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elevated, consists of stiff feathers, and is developed both for protection and to attract the females. Its color is most varied, ranging in different individuals from black through brown to white, with bars and streaks, and glossed with green and blue. These birds summer in n. Europe and Asia. Huffed Grouie. See Grocse.

Ruffln, Armand Gustave, 1731-1789. French explorer of the Amazon and Orinoco.

Kulfln, Edmund, 1795-1865. Agricultural writer of Va. He fired the first shot at Fort Sumter 1861.

Ruffln, Thomas. LL.D., 1787-1870. Chief-justice of N. C. 1829-52 and 1856-58.

Ruffner, Henry. D.D., LL.D., 1789-1861. Prof. Washington Coll., Va., 1819-37, pres. 1837-48. Fathers of the Desert, 1850.

Ruflji, or Lufiji. River in German e. Africa, flowing n.e. and e. into the Indian Ocean.

Rugby School. 83 m. n.w. of London; founded 1567. It has some 500 students and an income from endowment of ab. £5,000. Dr. Thomas Arnold, headmaster 1828-42, made it famous and influential.

Ruge, Arnold, 1802-1880. German Socialist, in England from 1849; prolific writer in prose and verse. Aus fritherer Zeit. 4 vols., 1863-67.

Rugen. Prussian island in the Baltic. Grain and cattle are exported and the fisheries are important. Area 361 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 45,185.

Ruger, Thomas Howard, U.S.A., b. 1833. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862, serving in Va. and the West; supt. at West Point 1871-76; Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1886; Major-gen. 1896.

Ruger, William Crawford, 1824-1892. Chief judge N. Y. Court of Appeals from 1882.

Ruggles, Benjamin, 1783-1857. U. S. Senator from Ohio 1815-33.

Ruggles, Samuel Bulkley. LL.D., 1800-1881. New York lawyer; Canal Commissioner 1840—42 and 1858.

Ruggles, Timothy. 1711-1795. Mass. loyalist, in exile from 1775.

Rugosa. Corals with many symmetrically arranged septa in multiples of four. They are all Palaeozoic; e.g., Cyathophylhim. The members of this group differ from the Madrepore corals in a few other particulars, as in having fossulae and tabulae, in budding from the calyx, and in the absence of coenenchyma in compound forms.

Rugose. Wrinkled surfaces, especially those of some leaves and fruits.

Rugulose. Diminutive of Rugose.

Ruhmkorff, Heinrich Daniel, 1803-1877. German-French electrician, inventor of a thermo-battery 1844 and an induction coil 1851.

Ruhmkorfl* Coll. See Inductorium.

Ruhnken, David, 1723-1798. Prof. Leyden 1761. Here he labored with Hemsterhuis, and annotated Greek and Latin authors, and aided in the spread of Greek learning. Epistolce Critical, 1749-51.

Ruhr. River of w. Prussia, rising on the Belgian frontier, emptying into the Meuse at Roermond. Length 67 m.

Rulsdael, or Ruysdacl, Jacob Van, ab.1630-1682. Great

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d. 1677, and uncle, Solomon, 1600-1670, were subordinate talents. His best pictures are in the Dresden Gallery.

Ruiz, Juan, ab.1290-ab.1370. Spanish poet and satirist.

Ruiz Lopez, Hipolito, 1754-1815. Spanish botanist, author (with J. Pavon) of Flora Peruviana et Chilensis, 17981802; and Systema vegetabilium Flora Peruviana et Chilensis, 1798.

Rule Rritannia. Music by Arne, 1740; words by D. Mallet.

Ruled Surface. One generated by a straight line.

Rule Nisi. Rule to show cause. Mode of invoking the authority of the court to compel a party to do some act, unless (nisi) he shall show cause why he should not be so required. If he shows sufficient cause, the rule is said to be discharged.

Rule of Faith. In Polemical Theology, the sources whence the doctrines of the faith are to be authoritatively deri ved.

Rule of the Road. In U. S. and on the continent of Europe, keep to the right; in England, to the left, except in passing vehicles going the same way.

Rule of Three. Arithmetical form of proportion in which three terms are given to find a fourth; single or double as the ratios are simple or compound.

Rules, In Ethics. Laws of human action, dependent on the commands of some external power or of conscience.

Rules and Articles of War. By Section 1342, Revised Statutes of the U. S., the armies of the U. S. are governed by certain rules and articles embraced in 128 Articles of War. By Art. 128, these are to be "read and published once in every six months, to every garrison, regiment, troop or company in the service of the U. S., and shall be duly observed and obeyed by all officers and soldiers in said service." They are printed in the Army Regulations.

Ruling Elders. In Presbyterian churches, communicants chosen for life or a term, to assist the pastor in administering discipline.

Ruling Machine. See Dividing Engine.

Rum. Spirits distilled from a mash made of the skimmings from the sugar boilers and molasses, diluted with water to contain 12 to 16 per cent of sugar and fermented with the lees from the previous mash. The best quality is made in small stills. It is colored with caramel. It contains ab. 70 per cent alcohol. That made in Jamaica, St. Croix and British Guiana is most esteemed. The flavor is due to the butyric ether formed. New England rum is made from molasses, in Mass. and Conn. In 1894, there was made in U. S. 1,864,595 gals, of rum.

Rumble. Hollow barrel rotating around a horizontal axis perpendicular to its heads at their centers, in which small castings may be put and set to tumbling about for the removal of scabs of foundry sand from the molds; hence also called tumbling barrels; applicable to castings of small weight and without fragile detail.

Rumen. See Paunch.

Rumford, Benjamin Thompson. Count. 1753-1814. Scientist and statesman; b. at Woburn, Mass. Failing to receive a commission in the Continental Army, he went over to the British, and was sent with dispatches to England; came back in 1781, raised a Tory regiment in N. Y.. and served in the Carolina campaign; resided in Bavaria 1783-99, where he held several high offices in the state, effected extensive reforms in the army and in various industries, and became a count of the Holy Roman Empire 1791. taking his title from the town in N. H. where he had lived. He was active in founding the Royal Institution of London, endowed a chair in Harvard, married Lavoissier's widow 1804, and lived at Auteuil. France. His studies and experiments on light, heat, etc., were veryfruitful. His Essays. 1796-1802, were issued in 4 vols., 1876.

It Iimi. Jalal Addin, 1207-1273. Persian poet. Masnavi, partly tr. 1881.

Ruminants. Animals like domestic cattle and sheep, deer, antelopes, and camels, in which the stomach is divided into compartments; viz., (1) the paunch, or rumen, for receiving the hastily swallowed food; (2) the reticulum, in which are cells for shaping the cuds. These are regurgitated and chewe<l until semifluid, and when swallowed pass between the lamella; of (3) the psalterium, omasum, or manyplies into (4) the abomasum, where true digestion takes place. Ruminants are two-toed or cloven-hoofed ungulates, but they really have four toes; the two (undermost (or dew claws) do not reach the ground. Upper incisors are absent, and usually the canines also. The lower canines resemble the incisors, which project so as to press nearly flatwise against a hard pad in the upper jaw. Thus in grazing the herbage is torn off rather than bitten. See Selenodontia.




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known as Pride's Purge. It sat till April 30, 1658. and for brief periods 1659 and 1660. See Long Parliament.

Rumsey, James, ab.1743-1792. One of the inventors of steam navigation. His vessel was tried on the Potomac 1784, and on the Thames 1792: societies were formed at Phila. and in England to promote the scheme.

Runclnate. Leaves with large lobes or teeth, which point backward.

Runeberg, Johan Ludvig, 1804-1877. Finnish lyric, narrative, and dramatic poet of high rank; prof. Borga from 1837 His poetic romances, describing scenes from the second Finnish war, written in Swedish, are full of beauty and national feeling. King Fjalar, 1844; Ensign Stal's Stories, 1848-60.

Runes. Once subject of wildest theories; now known to be the alphabet of primitive Germanic (and other) tribes, and copied from the Roman alphabet of the empire. They were brought into the north ab.200. In our old speech rune means a mystery. Runic inscriptions are found in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and to some extent in Germany and England; they abound on weapons, on memorial stones, and are of great importance for settling early forms of speech. The necessities of carving on stone changed the Roman curves to straight lines. A runic inscription, probably Old-Anglian, on a golden horn found at Gallehus, is probably the oldest line of poetry preserved in Germanic: Ek Hlewagastiz Holtingaz horna tawido— '•I, Leogast, son of Holt, made the horn."

Runjeet Singh, 1780-1839. Ruler of the Punjab, n.w. India, from 1797. He made terms with the British, and by conquests built up a powerful state.

Runkle, John Daniel, LL.D., b. 1822. Prof. Mass. Institute of Technology from 1865, pres. 1870-78. Analytical Oeometry, 1888.

Runner. In Botany, prostrate stem or branch which roots at the nodes.

Running. From the earliest times this was a sport which drew from all classes. The modern Marathon race is but a repetition of the Greek contest. Early English annals are full of races between gentlemen and between servants. One mile was run by W. G. George, England, in 4 min. 12} sec. The

freatest distance run in one hour was 11 m. 1,234 yds., covered y F. E. Bacon, England, June 20,1897. 100 yds. has been run in 9| sec. by B. J. Wefers, American, 1897, 440 yds. in 471 sec. by W. Baker, American, i m. in 1 min. 53§ sec. by C. H. Kilpatrick, American. The greatest distance in 6 days was 623 m., covered by G. Littlewood, England. The most popular running contests in America are the 100-yds., 220-yds., i-m., i-m., 10-m., and the hurdle events; in England distance events, like the 3-m. and even the 5-m., are fancied. The older-fashioned sack races, three-legged races, and obstacle races have practically disappeared, save at village fairs.

Runnymede. Meadow on s. bank of the Thames, 35 m. above London, where King John was forced by the barons to sign Magna Charta. June 15, 1215. Runyon, Theodore, LL.D., 1822-1896. Brig.-gen. U. P.

Vols. 1861; Chancellor of N. J. 1878-87; U. S. Minister to Germany 1893.

Rupee. Standard silver coin of India, in native states since ab. 1544, and under British rule; nominally worth ab. 48 cents.

Rupert. Emperor of Germany 1400-10.

Rupert, Prince, 1619-1682. Son of Frederick V., elector Palatine, and grandson of James L; brilliant cavalry officer in the English civil war; first governor of Hudson's Bay Co. 1670.

Rupert River. In Northeast Territory, Canada, conl necting Lake Misstassinne with Hudson's Bay.

Rupestrine, or Rupicolous. Plants growing naturally on rocks.

Rupp, Israel Daniel, 1803-1878. Historian of many Pa. 'counties.

Ruprecht, Franz J.. 1814-1870. Curator of Herbarium of Royal Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Alga} Ochotenses, 1850; J7ora boreali-uralensis, 1847-48; Flora Caucasi, 1869.

Rupture. Breaking of a material by compression, tension, shear, or flexure. In a testing machine it is done by a stress applied with uniformly increasing intensity. A stress suddenly applied produces a more granular fracture than one slowly applied. See Testing Machine.

Rupture. See Hernia.

Rural Dean. English parish priest having some slight supervisory authority over part of a diocese.

Rurik, d. ab.879. Founder of the first Russian dynasty, lasting till 1598: Varangian (Scandinavian) chief, who came by

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invitation to Novgorod 862; annexed the dominions of his two brothers, took the title of grand-prince, and subdued the Slavonic tribes about him.

Rush. Grass-like plants of the genus Juncus and natural family Juncacete, of wide geographical distribution.

Rush, Horned. Rynchospora corniculata. Large plant of the Sedge family, native of e. N. America.

Rush, Benjamin, M.D., LL.D., 1745-1813. Prof. Phila. Medical Coll. 1769; delegate to Congress 1776; signer Declaration of Independence; Surgeon-gen. of the army 1777-78; a founder of Phila. Dispensary, Coll. of Physicians, and Dickinson Coll. at Carlisle; member of Pa. Conventions 1787; eminent as a teacher and practitioner, especially in the yellow fever 1793. Medical Inquiries and Observations. 5 vols., 1789-98; Essays. 1798; Diseases of the Mind, 1812.—His son, Richard, [ 1780-1859, was U. S. Atty.-gen. 1814-17; Minister to England i 1817-25. and negotiator of important treaties; Sec. U. S. Treas| ury 1825-29; Commissioner to England 1836-38, when he secured Smithson's legacy; Minister to France 1847-51. Court of ! London, 1833-45.—His brother. James. M.D., 1786-1869, founded I the Ridgeway branch of Phila. Library: his wife. PHCEBE Ann (ridgeway), 1797-1857, was prominent as a social leader.

Rush, William, 1756-1883. Wood-carver of Phila., preeminent in his day, especially by his figure-heads for vessels.

Rushworth, JOHN, ab.1607-1690. English compiler of Historical Collections (1618-48), 7 vols., 1659-1701, repub. 1721.

Rusk, Jeremiah Mclain, 1830-1893. M.C. 1871-77; Gov. of Wis. 1882-88; U. S. Sec. of Agriculture 1889-93.

Rusk, Thomas Jefferson. 1802-1856. Sec. of War of Texas 1836; judge Texas Supreme Court 1838-42; U. S. Senator from 1846.

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Ruskin, John, LL.D., D.C.L., b. 1819. English art critic; noted for his brilliant style, extreme and erratic views, and advocacy of Turner. Modern Painters, 5 vols., 1843-60; Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849: Pre-Raphaelitism, 1851; Stones of Venice, 3 vols., 1851-53; Lectures, 1870-93.

Russell, Arthub Tozer, 1806-1874. English hymnist; biographer of T. Fuller, 1844, and Bp. Andrewes, 1859.

Russell, Benjamin, 1761-1845. Ed. Columbian Centinel, 1784-1828, and Boston Gazette, 1795-1830.

Russell, Charles, Baron, b. 1833 in Ireland. Q.C. 1872; eminent as a pleader; M.P. 1880; knighted 1886; Atty.-gen. 1886 and 1892; baron and Lord Chief-justice 1894.

Russell, David Allan. U.S.A., 1820-1864. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1862; killed near Winchester, Va.

Russell, Henry, b. ab.1810. English singer and composer of songs, long in America.

Russell, Israel Cook, b. 1852. Assistant in U. S. geological survey from 1878, partly in Alaska; prof. Univ. Mich.

Russell, John, 1745-1806. English portrait painter, E.A. 1780.

Russell, John, Lord, 1792-1878. M.P. from 1813; Whig leader, prominent in the repeal of the Test and Corporation acts 1828, Catholic emancipation 1829. and the Reform Bill 1832; Home Sec. 183,5-39: Sec. for War and the Colonies 1839-41; leader of opposition 1841-45; Prime Minister 1846-52 and 1865-66; Foreign Sec. 1852 and 1859; Colonial Sec. 1855; biographer of Lord Wm. Russell, 1819, and C. J. Fox, 1859-66; editor of other memoirs.

Russell, John Henry, U.S.N., 1827-1897. Distinguished on the Gulf 1861-62; Commander 1867, Captain 1874, Commodore 1883, Rear-admiral 1886.

Russell, John Scott, F.R.S., 1808-1882. Scottish engineer; builder of the Great Eastern, Naval Architecture, 1864.

Russell, Jonathan, 1771-1832. U. S. Minister to Sweden 1814-18; M.C. from Mass. 1821-23.

Russell, William, Lord, 1639-1683. English patriot, who advocated the bill excluding James as a papist from the succession; falsely accused of participation in the Rye House Plot; arraigned for treason; condemned upon, perjured testimony and beheaded.—His wife, RACHEL (wriothesley), 1636-1723, a model of fidelity, left Letters, pub. 1773.

Russell, William, 1758-1825. Ky. pioneer, prominent in several campaigns; commander on the frontier 1811-12.

Russell, William, 1798-1873. Scottish-American elocutionist, teacher, writer, and lecturer.—His son, Francis Thayer, b. 1828, has been Prof, of Elocution at Middletown, Conn., and in New York.

Russell, William Clark, b. 1844 in N. Y. English marine novelist. Jolin Holdsivorth, 1874: Wreck of the Grosvenor, 1877; The Lady Maud, 1882; Marooned, 1889; A Three-stranded Yarn, 1895.

Russell, William Eusrcs, 1857-1896. Gov. of Mass. 1890-93; prominent as a reformer. Speeches, 1894.

Russell, William Howard, LL.D., b. 1821 in Ireland. Special correspondent of the London Times in the Crimean, Indian, American, Austro-Prussian, and Franco German wars; author of diaries. Dr. Brady, 1868; Hesperothen, 1882; Chile, 1890.

Russia. Empire of e. Europe and n. Asia, comprising more than one-seventh of the habitable parts of the earth. It is popularly separated into four divisions, as below, with their estimated areas and population:

Area sq. m. Population
Russia in Europe . . . 2,060,940 88.356.572

Caucasus 178,839 7,084,017

Siberia 4,826.287 4,143,226

Central Asia 1,286,874 5,201.946

Total 8,352,940 104,785,741

Pop., 1897 129,211,113

The surface of European R. is one vast plain, extending from the Urals to the Baltic, from the Caucasus to the Arctic Ocean. That of Asiatic R. is elevated and mountainous in the s. and e., descending in the interior into broad semi-arid plains, the Steppes, which, becoming still lower, border the shores of the Arctic with immense areas of frozen swamp or tundra. The coast is everywhere broken with deep bays and peninsulas, and studded with islands. It contains many of the great rivers of the globe, the Volga, Obi, Yenesei, Lena, and Amoor, and several inland seas, such as the Caspian and Aral, and lakes Baikal and Balkash. The industries are in the main agricultural, and though a large part of the country is from soil or climate unfit for cultivation, and the processes some

what rude, yet the product is enormous. Manufactures are not extensive, nor is foreign trade. Its internal trade is very great. The Ural Mts. contain much mineral wealth, gold, platinum, iron and copper being mined. Coal is found in the Crimea and the Urals, and salt is manufactured in several localities. Petroleum is abundant in the Caucasus. Railroads are being constructed by the government with almost unexampled rapidity. Sept. 1, 1896, 24,439 m. were in operation. 7,939 m. building. The government is an absolute monarchy. The regular army is very large, consisting of 880,000 officers and men. The navy comprises 327 vessels, mounting 1812 guns. The capital is St. Petersburg, on the Neva. Other leading cities are Warsaw, Moscow, Riga, Kharkov, and Odessa.

The Eastern Slavs settled near the sources of the Dniester, Don, and other rivers, Novgorod and Kieff being their chief towns. In 862, at their invitation the Norman Rurik came and took possession of Novgorod; Olga, widow and successor of Rurik's son, was baptized 955. A pagan reign followed, but Vladimir, 980-1015, accepted Christianity 988, and did much to extend and civilize his empire, afterward divided and subdivided among his descendants. A Mongol invasion took place 1222, and Batu Khan conquered R. 1235. destroying Moscow, invaded the southwest 1240, destroyed Kieff, and founded the Khanate of Kiptchak; civilization was arrested, and R. thrown 200 years behiud the rest of Europe. The growth of Lithuania, annexed to Poland 1569. was favored by the prostration of other parts of R. Dmitri in e. R., 1358-89, obtained a vic


Arrival at Siberian Post-House.

tory over the Khan 1380. The Tartars afterward twice invaded R.. but under Ivan III., 1462-1505, their yoke was shaken off and the empire consolidated. During the minority of Ivan the Terrible, 1533-84, factions prevailed, but from 1547 to the death of his queen Anastasia Romanoff he administered the government with great success; he afterward became suspicious and cruel. The dynasty of Rurik ended 1598 with his son Teodor, whose brother Dmitri was murdered. Pretenders to this name arose; confusion reigned; the King of Poland invaded R., and the land was overrun by Tartars, Poles, and robber-gangs. Michael Feodorovitch Romanoff, 1612-45, being chosen Czar, soon forced the country from foreigners, and summoned a council of representatives to aid the restoration of order. Under Alexei, 1645-76, a new code was drawn up; the right of direct appeal to the Czar was granted; Little R., Smolensk, and most of White R. were added to the empire. The reign of Peter The Great (q.v.), 1689-1725. was of great importance. He subjected himself and others to severe discipline to attain proficiency in the arts he sought to introduce. Much was lost under the weak rule of his successors. Peter III. was dethroned by his wife Catharine II., 1762-96, who largely extended the empire, now divided into governments. Alexander I., 1801-25, shared actively in European affairs and in the overthrow of Napoleon. Nicholas II., 1825-55, carried ou war with Persia and Turkey, extending his dominions, and gaining free navigation of the Black Sea, Dardanelles, and Danube; butR. lost much of this by the Crimean War. Alexander II., 1855-81, abolished serfdom and other abuses. Poland was incorporated 1868, and the Caucasus conquered; war with Turkey was again declared 1877, in defense of the rights of Slavonic Christians, and ended by the independence of Roumania. the freedom of Bulgaria under Turkish suzerainty, and the enlargement of Servia: the new State of Eastern Roumelia was formed from Bulgaria. The succeeding period has been marked by the growth of nihilism, which led to the assassination'of Alexander II. 1881. Alexander III., 1881-94, pursued a pacific policy, and fostered the national spirit. Anti-Semitic outbreaks characterized the beginning and the later years of his reign. His son, Nicholas II., succeeded.

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