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Samower. and wool

Carthamus tinctorius. Prickly annual herb or the Composite family, native of Europe and Asia; cultivated for its valuable red and yellow dye, which is obtained from the flowers. The sa (flower colors are very fleeting.

Safford, James Merrill, M.D., b. 1822. First State Geologist of 'IVnn. 1854-60 and 1871-95; prof. Vanderbilt Univ. 1875. Geology of Tenn,, with map, 1869.

Safford, Tkuman Henry, b. 1836. Director Chicago Observatory 1865; prof. Williams Coll. 1876.

Saffranlne. Largely GnHaiN,C1. Product of the oxidation of one molecule each of toluylene diamine, aniline, and orthotoluidine, dark powder, soluble in water. It pink, and cotton also upon a tannin


dyes silk mordant.

Saffron. Crocus sativtis. Herb of the natural family Iridacece, native of s. Europe; cultivated for its yellow stigmas, from which the dye saffron is obtained.

Saffron, Meadow. See Colchicum.

Saffron of Mars. Hydrated sesquioxide of iron with a, little undecomposed carbonate, used in medicine.

Sag. Amount of deflection from a horizontal line of a cord, tape, or chain; this is less the lighter the cord and greater the pull upon it. Let W be the weight of the cord, 1 its length, and P the horizontal pull, then the sag in the middle is Wl divided by 8P.

Sugar, or Sauqor. 1. Holy island at mouth of the Hugli, in e. India; annually visited by many pilgrims; scarcely habitable, from frequent destructive floods; area 225 sq. m. 2. Town of central India, on Lake S. Pop., 1891, 44,674.

Sagas. Ancient Scandinavian legends of considerable length, relating historical or mythical events. See ScandiNavian Literature.

Sagasta, Praxedes Mateo, b. 1827. Spanish liberal, member of several cabinets from 1868; Prime Minister 1881-83, 1885-90, 1892-95, and 1897.

Sage. Plants of the genus Salvia, herbs of the natural

family Labiatw. of wide geographical distribution. S. officinalis, native of Europe, is the garden sage; many species are cultivated for ornament.

Sage, Jerusalem. Phi o mis tuberosa. Coarse herb of the Mint family, native of Europe, sparingly introduced as a weed into N. America.

Sage, Wood. See Germander.

Sage, Alain Rene. See Lesaoe.

Sage, Gardner Avery, 1813-1882. Beuefactor of New Brunswick (N. J.) Theol. Sem. and other Reformed (Dutch) institutions. Founder of Sage Coll.


Sage (Saivia officinalis).

Sage, Henry Williams, 1814-1897. at Ithaca, N. Y.; benefactor of Cornell Univ

Sage, Russell, b. 1816. M.C. from N. Y. 1853-57; financier and railway operator.

Sagean, Mathieu. ab.1655-ab.1710. French-Canadian explorer of the lower Mississippi and some of its w. tributaries. His narrative was tr. 1862.

Sage Bush. Shrubs of the genus Artemisia, of the Composite family, with bitter aromatic foliage, natives of w. N. America.

Sage Coek. See Grouse.

Saghallen, or Sakhalin. Island off s.e. coast of Siberia, held by China till ah.1800, then by Japan, and since 1875 by Russia. It lias relics of prehistoric times, and coal mines worked by convicts, but is unfitted for agriculture. The na

tives are mostly Ainos. Length 670 m., area ab.29,000 sq. m pop. ab. 12,000.

Saginaw. City of S. co., Mich., on the S. River; settled 1849, chartered 1859, enlarged 1890. Its interests consist mainly of lumber and salt manufacturing. Pop., 1890, 46,822.

Saginaw Bay. Opening from Lake Huron into Mich. It receives S. River, 30 m. long.

Sagitta. Chaetognath worm, allied to the Nematodes; small, transparent, cylindrical, with a horizontal fin around the tail, which forms more than half of the body and contains a pair of cavities containing the testes. The dorsal and the ventral mesenteries of the body similarly separate two cavities containing the ovaries. The mouth is provided with bristles that act as toothed jaws.

Sagittal Plane. Median, longitudinal, vertical plane of bilaterally symmetrical animals, or any plane parallel to it. Sagittarius. See Zodiac.

Sagittate. Leaves or other organs with arrow-shaped bases.

Sago. Nutritive, farinaceous substance, obtained from the pith of certain species of Sagus and Cycas in Java and Singapore, by stirring with water, allowing to settle, and rubbing the deposit through sieves. Each tree yields ab. 600 pounds of sago. Graulated sago is prepared by allowing the mixture after passing through the sieve to fall into a heated vessel, so that it is slightly baked. Portland sago is a kind of arrowroot.

Sago Cheese. Name given in the U. S. to Schnabzioer Cheese (q.v.).

Sago-Palm. See Cycad.

Saguenay. River of Quebec, flowing e. from Lake St. John, tributary to the St. Lawrence; noted for salmon and scenery. Length ab.130 m., drainage area 23,716 sq. m.

Saguntuni. Greek city on e. coast of Spain, besieged by Hannibal 219 B.C.; famous for the heroic resistance of its

Seople, who perished with it: hence the 2d Punic war. The omans rebuilt it, and it is now Murviedro. Sahagun, Bernardino De. ab.1498-1590. Spanish Franciscan, missionary in Mexico from 1529; historian of the Aztecs and of the Conquest (pub. 1829): author of an Aztec grammar and dictionary 1576-78.

Sahama. Peak of the Andes, in Peru; altitude 22,350 ft.

Sahara. Largest desert region on the earth, in n. Africa. It extends westward to the Atlantic, n. to the Barbary states, s. to the Soudan and e. to Egypt, which maintains the desert character of the country to the Red Sea. It is a region of di


Sahara Landscape—Nomad Encampment.

versified surface, containing vast plains of sand without vegetation, ranging in elevation from below sea level to 2,000 ft. above it. ranges of mountains, and numerous oases produced bv springs and streams. Its area is estimated at 2.500,000 sq. ni.. its pop. at 1,000,000.

Saharanpur. Town of n. India, 125 m. n. of Delhi; capital of a British district. Pop.. 1891. 63,194.

Sahib. Appellation of Europeans in India.

Sahlite, or Salite. Variety of pyroxene, named from Sala, in Sweden, where it has been found in characteristic form.

Saigo, Takamori, 1825-1877. Japanese general. Minister of State 1870-73.

Saigon. Capital of French Cochin-China; on the S., 35 ni. from the China Sea. It has large exports, especiallv of rice. Pop., 1890, 16,213, or, with its suburb, Cholon, 56,138."

Sail. Assemblage of several breadths of canvas sewed together by the lists, and edged round with cord, fastened to the yards of a ship to make it drive before the wind. The use of sails is known to date from remote times. See RlCKJING.



Sail Cloth. Canvas for sails made of jute, hemp, cotton or flax. In thickness and weight it varies from 22 to 44 lbs. per bolt of 38 yds., 24 in. wide.

Sailor's Creek. In Va.; scene of the capture of Ewell's division, some 8,000 men, by Sheridan, April 6, 1865.

Sainfoin. Onobrychis sativa. Leguminous forage plant, resembling clover, but coarser and with larger leaflets. It is more prown in Europe, especially Germany, than in America. Also known as Saintfoin.

Saint. See Saints.

St. Alban, d. ab.303. English protomartyr.

St. Alban§. Capital of Franklin co., Vt.; raided Oct. 19, 1864, by Confederates from Montreal. A Fenian expedition crossed hence into Canada 1866, but was easily repelled.

St. Albans. City of Hertfordshire, 20 m. n.n.w. of London; scene of two battles. May 22, 1455, the Lancastrians were defeated and Henry VI. made prisoner; Feb. 17,1461, the

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Yorkists under Warwick were totally defeated by Queen Margaret, and the king rescued. The ruins of the Benedictine Abbey, founded 793, rebuilt ab.1100, are of architectural importance.

St. Ambrose. See Ambrose, St.

Saint Andrew, Order Of. See Andrew, Saint, Order Of.

St. Andrews. University town in e, Scotland, 42 m. n.e. of Edinburgh. Its abp. was the Primate. The ruins of its cathedral and castle, or bishop's palace, built ab.1160-1200, with other relics, are of historic importance.

St. Andrews, University Of. Founded 1411; oldest in Scotland. It acquired its 3 colleges before the Reformation: St. Salvator's was founded 1456, St. Leonard's 1512, St. Mary's 1537. Affiliated with it is Universitv Coll., Dundee, opened 1883.

St. Andrew's Cross. Ascyrum crtue-andreae. Yellowflowered herb of the natural family Hypericacece, native of the s.e. U. S.; named from the form of its flowers, the petals spreading like the arms of a Maltese cross.

St. Anthony's Fire. Erysipelas, a disease probably caused b}' a micrococcus; probably known in England as Rose.

Salnt-Arnaud. See Leroy De Saint-arnaud.

St. Asaph. Town of n. Wales, site of a very old bishopric, with the smallest British cathedral. Pop. ab. l^'O.

Salnt-Aubain, Andreas Nikolai De (carl, Bernhard), 1798-1865. Danish novelist.

St. Augustine. Capital of St. John's co., Fla.; on Matanzas Inlet; oldest city in the U. S.: founded by Menendez de Aviles 1565; occupied by the British 1762-83: acquired by U. S. 1821. There are many remains of old Spanish forts and* buildings. Pop., 1890, 4,742, much increased in winter by Northern visitors.

St. Bartholomew's Day. See Bartholomew. St. Bees. Village of Cumberland, former site of a nunnery, and since 1816 of a divinity college. St. Bernard. See Bernard, St.

St. Bernard. Breed of dogs, allied to the mastiff, but resembling the Newfoundland in temper and in his disposition to fetch and carry. Until lately confined to the Alps and ad

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St. Bernard Dog (Canis familiaria extrariua st. bemhardi). gence. There are two distinct varieties: the smooth and rough coated.

St. Bernard, Little. Alpine pass on the frontier of Savoy and Piedmont, Italy, s. of Mont Blanc. Hannibal is supposed to have crossed it in his invasion of Italy. Height 7,170 ft.

St. Brandan, or Brendan, ab.600. Irish monk, hero of legendary voyages; celebrated by Matthew Arnold.

St. Brandan's Isle. Imaginary island in the Atlantic, found on maps of 15th century; supposed retreat of King Roderick of Spain. The legend was current in the time of Columbus and after.

St. Bride. See Bridget, St.

Salnt-Castin, Jean Vincent De L'abadie, Baron De, 1650-1712. French colonist, trader, and soldier in Acadia and Me ; founder of Castine, Me.

St. Christopher. See St. Kitts.

St. Clair, Arthur, 1734-1818. British officer 1757-62, settled in Pa. 1764; Brig.-gen. 1776, Major-gen. 1777, serving in N. J., Pa., and later in the South; tried by court-martial and acquitted 1778 for evacuating Fort Ticonderoga 1777; delegate to Congress 1785-87, and its pres. 1787; Gov. Northwestern Territory 1789-1802; Commander-in-chief 1791-92; surprised and defeated by Indians in Ohio, near the Miami, Nov. 4, 1791. Narrative, 1812.

St. Clair, Lake. Link in the chain of great lakes of N. America, connected with Lake Huron by St. Clair R. and with Lake Erie by Detroit R. Area 396 sq. m., elevation 576 ft.

St. Clair River. Between Lakes Huron and St. Clair. Length 41 m.

St. Cloud. Suburb of Paris, on the Seine. Its chateau, wherein Henry III. was murdered 1589 and Napoleon's coup was made 1799, was burned by the Germans 1870. Pop., 1891, 5,660.

St. Columba. See Columba, St.

St. Croix River. 1. Branch of the Mississippi, boundary between Wis. and Minn. Length 168 m.. drainage area 7,164 sq. m., mean flow 6,165 cu. ft, per sec. 2. Between Me. and New Brunswick, flowing from Grand Lake s.e. to Passamaquoddy Bay. Length 75 m.

St. Cyr. Village near Versailles, site since 1806 of a military school, originally (1686-1793) one for girls of high birth. Pop., 1891, 3.613.

St. Davids. Ancient Welsh town, seat of a bishopric, in the Celtic times of metropolitan rank. The cathedral was restored 1862-78. Pop. ab.2,000.

St. Denis. 1. Suburb of Paris, site of a fine abbev-churoh, built 1137-^4, and restored 1848 and later. 2. Capital of ReUnion (q.v.). Pop., 1889. 30,560.

St. Dizicr. Town of n.e. France, on the Marne, 38 m. s.e. of Chalons; besieged for 6 weeks by Charles V. 1544; scene of battles between Napoleon and the Allies, Jan. 27 and March 26, 1814. Pop., 1891, 9,476.

Ste. Anne de Beaupre. Village on the St. Lawrence, 25 m. n.e. of Quebec; resort of many pilgrims, especially on July 26, to the shrine of St. Anne, whose relics are supposed to cure diseases.

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called electric brush, and observed when a metallic point is presented to the prime conductor of an electric machine. When seen in a pair, it is sometimes called Castor and Pollux. It is also known as Helena, and Corporant (holy body).

Sainte-Margueritc. See Lerins.

Sainte-Maure. See Benoit De Sainte-maure.

Saint Esprit, Order Of. Founded 1578 by Henry III. of France, replacing that of St. Michael, founded 1469; not increased since 1830.

St. Etiennc. City of France, on the Furens, 36 m. s.w. of Lyons; taken by Huguenots 1563 and 1570; terminus of the first French railroads, 1828—31. It is in a coal-mining region,

and has extensive manufactures, especially of hardware, firearms, ribbons, and laces. Pop., 1891, 133,443.

Saint-Evremond, Charles Marguetel De Saint Denis, Seigneur De, 1613-1703. French writer, in England from I662! His works, satires, comedies, essays, and miscellanea, were collected 1705.

Saintfoin. See Sainfoin.

St. Francis River. 1. Branch of the Mississippi, draining low alluvial lands in s.e. Mo. and n.e. Ark. Drainage area 7,884 sq. m., average flow 31,000 cu. ft. per sec., length ab. 450 m. It is navigable 150 m. to Wittsburg, Ark. 2. Branch of the St. Lawrence, in Quebec. Length ab. 120 m.

St. Francis Xavier, College Of. Founded 1847 in New York; directed by Jesuits. It has 20 instructors, ab. 150 students in the college proper, and ab. 940 in all.

St. Gall. 1. Mountainous canton of n.e. Switzerland, adjoining Lake of Constance Area 779 sq. m.; pop., 1888,229,441. 2. Its capital, long the site of a famous Benedictine abbey, founded by St. Gall (554-627), closed 1798. Pop., 1888, 27,910.

Saint Gaudens, Augustus, b.1848 in Ireland. N. A. 1889. American sculptor. Among his works are Farragut, in New York, and Lincoln, in Chicago.

St. George, Order Of. Founded 1769 by Catharine II. of Russia; conferred on a general who had taken the enemy's capital, secured an honorable peace, or beaten an army of 50,000. There is also a Bavarian order, dating from 1729.

St. George's Channel. Between Wales and Ireland.

St. Gottliard Tunnel. On the St. Gotthard railway, between s.e. Switzerland and Italy; built 1871-1883; 48,651 ft. long, 26 ft. wide, and 21 ft. high; longest railway tunnel yet constructed. See Tunneling.

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shores face the ocean as perpendicular cliffs from 600-2.000 ft. high, and are in many places cleft bv deep, narrow vallevs. The capital is Jamestown. Pop., 1891, 4,116.

St. Helens. Borough of Lancashire, 12 m. e. of Liverpool: formed 1868. Its manufactures consist largely of plate glass and chemicals. Pop., 1891, 71,288.

St. Heller. Capital of Jersey. Pop., 1891, 29,133.

Saint-Hilaire, Augustin Franqois Cesar Protjvencal De, 1799-1853. French botanist. Flora Brasiliance meridionalis, 1825-33; Legons de Botanique. 1840.

Saint-Hilaire, Emile Marc, ab.1790-1887. French biographer. Vie privie de Napoleon, 1838; Souvenirs ititimes, 6 vols.. 1838-40.

Saint-Hilaire, Jules Barthelemy. See Barthelemy Saint-hilaire. St. Ignatius' Beans. See Ignatius' Beans. Saintin, Jules Emile, 1829-1894. French painter, in New

York 1857-63.

Sain I inc. Joseph Xavier (boniface), 1798-1865. French dramatist and novelist, author of Picciola, 1863.

St. James, Court Of. Named from the palace built on the site of St. James's Hospital 1530-36; official residence of the English Court since 1698. The Levees are held here, but the Drawing-Rooms at Buckingham Palace.

St. James of Compostella, Order Op. Of Spanish origin; sanctioned by the pope 1175. It had great military power in the Middle Ages.

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St. John, New Brunswick.

by the British from 1713; populated largely by Tory refugees from Mass.; chartered 1785. It has a good harbor, a fair trade, and some manufactures. Pop., 1891, 39,179. St. John, Henry. See Bolinobroke.

St. John, Isaac Munroe, 1827-1880. Civil engineer, chiefly in Ky. and Va.

St. John, James Augustus. 1801-1875. Welsh author, biographer of Louis Napoleon. 1857, and Sir W. Raleigh. 1868. Egypt, 1834-44; Hellenes, 1842; Ms, 1853.—Of his sons, Percy Bolinobroke, 1821-1889, was a voluminous writer; Sir SpenSer, b. 1826. was Minister to Peru 1881, to Mexico 1884, biographer of Sir J. Brooke, 1879, and author of books on Borneo, 1862, and Haiti. 1884.

St. John, John Pierce, b. 1833. Gov. of Kan. 1878-82; Prohibitionist nominee for Pres. 1884.

St. John, Knights Of. See Hospitalers.

St. John River. Portion of the boundary between Me. and Canada, thence flowing s. and e. through New Brunswick to the Bay of Fundy. Length 450 rn., drainage area 26,000 sq.m.

St. John's. Capital of Newfoundland; on e. coast; partly burned 1846 and 1892. It has a good harbor, and large exports of tish. Pop., 1891, 29,007.

St. John's Rrcad. See Carob.

St. John's College. At Annapolis, Md.; chartered 1784; opened 1789, succeeding King William's School, which began operations 1701. The State appropriates $15,000 annually. There are 14 instructors, ab. 100 students of collegiate grade, and 175 in all.

St. John's College. At Fordham, New York City; incorporated 1846. It is managed by Jesuits, has 24 instructors, 217 students, and a library of 27.000 volumes.

St. John's Dance. See Dancing Mania. St. John's River. In Fla., heading near the e. coast and flowing n. parallel to it; navigable for small steamers. Length ab. 400 m.

St. John's University. Founded 1857 at Collegeville, Minn.; under R. C. control; entitled univ. 1883.

St. John's Wort. Herbs and shrubs of the genus Hypericum, natural family Hypericacece, of wide geographical distribution. H. perforatum, the common field species, is native of Europe, introduced as a weed into America.

St. Joseph. Capital of Buchanan CO., Mo., on the e. bank of the Missouri; settled 1826^3: chartered 1851. It is supplied with water by pumping from the Missouri, and is well sewered. It has extensive manufactures and a large trade, especially in grain and pork. Pop., 1890, 52,324.

St. Just, Louis Antoine Leon De, 17671794. French terrorist; Deputy 1792. pres. Larfie-ilowered St. Convention Feb. 1794; associated with RoJrfcu^X"X' be^pierre; guillotined July 28.

St. Kilda. Rocky islet, of the Outer Hebrides, 7 m. in circumference, 50 ro. w. of Harris. The seabirds are much used as food, their feathers and oil being exported. Sheep furnish wool from which a coarse blanket is woven. Area 1.9 sq. m.; pop., 1891. 71.

St. Kitts, or St. Christopher. W. India island, at n. end of Leeward sroup; discovered 1493; settled 1625; held by Britain since'1713. Area 68 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 30,876.


St. Lawrence. River of N. America, outlet of Lake Ontario. It makes with the system of the Great Lakes a waterway, 2,150 m. long, from the head of Lake Superior to the Gulf of St. L. Its navigability is interrupted by rapids in the river proper, by the Falls of Niagara, and by the Sault Ste. Marie, all which are passed by canals. Length of the river proper, 700 m., area of the entire river and lake system, 457,000 sq. m.

St. Lawrence, Gulf Of. Between Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. Cape Breton Island, and Newfoundland; connected with the Atlantic chiefly by a wide channel between the two latter; important for its fisheries; perilous through currents and fogs.

St. Lawrence Island. In Bering Sea; discovered 1728; adjunct of Alaska.

St. Lawrence University. At Canton, N. Y.; chartered 1856. The academic department was opened 1859, the theological 1658. It has 11 instructors and 135 students of both sexes.

St. Lcger, Barry, 1737-1789. British officer, in America 1756-85. Journal, 1780.

St. Leonards. Town near Hastings (q.v.).
St. Leonards. See Sugden.

St. Louis. Subdivision of the Carboniferous (q.v.) or Mountain Limestone.

St. Louis. Capital of a French colony in w. Africa, near the mouth of the Senegal. Pop. ab. 19,000.

St. Louis. Principal city of Mo., on the Mississippi, 21 m. below the mouth of the Missouri. Water is obtained from the Mississippi River by pumping. It is well sewered, the discharge being into the river below the city. It is one of the most important railroad centers in the U. S., 15 railroads entering here. The river is crossed by 5 bridges; that of Eads is of steel tubular arches, the maximum span of which is 515 ft. Its manufactures and its river commerce are very great. St. L. was founded 1764 as a trading post by the French. It passed to the U. S. 1804 with the province of Louisiana. Its early growth was slow, having in 1840 but 16.469 inhabitants, but since that time it has grown with great rapidity. Pop., 1890, 451,770.

Saint-Luc, La Corne De, 1712-1784. Canadian officer, prominent in the French wars; leader of Indians on the British side in the Revolution.

St. Lucas, Cape. S. point of lower California.

St. Lucia. One of the Windward Is., W. Indies; s. of Martinique; discovered 1502; colonized 1563; held by Great


Port Castries, St. Lucia.

Britain since 1803. Its possession was constantly disputed from 1640-1803 between the French and English. The principal products are sugar, logwood, and tobacco. Area 245 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 43,708.

St. Malic, Battle Of. April 24. 1293, between English and French fleets off the coast of Brittany. The French lost 180 ships and 8.000 men.

St. Mala. Seaport of Brittany, n.w. France; attacked bv British forces 1693, 1695. and 1758: birthplace of Chateaubriand and Lamennais. Pop., 1891, 9.227.

Saint-Marc Girardin. See Girardin.

St. Martin. One of the Lesser Antilles. W.Indies; held jointly since 1648 by France and Holland. Area 38 sq. m., pop. ab.7,500.

St. Martin, Alexis. U. S. soldier, who received a gunshot wound 1825, which healed, leaving an opening into the stomach, through which William Beaumont, M.D. (1785-1853), made many experiments on digestion.

Saint-Martin, Louis Claude, Marquis De, 1743-1803. French mystical philosopher, influenced chiefly by Jacob Boehme. His works were more appreciated in Germany than at home.



Saint-Martin, Vivien, 1802-1897. French geographer.

Saint Martin's Summer. Period of pleasant weather in England usually in Nov.; in other parts of the Atlantic in Sept., Oct., and Nov., succeeding a rainy period.

St. Mary's River. Between Lakes Superior and Huron; 40 m. long. Its rapids, descending 20 ft., are passed by a canal 5,400 ft. long, constructed 1853-55, improved 1870 and 1887-95.

St. Maurice River. In Quebec, tributary to the St. Lawrence. Length 363 m., drainage area 16,000 sq. m.

Saint-Memln, Charles Balthazar Julien Fevre De, 1770-1852. French engraver and painter, who took many portraits in America by aid of the physionotrace, a contrivance for copying profiles.

St. Michael and St. George, Order Of. British order, founded 1818; designed to honor such (Iouians, Maltese, or British) as had served with distinction in the Mediterranean.

St. Michaels. Most important of the Azores. Area 800 sq. m., pop. ab.130,000. It is noted for its oranges.

St. Michael's Mount. Ancient Dinsol. Rock in Mounts Bay, Eng., resembling Mont St. Michel in Normandy. It is connected with the shore by a causeway, and is surrounded by a castle dedicated to St. Michael. Altitude 238 ft.

St. Michel, Mont. Precipitous islet on the Norman coast, n.w. France; 18 m. s.w. of Avranches; 242 ft. high; site of an old Benedictine abbey, now a museum.

St. Morltz. Watering-place with mineral springs. See Enoadine.

St. Nicholas, or Nicolas, d. 826. Bishop of Myra in Lycia, in time of Diocletian, by whom he was imprisoned, and released by Constantine. Patron saint of Russia and of children. His day is Dec. 6.

St. Oiner. Town of n. France. 26 m. s.e. of Calais; site of an English R. C. college 1592-1794, now a theol. sem. Pop., 1891, 17,865.

Sainton, Charlotte Helen (dolby), 1821-1885. English contralto singer, composer of cantatas and songs.

St. Paul. City of Ramsey co., Minn., on the left bank of the Mississippi; settled 1838-41, chartered 1849-54. It is irregularly laid out, is supplied with water by gravity, from lakes back of the city, and has an excellent sewer system. Its railroad communications are ample, and its manufactures large and varied; its recent growth has been very rapid. Pop., 1890, 133,156.

St. Paul de Loan da. See Loanda.

St. Paul's Cathedral. In London, on the site of a church founded by Ethelbert 610, burned in 962, rebuilt, and

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edifice was erected bv Sir Christopher Wren in 1675-1710, at a cost of $3,700,000. It has ab. half the area of St. Peter's, being in form of a Latin cross, 500 ft. long, 250 ft. wide at the transept and 404 ft. high to the top of the cross. The interior dome rises 225 ft. from the pavement.

St. Paul's School. Founded in London 1509 by Dean Colet, and since maintained; now in W. Kensington. Its departments now admit 400 girls and 1,000 boys.

St. Petersburg. Capital of Russia, on the banks and islands of the Neva, at its mouth in the Gulf of Finland; founded 1703 by Peter the Great. It is a beautiful city, and has extensive commerce and numerous institutions of" learn ing and the arts. Its universitv, founded 1819. has four faculties, and (in 1896) 2,625 students. Pop., 1890, with suburbs, 1,036,324.

St. Petersburg Declaration. By representatives of 17 countries, Dec. 11, 1868, against the use in war of explosive rifle-balls, as causing needless suffering and death.

St. Peter's-Wort. Plants of the genus Ascyrum, natural family Hypericaceoe, natives of the s.e. U. S.

Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri Bernardin De. 1737-1814. French author, best known by Paul et Virginie. 1788. lie de France, 1773; Etudes de la Nature, 3 vols., 1784. His later writings are inferior. Works, 12 vols.. 1813-20.

St. Pierre and Mlquelon. Group of islands at the mouth of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near the s. coast of Newfoundland, belonging to the French. Several transatlantic cables touch here. It is frequented as a cod-fishing station. Area 81 sq. m.; pop., 1889, 5,983.

St. Quentin. City of n. France, on the Somme. A Spanish victory here, Aug. 10, 1557, was followed by hideous cruelties, and led to no permanent result. Jan. 19, 1871, the Germans defeated a French army here, and took 10,000 prisoners.

Saint-Real, Cesar Vichard, Abbe De, 1631-1692. French historian. His Conjuration contre Venice, 1674, is still valued.

Saints. In N. T., all persons consecrated to God bv Christian belief and profession; in Ch. use, the Apostles and" others, biblical, or canonized for supposed eminent holiness and great services to religion; in popular usage, any of especially beautiful character or beneficent life.—The worship of canonical saints, i.e., prayers for their intercession, grew by degrees, and was recognized in the East 787, and confirmed in the West at Trent 1563. Protestants have always rejected it.

Salnt-Saens, Charles Camille, b. 1835. French musician, almost equally excellent as organist, pianist and composer. His most successful compositions are four symphonic poems, PhaSton, Le Rouet d'Omphale, La Jeunesse cTHercule, and Danse Macabre, and one of his four pianoforte concertos in G minor. His operas, Le Timbre d'Argent. La Princesse Jaune, Samson et Dalila, Etienne Marcel, Henri VIII., Proserpine, Ascanio, and Phryne, though among the best of contemporary French production, have been less successful.

Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman, b. 1845. English critic; historian of French and Elizabethan literature, 1882-87; biographer of Drvden and Marlborough, 1881-85; prof. Univ. Edinburgh 1895. 'French Novelists, 1891.

Saint-Simon, Claude Henri, Comte De, 1760-1825. French socialist, of strange and adventurous life, but of large economic influence. Reorganization de la Societe Europeenne, 1814; L'lndustrie, 1817; Le Systdme Industriel. 1821; Catechisme Industrie!, 1824; Nouveau Christianisme, 1825.

Saint-Simon, Louis De Rouvroi, Due De, 1675-1755. French writer of Memoirs, giving a graphic picture of the court of Versailles. Parts of them were pub. 1830. and in 20 vols. 1856; tr.. 4 vols.. 1857. An edition, begun 1871, is in progress.

St. Simonianism. Doctrines taught by the disciples of St. Simon, departing considerably from his own tenets, and ultimately leading to the prosecution of the members of the community, which was suppressed 1832.

St. Sophia, Mosque Of. One of the oldest churches in existence; built at Constantinople by Justinian 582-557; since 1453 a mosque. It covers 70,000 sq". ft. See ArchitecTure.

St. Stephen, Order Of. Instituted in Hungary by Maria Theresa May 5, 1764.

St. Sulpicc. Diocesan seminary for priests in Paris, near the Luxembourg.

St. Thomas. Volcanic island in Gulf of Guinea; discovered 1470; colonized by Portuguese 1493; held by them till 1641 and since 1844. and in the interval by the Dutch. Area 360 sq. m., pop. ab. 19,000.

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