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Russian Backgammon. Game in which the men are not set on the board at tiie opening of the game, but are entered by both players, who move in the same direction on the same table. When doublets are thrown, the numbers on the opposite sides of the dice are also played, and the player has another throw.

Russian Language. Chief Slavonic language, with two branches, Russian proper and Ruthenian. Its records date from the 11th century, and the literature is growing in importance. There are three dialects, Little, White, and Great Russian, the last being the official and literary language and that of a large majority of the population and which can be understood by all. The alphabet is credited to St. Cyril and St. Methodius of the 9th century, the Greek alphabet with some additions, now used in devotional books. That now in use is the Cyrilian, with some omissions, introduced by Peter the Great; it consists of 86 letters.

Russian Leather. See Leather.

Russian Literature. This really began with the reign of Peter the Great, although the Old Church Slavonic, into which Cyril and Methodius translated the Scriptures when they Christianized the western Slavic tribes, contains a number of authors, the most important being the Chronicle of Nestor (11th cent.), the Chronicles of Novgorod, Moscow, Tver, etc., and several lives. The Tartar invasion blotted out all literary ambition and the universal ignorance soon made it impossible. The Zadonchina, an epic poem, and the Domostroi, or Housekeeper's Manual, from the time of Ivan the Terrible, are extant, the latter by the monk Sylvester. Peter the Great encouraged literature, and the theologian and economist Pososhkov, 1670-1726, the satirist poet Prince Antiokh Kantemir, and the first historian of Russia, "Vasisli Tatistchev, belong to his reign. TrediaskovsUi, 1703-1769, was a translator; Lemonosov, 1711-1765, exerted great influence upon the form of the language and changed the syllabic prosody to the tonic svstem now used. Other poets were Sumarokov, 1718-1777; Khiazhnin, 1742-1791; and Kheraskov. 1733-1801. Karamzin, under Catharine II.. wrote Letters of a Traveler and a Russian History. The Romantic school was founded by Alexander Pushkin, 1799-1838, and Zhukovskii, 1783-1852, and comprised Kozlov, Batiushkov, the poet Ryleev, Lermontov, Polevoi, and others, ending with Tiucnev, Koltsov, and Krylov, the latter"s fables being famous. The Realistic writers begin with Gogol, 1809-1852, and comprise many novelists, the most noted being Alexander Hertzen, Tourgenief. 1818-1883; Dostoevskii, 18221881; Count Lev Tolstoi, b. 1828; to which we must add the lesser writers, Goncharov, Pisemskii, Pisarev. Vasilii Krestovskii, Potekhin, Sologub and Gleb Aspendii. The satirist Soltykov, the Nihilist Chernyshevskii, Garshin, and Korolenko deserve mention. Other writers of the later period are Maikov, Khomiakov, Nekrasov, Shenshin, Polonskii, Mei, Nikitin, Stcherbina, Plestcheev, and the Grand Duke Konstantin, whose poetry is admired. Several of the above have won fame as dramatists, with whom we must mention Aleksei Tolstoi. The most celebrated historians are Karamzin, Soloviev, and Kostomarov.

Russian llnsic. Until the very recent advent of the School of Young Russian Composers, the characteristics of Russian national music found only sporadic expression outside of the ancient melodies, preserved in the Breviary and the people's songs. Early church music was largely borrowed from Greek and Bulgarian sources. Until ab. 1700 "it remained unisonal. With the cultivation of artistic music in the theater under Peter the Great 1703-25 and his immediate successors, the Italian influence became dominant, and it was deemed necessary to command the use of the ancient melodies. The present style, which contains features of wonderful impressiveness, despite the fact that it is exclusively vocal, came in with BARTNANSKY(q.v.). During the 18th century foreign influences also dominated concert and opera, singers, conductors and composers who worked for the national institutions in St. Petersburg being chiefly Italians and Frenchmen, as Galuppi, Traetta, Sarti, Cimarosa, Boieldieu, and Martini. Sarti set the fashion of composing to words, and C. Cavos wrote 14 operas with Russian texts and subjects. The first distinctively national tendency manifested itself in the operas of Verstovski and GLINKA (q.v.); the latter's Life for the Czar won almost universal recognition. Since then distinguished operatic composers have been Lwoff, A. Rubinstein, Cui, Dargomyzski, and Rimski-Korsakow. The Young Russian School is now represented by the last three of these and Borodin. According to Cesar Cui, the foundation stones on which it has been reared are these: 1. Aside from the words, all dramatic music must have value per se, as absolute music. 2. Music written for words must reflect the spirit of the poem. 3. Every composition must reflect characteristic traits. The last element is obtained by copious borrowing and imitation of the characteristics of Russian folk song.

Russium. One of the doubtful elements; discovered 1888 accompanying thorium in monacite.

Russo-Greek Church. Number of adherents in 1882, 78,000,000. See Greek Church.

Russo-Turkish War. 1877-78; occasioned by massacres in Bulgaria; ended by the fall of Plevna, Dec. 10, after a long siege and severe conflicts. Russia was robbed of the fruits of her victory by the treaty of Berlin, July 13, 1878.

Rustam. Chief of Persian mythical heroes; celebrated by Firdausi. His duel with his son Sokrat has been sung by Matthew Arnold.

Rustchuk. Town of Bulgaria, on the Danube; taken by the Russians after a siege 1810, and held till 1812; besieged


again bv the Russians 1877-78. It.'forms one angle of the Turkish Quadrilateral. Pop., 1893, 28,121.

Rlistcm Pasha, d. 1895. Turkish Ambassador to Italy, Russia, and from 1885 to England.

Rustic Work. Masonry wherein the faces of the stones are left rough, the sides where the union takes place being only wrought smooth.

s Rttstow, Wilhelm, 1821-1878. German-Swiss soldier and writer. Oeschichte der Infanterie, 1857-58; Strategie und Taktik, 1872-75.

Rusts. Popular name of the Uredinacea;, a family of parasitic Fungi growing on a great number of plants, to which they give a rusty or brown appearance. The number of known species is very large and many of them are highly destructive to cultivated plants. Manv of them have two stages in their life history, one being produced on one plant, the other on a different species, as the wheat rust, which lives during one stage on wheat and other grasses, and during the other on tbe barberry.

Rust University. At Holly Springs, Miss.; opened 1868; controlled by Methodists. It has 15 instructors and ab. 320 students.

Rut. Breeding time or period of heat of animals, especially of Mammals. This is usually in spring, but in Ruminants at the close of summer, and in Swine and Carnivores in winter. The time of its occurrence is determined by the length of the period of gestation, so that the birth of the young shall occur at the most advantageous season.

Rutabaga. See Turnip, Swede.

Rutacese. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising ab. 100 genera and ab. 900 species, distributed throughout the temperate and warmer parts of the earth; most numerous in Australia and in s. Africa; called the Rue family.

Rutebeuf, d. ab.1280. French poet, strongest in lyrics and satires.

Ruten. Semitic Palestinian people with whom the Egyptians waged war under the 18th and 19th dynasties.

Rutgers College. At New Brunswick, N. J.; chartered as Queen's Coll. 1766, to prepare for the Reformed Dutch Ministry; twice suspended; reopened 1825. The Scientific School was opened 1863; the State Agricultural Coll. was located here 1864. Teaching stuff, 27; students 182, 131 of whom are in science; library, 33.560 vols.

Ruth. 8th O. T. book, of uncertain authorship and date; an idyll of the fortunes of a young Moabite widow, greatgrandmother of David.

Ruthenian Rite. Branch of the R. C. Ch., who as a rule speak the Russniak language. They are mostly the United Greeks of Austria-Hungary and Poland, numbering ab. 2,655,000.

Ruthcnians. Slavic peasants, numbering ab. 3,000,000 in Galicia and 400,000 in n.e. Hungary. They have a language and literature of their own, were long subject to Poland, and are mostly of the United Greek Ch., under papal rule.


Ruthenium. Ru. At. wt. 101.6, sp. gr. 12.2, sp. ht. .061, mpt. 2,000° C, valence II.-VIIL; discovered by Claus 1845. It occurs in platinum ore, in osmiridium, and in laurite, Ru38,. and is obtained from the residue left after treating platinum ore with aqua regia. It is insoluble in acids, and but slightly soluble in aqua regia. Heated with potassium hydroxide and niter,it forms potassium rutlienite, K,Ru04. It forms six oxides, RuO, Ru,0„ RuO,, RuO„ Ru,07. and RuO,. All are rare.

Ruthenium Chlorides. Dichloride. RuCl,. Black crystalline powder, completely insoluble in acids; made by treating the pulverized metal with chlorine at a low heat.—Sesquichloride. Ru.Cl,. Brownish-yellow crystalline substance; made by dissolving the sesquioxide in hydrochloric acid.— Tetrachloride. RuClj. Reddish-brown salt; made by dissolving the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid.

Ruthenium Oxides. Monoxide. RuO. Gray-black powder, soluble in alkalies with bluish-green color; made by treating the corresponding chloride with sodium carbonate.—-Sesquioxide. Ru,03. Bluish-black powder; obtained by heating the metal strongly in the air.—Dioxide. RuO,. Made by treating the sulphate with caustic potash.—Tetroxide. Ru04. Made from the dioxide by heating to 1,000° C.

Ruthenium Sesquiiodldc. Ru,I„. Only compound of ruthenium and iodine; black substance, made by adding potassium iodide to the double chloride of potassium and ruthenium.

Ruthenium Sulphate. Rii(SO0,. Orange-yellow, deliquescent, soluble substance, made by treating the sulphide with nitric acid.

Ruthenium Sulphide. This occurs natural 1 v in Laurite, RU.S,.

Rutherford, Samuel, ab.1600-1661. Scottish divine, prof. St. Andrews 1639-60. His Lex Rex. 1644, was burned by the hangman 1660. Several of his books have been reprinted, notably his Letters, 1664.

Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris. 1816-1892. American pioneer in astronomical photography and spectrum analysis. His results were in great part achieved with instruments of his own construction.

Rutile. TiO,. Brownish-red to black mineral of peculiar metallic adamantine luster, consisting essentially of titanium and oxygen. It has been found associated with many kinds of the older crystalline rocks, and with limestone. It is often present in transparent quartz in the form of slender, needlelike crystals.

Rutilius Claudius Numallanus. 4th cent. Latin poet of Gaul. His description of a journey from Rome is still in part extant.

Kill hue) It, Ludwio, b. 1825. Prof. Basel 1855: writer on geology and zoology.

Rutland. Capital of R. co., Vt., on Otter Creek, 67 m. s. of Burlington: settled 1770; noted for its marble quarries. Pop., 1890, 11,760.

Rutledge, John, 1739-1800 Delegate to Congress 1774-75 and 1782-83; Pres. of S. C. 1776-78; Gov. 1779-82; Chancellor 1784; member Constitutional Convention 1788; Chief-justice of S. C. 1790-95. and of U. S. Supreme Court July-Nov. 1795.—His brother. Edward, 1749-1800, was in Congress 1774-77. signed the Declaration of Independence, rendered other public services, was a prisoner in Fla. 1780-81, and Gov. of S. C. from 1798.

Rillli. or Grutli. Field near Lake Lucerne, where men of Uri, Schwz, and Unterwalden swore 1307 to resist and overthrow the Austrians.

Rutuli. Tribe of Latium, early subdued by Romans.

Ruysbroek, John, 1293-1381. Flemish mystic, monk of Groenendael 1353. His works were pub. in Latin 1552 and in German 1701.

Ruysch, Rachel, 1664-1750. Dutch fruit and flower painter. Ruysdael, Jacob. See Ruisdael.

Ruyter, Michael Adrianszoon Van, 1607-1676. Dutch Rear-admiral 1645; famous chiefly in the wars with England.

In 1667 he sailed up the Thames, destroyed many vessels, and brought about the peace of Breda.

Ryan, Abram Joseph, 1839-1886. R.C. pastor at Mobile, popular in the South as a lyric poet. Poems, lf80.

Ryan, Harris Joseph, b. 1866. Prof. Cornell 1889; writer on electricity.

Ryan, Patrick John, D.D., b. 1831 in Ireland. Coadjutor bp. of St. Louis 1872; Abp. of Phila. 1884.

Ryan, Samuel Erwtn, 1831-1891. Irish-American actor.

Ryan, Stephen Vincent, D.D., 1825-1896. R. C. Bp. of Buffalo 1868.

Rydberg, Abraham Victor, 1829-1895. Swedish author and journalist. The last Athenian, 1859; Roman Days, 1877; Teutonic Mythology, 1886, tr. 1889.

Ryder, Albert Pinkham, b. 1847. American painter, active in New York; equally at home with animals, landscapes, and figures.

Ryder, John Adams, 1852-1895. American naturalist. Prof, of Biology, Univ. Penna., 1886.

RydquiMt, Johan Erik, 1800-1878. Swedish grammarian.

Rye. Seaport and market town of England, 10 m. n.e. of Hastings. R. was a Cinque port, the Ypres tower being a sur


Rye from the South.

vival of the ancient fortifications. It also has remains of its ancient walls and gates. Exports wool, timber, and hops. Pop., 1891, 4,521.

Rye. Secale cereale. Annual grass, supposed to be native of Asia, but unknown in the wild state; cultivated from prehistoric times for its grain. It is grown as a winter crop in localities where the soil is too poor or the climate too unfavorable for winter wheat. In the vicinity of large cities the straw is the most important part of the crop, and is kept straight in threshing, in machines speciallv built for the purpose. The production of rye in U. S. in 1895 was 27,210,000 bushels.

Rye-Grass. See Darnel.

Rye House Plot. Scheme of English Whigs to assassinate Charles II. when on his way from Newmarket to London, and seat the Duke of Monmouth on the throne; discovered 1683. Russell and Sydney were executed for alleged complicity in it; Monmouth fled over sea.

Ryland, John. D.D., 1753-1825. English hymnist; pres. Baptist Coll. at Bristol from 1794.

Ryle. John Charles, D.D., b. 1816. Bp. of Liverpool 1880. Expository Thoughts on the Gospels, 7 vols.. 1856-69; Christian Leaders, 1869.

Ryleev, or Relaleif, Kondrati Fedorovich, 1796-1826. Russian poet, executed for treason. Works. 1872. tr. 1887.

Ryliter, Thomas. 1640-1713. English critic and collector of materials for history. Feeder a. 20 vols., 1704-35.

Rysbrach, Michael. 1693-1770. Flemish-English sculptor.

Ryswlck, Peace Of. Concluded Sept. 20. 1697, near the Hague, between France and England and her Allies.

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Saudi. See Sam.

Saadja ben Joseph, 892-942. Egyptian Jew, teaching at Sura in Babylonia from 928; commentator and author, writing in Arabic. His Religions and Dogmas was tr. into Hebrew 1186, and into German 1845. His works were edited at Paris 1893 and later.

Saale. River rising in n.e. Bavaria and flowing n. to the Elbe. Length 225 m.; navigable for 100 m.

Saalfeld. Town of Saxe-Meiningen, on the Saale; scene of a French victory over Prussians, Oct. 10, 1806. Pop., 1890, 9,801.

Saar. River flowing from its source in France, through Alsace-Lorraine and Rhenish Prussia, ab. 120 m., into the Moselle near Treves.

Saarbrilck. Town of Rhenish Prussia, on the Saar; taken by the French Aug. 2, 1870; retaken Aug. 6 by the Germans,


after the battle of Forbach. The mitrailleuse was first employed here Aug. 2. It is the center of a large coal-field, and lias manufactures of iron, tobacco, glass and chemicals. Pop., 1890, 13,812.

Saavedra, Angel Dk, Duke De Rivas, 1791-1865. Spanish poet, dramatist, and historian, in exile 1823-34 and 1837-43; Envoy to Naples 1843-48.

Sabreans. People of s.w. Arabia, repeatedly mentioned in O. T.; long independent and commercially important till near our era.

Subaka. Conqueror of Egypt ab.700 B.C., and founder of its 25th dynast3*.

Sabatier, Paul, b. 1858. French Protestant, pastor at Strassburg 1885-89. and since in the Cevennes. His Life of St. Francis of Assisi, begun 1883, was pub. 1894, and crowned by the Academy.

Sabbatarians. Christians who hold themselves bound to observe the seventh day as the Sabbath; sometimes, all strict observers of a Sabbath.

Sabbatli. Seventh day of the week, ordained, in the Ten Commandments, to be kept sacred from labor. Gentile Christians have commonly transferred more or less of the sabbatical obligation to the first day, which the Apostles celebrated as that of the Resurrection.

Sabbathai Zevl, or Tsevi, 1641-ab.l677. Jew of Smyrna, accepted bv manv as Messiah; imprisoned and forced to recant by the Sultan 1667.

Sabbatical Festivals. (1) 7th day; (2) 7th month, Tisri or October; (3) 7th year: see Year Of Release; (4) 50th year, or Jubilee.

Sabella. Tubicolous Annelid worm, with body thick anteriorly, tapering to the tail. The tentacles are gathered in two groups. There is a lip above the mouth. Like Serpula, it secretes material which forms a crooked tube, within which the worm lives, fastened upon a shell or rock.

§abelllanism. Doctrine that God in Himself is unipersonal, but is revealed successively as Father, Son, and Spirit; named from Sabellius, an African presbyter, excommunicated at Rome ab.218 and at Alexandria 260.

Saber. Military hand arm used for cutting, or for both cutting and thrusting. The light artillery saber, used for cutting, has a short curved blade and a comparatively light hilt, to throw the center of gravity well forward. The cavalry saber for cutting and thrusting has a longer and straighter blade, and a heavier hilt, to bring the center of gravity nearer the grasp and to better protect the hand.

Sablaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermai and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising 4 genera and ab. 40 species, growing in the tropics and countries bordering thereon, especially in the n. hemisphere.

Sabine, Sir Edward, D.C.L., F.R.S., 1788-1883. Irish officer and physicist; Major-gen. 1856; knighted 1869. Figure of the Earth, 1825; Variability of Magnetism, 1838.

Sabine, Lorenzo, 1803-1877. M.C. 1852-53; Sec. Boston Board of Trade. American Loyalists, 1847; Fisheries, 1853; Duels, 1855.

Sabine Cross Roads. Near Mansfield, La.; scene of a Union defeat April 8, 1864.

Sabine Pass. Mouth of S. river and lake. It has been improved by jetties and dredging.

Sabine River. In e. Texas, whence it flows s.e. and s., forming part of the La. boundary, to its mouth in Sabine Lake. Drainage area 20,440 sq. m., length ab.500 m.

Sablnes. Ancient and powerful people of central Italy, sub-divided into many tribes; the last were subdued by Rome 290 B.C. See Samnium.

Sabinianus. Pope 604-606.

Sabinus, Masurius, 1st cent. Roman jurist, whose important work on Civil Law is lost.

Sablsm. Mixture of Christianity and star-worship, early prevalent in parts of w. Asia.

Sable. The American Sable or Pine Marten (Mustela americana) is closely related to the true Siberian Sable, M.

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leg's and bushy tail. The fur is dense, soft, and dark brown, the paws are black. It lives in the great virgin forests of Canada, nesting preferably in hollow trees near water. Though persistently trapped, it appears to hold its own. It is prolific, hearing 7 young at a time. M. viartes is the yellow-breasted Marten of n. Europe. See Musteud^e. Sable, Cape. S. point of Fla.

Sable Island. Ab. 110 m. e. of Nova Scotia; colonized 1598-1603; sinking or dwindling in area, and dangerous to navigation.

Sabot. Thick wooden disk used in heavy smooth-bore guns to separate the cartridge from the projectile. It keeps the spherical projectile in place, reduces the windage, and diminishes the effects of balloting. In firing over troops its fragments are dangerous.

Sabots. Wooden shoes used by peasants in France and Belgium.

Sabrina. 1. Section of Antarctic coast. 2. Volcanic islet of the Azores, visible 1811-ab.l840.

Sabulose. Plants growing naturally in sandy soil.

Sac. In Botany and Zoology, closed or nearly closed cavities.

Sacallne. Forage plant introduced into the U. S. 1894 from the Russian island of Saghalin in the Pacilic Ocean. It is a woody herb growing from 6 to 12 ft. high, and is said to resist severe drought.

Saccardo, Pietro Andrea, b. 1845. Prof. Padua; writer on Fungi.

Saccatae. See Cydippid.e.

Saccharic Acid. C4H4(OH),(COOH)t. Dibasic acid, isomeric with mucic acid; produced by the oxidation of cane sugar and glucose with nitric acid; oil, solidifying slowly when anhydrous; used in calico printing.

Saccharimeter. See Hydrometer.

Saccharin, (a) CTH5SO,. Orthobenzoylsulphoneimide; mpt. 220° C. This white substance possesses remarkable saccharine powers, being, when pure, 500 times sweeter than sugar. It is prepared from the tolueneorthosulphonic acid by the oxidation of the amide of this acid. It is used in pharmacy and for sweetening foods, and is called Fahlberg"s saccharin, (b) CaH10Ot. Carbohydrate of the same composition as starch.

Saccharoidal. Crystalline, heavy-headed marble, so called as resembling white sugar.

Saccharomycetes. Class of the Protophyta, including yeast and other ferments whose propagation is mainly by gemmation. By some authors they are regarded as Fungi of the sub-class Axcomycetes, of which they may form the most degraded member.

Saccharose. See Cane Sugar.

Sacchctti, Franco, ab.1335-1399. Florentine writer in Boccaccio's manner. His Novetle were collected 1724.

Sacchtnl, Antonio Maria Gasparo, 1734-1786. Italian composer of ab.60 operas. All have disappeared from the stage and many are lost. Semiramide, 1762.

Saccotflossa. Sub-order of opisthobranchiate univalve Mollusks, including forms having no grills, but which may have, instead, simple dorsal appendages. The radula has one row of toothed, plates, of which the anterior, after they wear out, fall into a special pocket. Limapontia and Elysia are included. The group is sometimes placed as a sub-group under Nudibranchiata.

Saccule. Little expansion of the internal ear, connected with the cochlea by the canalis reuniens, and with the utricle by the aquae ductus vestibuli.

Sacerdos, Marius Plotids, 3d cent. Latin writer on grammar.

Sachan, Karl Eduard. b. 1845. Prof. Vienna 1872, Berlin 1876; writer on Oriental philology.

Sacher-Masoch, Leopold, 1834-1895. Polish-Austrian novelist. Cain's Inheritance.

Sacheverell, Henry. D.D.. 1672-1724. Tory orator, impeached 1710 for violent political sermons, and suspended till 1713; rector in London from 1714.

Sachs, Bernard, M.D., b. 1858. Prof. New York 1888; writer on nervous diseases and insanity.

Sachs, Hans. 1494-1576. Shoemaker and poet of Nuremberg, author of 6,048 larger or smaller pieces, songs, dramas, stories, fables, and histories. He was the chief literary figure of his time in Germany after Luther, and did much to promote

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Hans Kadis.

Sachs, Julius, b. 1832. Prof, of Botany at Bonn 1861, and Wiirzburg 1868. Handbuch der Experimental-Physiologie der Fflanzen, 1866; Lehrbuch der Botanik. 1870.

Sack. Wine much used in England ab.1600; probablyakin to sherry and Madeira.

Sackbut. Ancient musical instrument,allied tothe trumpet.

Sackett's Harbor. Village of Jefferson co., N. Y., 8 m. e. of Lake Ontario; naval station 1812-15. Pop., 1890, 787.

Sackville, George Germain, Lord. 1716-1785. Lieutgen. 1758; M.P. 1761; Colonial Sec. 1775-82; Viscount 1782.

Sackville, Lionel West, Baron, b.1827. British Minister to U. S. 1881-88.

Sackville, Thomas, 1536-1608. Dramatist; made Lord Buckhurst 1566. Lord Treasurer 1599; Earl of Dorset 1604; author, with T. Norton, of Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex, 1562, the first English tragedy. Induction to Wm. Baldwin's Mirror for Magistrates, 1563.—His descendant, Charles, 6th earl. 1637-1706, wrote songs.

Saco, Jose Antonio, 1797-1879. Cuban historian of slavery, 1876 and later.

Saco River. In N. H. and Me., rising in the White Mts. and flowing s.e. to the Atlantic. Length 165 m.

Sacrament. Religious rite, of especial dignity and importance, instituted by our Lord. Protestants admit two, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; Roman Catholics and Greeks five more, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Extreme Unction, and Matrimony.

Sacramentarians. 1. Zwinglians and others who denied the Real Presence; so called by Lutherans. 2. Sometimes, loosely, in England, those holding high sacramental views.

Sacramento. Capital of Cal. and a city of S. co., on the left bank of S. River, here navigable; founded by J. A. Sutter 1839. Here gold was discovered 1848. Pop., 1890, 26,386, ab. one-third of foreign birth.

Sacramento River. In n. Cal.; with its main branch, the San Joaquin, it drains the valley of Cal. and the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and flows into the Bay of San Francisco. Length over 500 m., drainage area 58,824 sq. m.a average flow 37,632 cu. ft. per sec. at Sacramento.

Sacred Rean. See Nelumbo.

Sacred Heart. R.C. festival of French origin, made general 1856; based on a vision of a nun who d. 1690 and was beatified 1864. An order of nuns, founded 1800, has spread widely: others are less extended.

Sacred Mount. Elevation 3 m. from Rome, beyond the Arno, to which the Plebs withdrew in their controversy with the Senate.

Sacred Music. See Chant, CHora, Chorale, Mass, Plain Song, etc.

Sacred Trees. Among primitive people, trees are frequently regarded as the dwelling-place of demons and ancestral and other spirits, and as such become the object of worship 1323


and of offerings. They have been looked upon as the abode of certain gods, and resorted to, as the oracle of Dodonain Epirus, where Zeus was believed to give messages to men through the rustling of the leaves of a lofty oak.

Sacred War. Between Thebes and Boeotia 857-846 B.C.; ended by intervention of Philip.

Sacrifice. Institution of all ancient religions. With the Hebrews it was of several kinds, chiefly burnt-offerings and sin-offerings: all were propitiatory, and symbolical of the supreme sacrifice of Christ, as explained in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Human sacrifices were common among pagans, as with Phoenicians, Druids, and Aztecs.

Sacrilege. Violation of sacred things or places: punishable among Jews, capitally under Roman law, and in various degrees in Christian countries; now obsolete.

Sacristy, or Vestey. Room in which ch. vessels and vestments are kept: formerly in care of a sacristan, whence the

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word sexton. It is within the walls of the church or an Adjunct. In England it is called a Vestry.

Sacroboiico, or Hoi) wood, John, d. ab.1850. English mathematician, teaching at Paris. His De Sphcera Mundi, from an Arabic version of Ptolemy's Almagest, was pub. 1473 and often later.

Sacrum. Next to the last bone of the spinal column. It is wedge-shaped with its base up, inserted between the hipbones, forming, with the coccyx, the posterior wall of the pelvis.

Sacs AND Foxes (sauks and Outaoamies). Branch of the Shawnees with the Kickapoos: originally discovered in the territory from Green Bay s. They number ab. 1,200. Those in Iowa are farmers; those on reservations in Indian Territory are less civilized. Black Hawk, a Pottawatomie by birth, was chief of the Sacs and Foxes. They ceded their lands e. of the Mississippi to U. S. 1804.

Sacj, Antoine Isaac, Baron Silvestre De, 1758-1838. Great French investigator in Arabic and Persian; prof. Paris 1815; Baron 1813. Peer 1832. Grammaire Arabe, 1810.—His son, Samuel Ustazade. 1801-1879. journalist, became an Academician 1855, and a Senator 1867. Varietis, 1858.

Sacy, Louis Isaac Le Maistre De, 1613-1684. French priest, nephew of the abbess Angelique; confessor of the Port Ro3Tal nuns; translator of the Bible 1667-72.

Saddle. Top of a convex fold in geological strata or in ore deposits; if the top has been removed by erosion, the lost portion is called an air saddle.

Saddle. Saddle-shaped casting placed upon the top of a tower of a suspension bridge to support the cables. It also allows a slight degree of motion, which prevents the horizontal pull of the cable from taking effect on the tower.

Saddle and Saddlery. The harness of horses, mules, etc. In U. S. domestic steer hides, tanned with bark, are used for harness; russet skirting is bleached after scouring. A saddle is a seat for the rider on the back of a horse. The Roman cavalry had beautiful coverings on their horses, as did the Persians. The saddle was invented ab. 350; stirrups were added in the 6th century. The English saddles of the 13th century were similar to those now used and the women sat sidewise. The saddles of the cavaliers had high peaks before and behind, like those of the present Spaniards and Mexicans, and the holsters for pistols were fastened to the pommel. The McClellan saddle of the U. S. cavalry is a modification of this. A saddle consists of the wooden saddle-tree, padded under flaps, upper flaps, seat, belly-band, stirrups and straps, and the crupperloop. For hilly regions a breast strap is added. This is the


English saddle. The McClellan saddle has no padding and is covered with rawhide. The side saddle for women originated in England in 1380, the present form with the third pommel in 1880. See Harness.

Saddle-Rartt. Iron bars to which the lead panels are fastened in the glazing of church windows.

Sadducees. Aristocrats of later Judaism; few, but of high rank, wealthy and worldly. They adhered to the letter of Scripture, denied tradition and the life to come, asserting that the hope of it deadened the energy of patriotism; they maintained Free Will, as against the Predestinarianism of the Pharisees.

Sade, Donatien Alphonse, Marquis De, 1740-1814. French novelist of the fleshly school.

Sadebeck. Alexander, 1843-1879. Prof. Kiel; writer on mineralogy. Angeuwndte KrystaUograi>hie, 1876, tr. as vol. ii. of Rose's Elements of Crystallography.

Sadl, or Saadi (muslih-uddin). ab.1184-1291. Persian lyric and didactic poet of great fame. Next to his Gulistan, or liosegarden, is the Boston and Pend-Nameh.

Sadler, Sir Ralph, 1507-1587. Thrice Envov to Scotland; knighted 1547; Privy Councilor under Edward VI. and Elizabeth; jailer of Mary Stuart at Tutbury 1562. Letters, 1720, repub. 1809.

Sadlier, Mary Anne (madden), b. 1820. Irish-American R. C. novelist.

Sadolcto, Jacopo, 1477-1547. Secretary to 3 popes; Bp. of Carpentras 1517, Cardinal 1586; correspondent of several reformers: author of commentaries, letters, and books of philosophy. His works were collected 1737 and 1759.

Sadowa, or Koniggrtitz, Battle Of. In Bohemia; decisive Prussian victory, July 3, 1866, over the Austrians under Benedek, who lost 40,000 men. This guve the supremacy to Prussia, unity to N. Germany, Venetia to Italy, and legislative independence to Hungary.

Safe. Strong case for containing money, account-books and other valuables, provided with means to protect them from fire and burglars. See Fireproof Safes and Lock.

Safed. Town 6 in. n.w. of Sea of Galilee; site of a castle built by Crusaders 1140 and by Templars 1240; destroyed by Mohammedans 1220 and 1266; colonized by Jews in 16th century.

Safely En in p. Lamp for use in mines, especially coal mines, where gases are liable to rise which form explosive mixtures with air. The lamp is so constructed as to hinder the flame from coming in contact with the explosive mixtures surrounding it. though the presence of a dangerous gas is often indicated by changes in the character of the flame in the interior of the lamp. The first efficient lamps of this type were invented almost simultaneously in England 1815, by George Stephenson and Sir H. Davy, the principle being that an ordinary lamp flame will not pass through the meshes of wire gauze, provided the gauze be kept from becoming too highly heated. In the lamp invented by Dr. Clanny 1814, an attempt was made to protect the flame by means of a jrlobe of water, but the contrivance was too cumbrous for general adoption. The earlier forms of lamps have been modified many times and in many ways by different inventors, with a view to remedying defects in construction and to increasing the efficiency of the protection afforded in cases of exceptional danger. A larjje number of patterns are now used in different parts of the world.

Safety-Valve. Valve on a vessel in which there is pressure, which is held shut by such a force only that the valve will be pressed open for the release of pressure when that pressure exceeds a certain amount. There are four types: 1. Direct load of the valve by a weight. This is limited to relatively small pressures, and is inconvenient always. 2. Weight indirectly bearing on a lever to keep the valve shut. This is the most usual form, and has the advantage and disadvantage of allowing the amount of pressure to be easily varied: spindles may bind to prevent the valve from moving. 8. Direct pressure by a spring; much used in newer practice, and in the form of pop-valve universal on locomotives; compact and light, not easily tampered with. When the reaction groove is cut in its face, so that when once lifted a larger area is opened to the escape of steam and the valve is held up as by a less pressure, the objection is removed to the small opening which the increasing resistance of the spring would cause as the ordinary valve lifts. 4. Indirect loading by a spring through a lever. This is least used now, though once the standard locomotive method. Safety valves for steam boilers are usually misnomers, as in most cases they would not carry off all the steam which the boiler would make. The area of the orifice should be sufficient for this, even when the valve lifts but a very small distance under high pressure. This valve was invented by Denis Papin for his digester, ab.1680.

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