parotid gland; 2, the submaxillary J

§land; 3. the sublingual gland: 4, Steno's Sall>'-Port. Passage by uct; 5, Wharton's duct; 6. Bartholin's i • u i

duct; T.masseter muscle; 8. mastoid proc which a garrison may make

eas; 9 digastric muscle; 10 internal Jugu-a sudden attack upon belarveln; 11.external carotid artery; 12,the • r tongue. siegers.

Salmagundi. Italian dish, originally consisting of minced meat, eggs, anchovies, onions, and oil; now a mixture of various ingredients, a miscellany. The word is sometimes corrupted in English to salomon-gundy.

Salma§lu», Claudius, 1588-1653. French scholar, prof. Leyden 1631; considered the most learned man of his day. His Defensio regiapro CaroloL, 1649, was acrimoniously answered by Milton.

Salmo. Genus of family Salmonidce, including S. salar, Atlantic Salmon, S. trutta, Sea-Trout or Salmon Trout, and the Black Spotted Trout of the rivers and lakes of Europe and w. N. America, of which S. fario, S. gairdneri, S. irideus, and <S. purpuratus are examples. The Atlantic Salmon is steel blue above, with black spots, most numerous in the female, distributed on the back. There are teeth on the vomer, which disappear with age. When the salmon runs up the rivers, the color fades and the male acquires orange patches and gets a more hooked under jaw. The average weight is less than 15 lbs., though an exceptional weight of over 80 lbs. is recorded. The salmon is rare in rivers s. of Cape Cod, although, before the Uudson, Delaware, and streams of N. J. were polluted by factory waste, they ran in these streams. After spawning.


Salmon Fishery on the Rhine.

the parents are called kelts, which, unlike the quinnat. do not perish, but return to the sea. The spawning is done in the fall and the eggs hatch as parrs the next spring. They remain in the river two years, descending the third spring. When a year old, the parr is called a pink, and when it descends the river, it is a smolt. In the sea it grows rapidly into a grilse, or young Sea Salmon. The parr has two or three black spots on the opercle, several black and orange spots on the back, and 12 to 15 bluish bars on the sides. As it becomes a smolt the fins get darker. The salmon which have become land-locked are the variety sebago. Salmo truttais a smaller, weaker fish, with smaller scales. Black Spotted Trout salmon of fresh water have the vomerine teeth persistent. S. fario is the European Trout, the corresponding American form being the

Rainbow Trout, S. irideus, which is believed to become the S. gairdneri or Steel-head as it grows older. It returns to the sea when the fall run of Quinnat occurs. These fish are small in small streams and in warmer waters, while in lakes and the north a weight of 20 lbs. (6 in the irideus) is attained. For the fish which is called Brook Trout, Lake Trout, etc., in e. U. S.( see SALVELINUS. In 1891 the salmon packed in Alaska was 800,000 cases, on the Columbia River 390,000 cases, and elsewhere in U. S. 200,000 cases, 48 lbs. in each case.

Salmon. Fish of this name may be referred to two genera, Oncorhynchus and Salmo (q.v.). The former includes the Quinnat or Columbia River Salmon; the latter includes the Atlantic Salmon. See Isospondyli and Salmonidce.

Salmon, George, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., b. 1819. Prof. Trinity Coll., Dublin. 1866, Provost 1888: writer onHigher Algebra, Conic Sections, Higher Plane Curves, and Geometry of three dimensions. Introduction to N. T.; Gnosticism, 1887.

Salmon Brick. Brick intermediate in quality between, soft and hard, and usually having a salmon color.

Salmoud, Stewart Dingwall Fordyce. D.D.. b. 1838. Prof. Free Ch. Coll., Aberdeen, 1876; ed. Critical Review, 1891. Sabbath, 1880; Immortality. 1894.

Salmoneu§. In Grecian Mythology, son of ^Eolus, the founder of the JEoMc race. He boasted "himself the equal of Zeus, and was slain by him.

Salmonidse. Isospondylous fishes, with elongate body covered with cycloid scales, the head naked, a supplemental bone forming the lateral margin of upper jaw, an adipose fin present, caudal fin forked, abdomen rounded, no oviduct (eggs escaping by abdominal pore), and many large caeca at pyloric^ end of stomach. Included are Whitefish (Coregonus), Gravling (Thymallus), Quinnat (Oncorhynchus), Salmon Trout (Salmo), and Chars (Salvelinus).

Salmon River. In Idaho, flowing n. and w. to the Snake; length 450 m. The S. R. Mts. are on its head waters.

Salm-Salm, Felix. Prince, 1828-1870. Prussian officer. Col. U. S. Vols. 1861-65; aid to Maximilian 1866-67: killed at Gravelotte. Diary in Mexico, 1868.—His wife, Agnes (leCLERCQ). 1842-1881, m. 1862, American actress, bore part in his campaigns, labored to save Maximilian, and pub. Ten Years, 1875.

Salnavc, Sylvain, 1832-1870. Haytian insurrectionist; Pres. 1867-69; executed.

Said, Gaspar Da, ab.1550-1610. Italian maker of viols it» Brescia. His best instruments are Violas (q.v.) and biuss viols. He was the teacher of Maggini (q.v.), and the founder of the Brescian School of violin making.

Salon", Basile De, b. 1829. Russian engineer, Director-gen. of railways 1887.

Salol. C.H4:OH.COOC»H6. Phenyl salicylate; colorless crystals, prepared by the action of phosgen upon a mixture of salicylic acid and phenol; largely used as an antiseptic, and in, medicine.

Salome. 1. Wife of Zebedee, mother of the Apostles James and John, perhaps sister of the Virgin Mary. 2. Daughter of Herodias (Matt. xvi.).

Salomon, Johann Peter, 1745-1815. German-English violinist and composer.

Salomon, Louis Etienne Felicite, 1820-1888. Pres. of Hayti 1880-88. Salomon Island-.. See Solomon Islands.

Salona. City of Dalmatia, on an arm of the Adriatic: Roman colony 78 B.C.; long a prominent seaport; destroyed by Avars 639; birthplace of Diocletian, whose vast palace, occupied 305-313, was 3 m. s.w., on the site of Spalato.

Salonien. City of Macedonia, at the head of the Gulf of S.; of much commercial importance; anciently Thessalonica. (q.v.). Pop. ab.122,000. one-half Jews.

Salpa-fomies. See Ascidians.

Sal Prunella. Fused niter cast into sticks or balls.

Salps (SALPlD-ffl). Tunicates of the class Thalliacea (q.v.). Salpa is the typical example. They are cylindrical, with bodies surrounded by hoop-like bands of muscles. The sexual animals are produced by budding from solitary forms, by means of a stolon, so as to'be united in chains, each hermaphrodite zooiii containing only one egg, which develops viviparously, by means of a placenta. The ovum matures before the sperma

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Inhabitants of the Island of Salsctte. temples; the great Keneri cave belongs mainly to the 5th century. S. has many rice-fields and palm trees. Area 241 sq. in.,* pop. ab. 112,000.

Saltlf y, or Oyster-plant. Tragopogonporrifolixis. Coarse herb of the Composite family, native of Europe; extensively cultivated in gardens for its large white root, used as a vegetable; sparingly introduced as a weed into N. America.

Sal Soda. See Sodium Carbonate.

Salnuginoug. Plants growing naturally in sandy soil.

Salt. Acid, basic, normal, neutral, double, primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. See Salts.

Salt. NaCl. Common salt is a chemical compound of sodium and chlorine. Though readily soluble in water, it is found abundantly in rock form as an important mineral component of the earth's crust. Rock salt, known mineralogically as halite, occurs in all the more extensive geological formations from the Silurian to the Tertiary, and is sometimes found in beds hundreds of feet in thickness and of great lateral extent. Salt is also obtained from the waters of the ocean, of salt lakes, and of salt springs, as well as from the deep-seated


brines in stratified porous rocks that are reached by borings through the superjacent strata. In 1895 the production of salt in the U. S. was over 13,000,000 barrels of 280 lbs. each, of which over 5,000,000 were obtained from Silurian formations in N. Y., and nearly 4,000,000 from Silurian and Subcarboniferous formations in Mich. Among the largest and best known of the salt deposits of the world are those lying in a territory that includes a large area in N. Germany and extends both e. and w. beyond its limit. The product o"f U. S. 1895 was 173,062 tons of rock-salt, and 1,539,178 tons of evaporated salt.

Salt, Sir Titus, 1803-1876. English cloth manufacturer and philanthropist; founder of a model village, Saltaire, near Bradford, with schools, workmen's institutes, etc., 1853; M.P. 1859, Baronet 1869.

Salt, Spirit Of. Old name for hydrochloric acid.

Saltatoria. 1. Orthoptera, with jumping legs. The group

includes the Acridiidje (Orassltoppers), Locustid^e, and GrylLid^e (q.v.). 2. Group of Australian Marsupials. See Ento


Saltatory Evolution. 1. Development of new species suddenly by sporting or otherwise, but still biogenetically. A few instances of sporting are known, and doubtless a species could be established in this way; but such sports are the results of emphasis of the forces ordinarily at work producing variation, hence not necessary to a theory of the origin of species. 2. That form of evolution which undergoes periodic accelerations in the geologic history of the earth. Doubtless but one law need be evoked to explain all these modifications.

Salt-Cake. Anhydrous sodium sulphate. The salt-cake process for making Sodium Carbonate (q.v.) is so called because sodium chloride is heated with sulphuric acid, which forms salt-cake.

Salter, John William, 1820-1869. Paleontologist to Geol. Survey of Gt. Britain: with Dr. H. Woodward he prepared a tabular view of British Fossil Crustacea.showing their range in time.

Saltigradre. See Spiders.

Salt Lake City. Capital of Utah and of S. L. co., at w. base of the Wasatch Mts., near the shore of Great Salt Lake. It was founded by Brigham Young July 1847; the main body of the Mormons came in the fall of 1848. After 1870 Gentiles settled here in increasing numbers. The Great Mormon

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Temple, a massive granite structure, was 40 years in building and cost ab. $4,000,000: it measures 186 by 9§ ft. The Tabernacle is a huge auditorium with self-supported wooden roof seating 10.000 people. The Univ. Of Utah (q.v.) was founded 1850. Pop., 1890, 44,843.

Salt of Saturn. Acetate of lead.

Salt of Sorrel. Binoxalate of potassium.

Salt of Tartar. Crude carbonate of potassium.

Saltontttall, Sir Richard, 1586-1658. First assistant of Mass. 1630: in England from 1631; Envoy to Holland 1644.— His son. Richard. 1610-1694. was in Mass. 1630-72. and assistant 1637.—His grandson, GURDON. 1666-1724, was Gov. of Conn, from 1708.—His nephew, Richard, was Judge of Mass. Superior Court 1730-55.—His grandson, Leverett, LL.D., 1783-1845, was Mayor of Salem, Mass., 1836-38, and M.C. 1838-43.—His grandson, Leverett, 1825-1895, was Collector of Boston 1885-89.

Saltpeter, Niter, or Potassium Nitrate. KNO,. Obtained principally from the natural nitrate soils of India, and the artificial niter beds of France, Germany, Sweden and Hungary: the former yields about one-fifth the weight of the soil in impure crystals, w hich is the source of the supply in U. S.: the artificial beds yield about a quarter of a pound per bushel of earth annually. See Potassium Nitrate, Niter, and Nitrification.

Salt-Rheum. Popular name for weeping form of eczema.

Salts. Generally, crystalline compounds, formed by the treatment of an acid with abase. They consist of a metal and an acid radical; e.g., sodium sulphate, Na3SO<. Normal or neutral salts are those containing neither acid nor basic residues. They are derived from acids by the replacement of all the available hydrogen by a metal or metals. Acid salts are those derived from acids by replacing a portion of the available hydrogen by a metal; e.g., acid potassium sulphate, KHSOt. Basic salts are those derived from bases by replacing a portion of the hvdroxyl with an acid residue; e.g., basic bismuth nitrate, Bi(OH),NO„ derived from Bi(OH)s. Primary salts are those derived from polybasic acids by the replacement of one atom of hydrogen by a univalent metal; e.g., primary sodium phosphate is NaHjPO^ If the metal is bivalent, the primary salt is derived from two molecules of the acid: thus primary calcium phosphate is CaHi(P04)a. Secondary salts are those derived from the acid by the replacement of two atoms of hydrogen by the metal. In a tertiary salt the metal replaces three atoms, hydrogen, etc. Double salts are those

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formed by the union of molecules of different substances; e.g., potassium and zinc sulphates unite to form K1SO,,ZnS04.6HJ0. Aluminium and sodium chlorides form AlCl>.3NaCl. See EtheReal, Salts.

SaltilH, Edgar, b.1858. American novelist. Philosophy of Disenchantment, 1885: Anatomy of Negation, 1886; Tristrem Varick, 1888; Tlie Pace that Kills. 1889.—His cousin, Francis, 1849-1889, pub. Honey and Gall, 1873, and left many poems, some of which his fattier printed in unique and luxurious form.

Salt Water. Always heavier than fresh water. For the Gulf of Mexico the weight per cubic foot is ab.63.9 lbs., for the oceans ab.64.1, while for the Dead Sea it is ab.73.

Saltwort. Salsola kali. Pungent leaved plant of the seashore and saline regions, natural family Chenopodiacece, of wide geographical range; also other species of the genus. Soda ash was formerly obtained from its ashes in Britain. S. sativa was used for the same purpose in Spain.

Salutation. Greeting by words, shake of the hands, bowing, embracing, or kissing.

Salute. Graded compliment by the Army or Navy to persons of distinction or superior rank, by firing of guns, manning the yards and otherwise; from 17 to 21 guns.

Salvador. Anciently called Cuscatlan; smallest but most densely populated republic in America. Area 7,255 sq. m. The surface is high and mountainous, except a narrow strip along the Pacific: many of the mountains are volcanoes. The province was conquered for Spain by Alvaredo 1528. It became

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independent 1821; belonged to the Central American Confederacy 1823-39; and since 1853 has been an independent state. The country is greatly subject to earthquakes, and one volcano has been in constant activity for more than 100 years. Pop. ab. 800,000. San Salvador, the capital, has been repeatedly laid in ruins, the last time in 1873. In 1895 Nicaragua, Honduras and S. formed the Central American Union, which was joined by Costa Rica and Guatemala in 1897. Pop. ab. 25,000.

SalvadoracesR. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiosvermai, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Gamopetalce, comprising 3 genera and ab. 7 species, natives of the tropical and adjacent warm regions of e. Asia and of Africa; allied to the olive.

Salvage. Compensation, generally given by law, though sometimes agreed upon, for the saving of persons or property from sea perils. It is a lien on all the property benefited by the service, and is apportioned among claimants in proportion to the risk and responsibility borne by them.

Sal randy, Narcisse Achille, Comte De, 1796-1856. French historian of Poland 1827-29; Minister of Instruction 1837-39 and 1845-48; Envoy to Spain 1841-43, and to Piedmont 1843-45.

Salvatierra, Juan Maria De, 1648-1717. Italian missionary to Mexico; apostle and historian (1698-99) of California; Provincial of the Jesuits 1704-7.

Salvation Army. Organized under this name 1878 by | William Booth (q.v.); outgrowth of a work begun 1865 in I London, and called the Christian Mission 1869. Its labors have extended from England to all parts of the world, and have been efficient in aiding and reforming man}- whom the churches could not reach. Disregarding the conventional methods and employing a military system, street meetings, and plain and unprecedented means of attracting audiences, it has endured and surmounted much obloquy. It has some 11,000 officers, half of them women, with many corps and outposts, and circulates a multitude of papers and books. The founder and his sons direct its movements, and have outlined and attempted a gigantic philanthropic enterprise: see In Darkest England,

1890, and Life of Catherine Booth, 1893. Mr. and Mrs. BoothTucker, as commander and consul respectively, have had command in the U. S. since 1896. Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth, formerly in command, have been at the head of the Volunteers of America, a similar organization, since 1896. Salvator Rosa. See Rosa.

Salvelinutt. Genus of Satmonidm. including fishes known as Char in England and Trout in e. U. S. (The true Trout is confined w. of the Plains.) This genus is characterized by a deep vomer armed only on the chevron with teeth, and with the shaft covered by skin. The spots are paler than the ground; besides, there are red spots, and the lower fins are edged with red. The scales are minute and hidden. S. aljriniis of Europe is more graceful, shy, and slender than the American Char (S. fontinalis) or Brook Trout. The species most like the S. alpinus is S. oquassa of Rangeley Lakes. Me. The Brook Trout has no teeth on the vomer, and has large red spots on sides and black, mottled ones above. It spawns in Oct. and becomes mature at two years, when it is 6 in. long. In cold enough waters it may attain a weight of 10 lbs. The Great Lake (or Mackinaw) Trout has a strongly-toothed spur on the vomer. It attains a weight of from 20 to 80 lbs. It has no red spots; the dark ones are paler than the background.

Salverfonn. In Botany, corolla witji a rotate or crateriform limb raised on a slender tube; also known as Hypocraterimorphous, or, erroneously, Hypocrateriform.

Salve Regina. One of the antiphons of Virgin Mary; appointed in the Roman Breviary to be sung from Trinity Sunday till Advent.

Salvi, Gian. See Sassoferrato.

Salvlanus, 5th cent. Of Marseilles; author of Latin treatises, pub. 1878, on Providence and against avarice.

Salvinl, Tommaso, b.1830. Italian actor of high rank, eminent in Othello, Hamlet, Lear, Macbeth. Sommet's Gladiator, and other tragic parts: known in the U. S. 1873-74, 188182, and 1885-86; retired 1886.—His son, Alexander, 1861-1896. followed in his footsteps.

Salvinlacere. Order of Rhizocarpe<B, comprising the genera Salmnia and Azolla, small vascular cryptogams of aquatic habit.

Sal Volatile. Solution of carbonate of ammonia and alcohol, with a small amount of some volatile oil, as lemon or nutmeg, added. It is used as a smelling salt.

Salwen, or Salween. River flowing s.e. across Thibet, and s. through British Burmah to Gulf of Martaban. Length ab.700 m.

Salzburg. Old city of w. Austria, on the Salzach, 80 m. e.s.e. of Munich; long governed by its archbishops, whose minor coinage is abundant. The city is old, with crooked



streets and manv fine edifices and monuments. It is surrounded by a wall, pierced by 20 gates. It was the birthplace of Mozart. Pop., 1891, 27.644.

Samana Ray. Bay 37 m. long and 12 m. wide, on e. end of San Domingo. It forms a fine harbor and is on the route from New York to the Isthmus of Panama. The U. S. Senate refused to ratify a treaty for its purchase in 1870.

Samanlego, Felix Maria, 1742-1809. Spanish poetic fabulist.

Samara. Indehiscent dry fruit, containing a single seed and expanded at one end or all around into a flat wing-like structure, as in Maples, Elms, and Ashes.

Samara. City of e. Russia, on the Volga, at its junction with the S. Pop., 1891. 99,856.

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