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in front of the command while the drum and fife played a de-' | with cinnamon color on the wings. Eurystomus of India and
risive tune, called the rogue's march: this sentence has of late | Australia includes the Broad-billed Rollers.
years been entirely abrogated in the U. S. Service.

Rolleston, GEORGE, F.R.S., 1829–1881. Prof. Oxford 1860.
Rohan, HENRI, DUC DE, 1579–1638. French soldier, leader | Forms of Animal Life, 1870.
in Huguenot revolts. Mémoires, pub. 1644–1758.

Rollin, CHARLES, 1661-1741. French historian, prof. Paris
Rohan, LOUIS RENÉ EDOUARD, PRINCE DE, 1735-1803. 1688, and Beauvais 1699–1711 and 1720. His Ancient History,
Cardinal 1778; Bp. of Strassburg 1779. See DIAMOND NECK 13 vols., 1730-38, was widely used. Traité des Etudes, 4 vols.,
LACE.

1726-31; Roman History, 16 vols., 1738-48.
Rohillas. Afghan Pathans who rose in power in Rohil Rolling Mill. See ROLL TRAIN.
cund, India, ab. 1750. They were subdued in 1773.

Rollin Ledru. See LEDRU-ROLLIN.
Rohlfs, MRS. ANNA KATHERINE (GREEN), b. 1846, m. 1884. Rollins, EDWARD HENRY, 1824–1889. M.C. from N. H.
American writer of detective stories. The Leavenworth Case, | 1861-67; U.'S. Senator 1877–83.
1878; X Y Z, 1883; Mill Mystery, 1886; Behind Closed Doors,

Rollo, or ROLF, ab.850–930. Chief of the Northmen, who 1888; Marked Personal, 1893.

headed piratical expeditions against Scotland, England, and Rohlfs, GERHARD, 1832–1896. German explorer in Africa;

Flanders, and in 912 established himself on the Seine, acknowlauthor of many books of travel. Morocco, 1868, tr. 1874; Abys edged Charles III. as his overlord, and founded the duchy of sinia, 1869, tr. 1883.

Normandy. Rojas, JUAN RAMON, 1784-1824. Poet of the Argentine Rolls, or CORNISH ROLLS. Machine used in mining districts, revolution. Poesias patrias, 1820.

in which rock or ore is reduced in size by passing between reRojas y Zorilla, FRANCISCO DE, 1607-ab.1680. Spanish volving cylinders, either smooth or corrugated, lying side by dramatist.

side, the fine material produced dropping between the cylinders Rokitansky, KARL, BARON VON, 1804-1878. Prof. Vienna into proper receptacles below. 1834–75. His Handbook of Pathological Anatomy, 5 vols., Roll Sulphur. See SULPHUR. 1842–46, tr. 1849-52, is of great importance.

Roll-Train. Machine by which spongy and porous masses Roland. Hero of legend and poetry; warden of Brittany of weld-metal are compacted and welded, and market shapes under Charlemagne; killed 778 at Roncesvalles in Spanish produced from rectangular billets, blooms, or ingots by Navarre.

pressure. A roll consists of a body smooth and cylindrical Roland de la Platière, JEAN MARIE, 1734-1793. French for plate metal, but with grooves and fillets of various profile official, author of a Dictionary of Manufactures, 1785.-His

for shapes. At the ends of the body are the two necks, which wife, MANON JEANNE PHLIPON, 1754-1793, a Girondist leader,

are the journals on which the roll turns, and beyond the necks was guillotined, leaving Memoirs, pub. 1864, and Letters, 1867.

are the pods by which rolls are coupled by junction-rods and

boxes. These junction-rods permit vertical adjustment of one Rolander, DANIEL, 1720–1774. Swedish naturalist, who

set of rolls without distress to the next set, and the junctionstudied and described the flora of Guiana.

boxes are calculated so as to break under undue strain, before Rolfe, WILLIAM JAMES, b. 1827. American editor (1870–83)

accident to the rolls. The rolls are carried in a housing at and critic of Shakespeare. Shakespeare the Boy, 1896.

each end, and are two-high or three-high. Where but two Roll, ALFRED PHILIPPE, b. 1847. French painter.

rolls are used, the rolling engine must be reversed, or the work Rolled Sections OF IRON. The usual sections of struct passed back over the top roll, so as always to be entered from ural iron are the I-BEAM (9.v.), channel-iron, angle-iron (of

the same side. The three-high train involves the use of a table equal and unequal legs), tee-iron, deck-beam (or bulb-iron), and

for heavy work, where rolls are large for stiffness. The openrail rolled from iron or steel billets. The usual merchant sec

ing part in one roll and part in the other is called a pass. tions are the flat, square, round, hexagon, and octagon. The

Passes are classified according to function, as welding, shap. usual strength per sq. in. of these sections is from 50,000 to

ing, drawing, edging, fatting, and polishing passes; accord55,000 lbs.

ing to shape, as flat, box, gothic, square, round, polygonal and

shape passes; according to construction, as open or closed, ecRoller-Ball. Sport aiming at the propulsion of a large

centric, spiral and intermittent. The first set of rolls for operball between two goals. Attempts have been made to develop

ating on hottest and roughest work is called the roughing or this in many ingenious ways, but no great advance has been

breaking down rolls, and in England the cogging rolls. For made.

perfecting the profiles, the train is called the finishing train. Roller Mill. Form of flouring machine in which the grain For adjusting the spaces between rolls, the brasses under the is crushed by passing between two rolls either smooth or necks of the rolls are adjusted by screws in the housings. The toothed and revolving in the same or opposite direction at dif middle roll of three may be screwed up and down, or the upper ferent velocities. The rolls are made of hardened steel or por and lower roll may move together toward the middle roll. celain. See FLOUR.

The weight of the roll or rolls is largely borne by counterRollers. Picarian Old World birds of bright colors, com- | weights below the floor level. Reversing trains are driven by mon in the Ethiopic-Indian region. They, like the Tumbler a double engine without fly-wheel and with cranks at 90°, the

valve-gear link-motion being operated by a hydraulic cylinder. Similarly the feeding tables of three-high trains are raised and lowered by hydraulic power, and the feeding rolls in them are driven by a smaller engine with link-motion. Turning of the piece is done by sets of fingers coming up between the rolls as the table is lowered. The largest roll-trains in this country are those of Carnegie, Phipps & Co., which are 32 in. by 115 in. long. Krupp's large rolls, at Essen, Prussia, are 34 in. diam, by 120 in. long.

Romagna. N. part of Papal States till 1861; now provinces of Bologna, Ravenna, Ferrara, and Forli. | Romagnosi, GIAN DYMENICO, 1761-1835. Law prof. at Parma 1802, and Milan 1807; legal and philosophical writer. Works, 19 vols., 1832–35.

Romaic, Modern Greek, descendant of classical Hellenic speech.

Romaine, WILLIAM. 1714-1795. London divine, prominent in the Evangelical party. His Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith, 1763–71-94, were long popular. Works, 8 vols., 1796.

Roman and Romanesque Architecture. Roman building employed the arch, but the decorative elements of Roman architecture were those of the Grecian construction, of which the structural elements were the post and lintel. The Roman temples were imitations of those of Greece and the | Greek colonies, and resembled them in all essentials, although

they substituted for the simplicity and lucidity of the Grecian Roller (Coracias garrula).

examples a method of decoration at once more ornate and less pigeon, nave the habit of turning somersaults during flight. | refined. The Doric and Ionic orders were thus only mixed in The common Roller of Europe (Coracias garrula) is blue-green, 1 their Roman use. Only in the Corinthian order can it be

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1304

ROMAN ARCHÆOLOGY-ROMANTIC

maintained that the Roman examples will bear a comparison Roman Cement. Hydraulic cement made from volcanic with those of Greece. In other works than temples the Romans rock by the Romans. See PUZZOLANA. undertook to combine the Greek architecture with an arched construction. This was done both on exteriors and in interiors,

Romances of Arthur. Originating with Nennius, a and in both cases with awkwardness and want of success. On

Breton monk of 9th century, these were enlarged by Geoffrey the exterior they employed a system of columns and entabla

of Monmouth 1140, and completed by Sir T. Malory, whose tures to decorate a wall pierced with arched openings. Some

Morte d'Arthur, 1470, was the source of Tennyson's Idylls of times, as in the temple at Baalbec, the order extended through

the king. several stories or stages, and sometimes, as in the Colosseum

Romances of Chivalry. Third form of Spanish writings at Rome, it was repeated with or without variations at every

| in order of development. They were the literature of the stage. In the interiors, the entablature was retained and the knightly classes, as the ballads were of the people. During arches opening from it. In the case of a detached column a the 16th century the passion for them was intense. fragment of entablature was interposed under the springing of the arch or vault. The omission of this undermost fragment,

Roman Colonies. See COLONIES, ROMAN. and the imposition of the arch directly upon the column, was Roman de la Rose. Allegorical French poem begun the beginning of ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE, the architecture i ab.1237 by Guillaume de Lorris, and finished by Jean de Meung of the column and round arch. This was derived from classical ab.1277, in a coarse and satirical vein; tr. by Chaucer. Roman architecture, and obtained in w. Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. The earliest building to which this Roman Empire. See HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. innovation has been traced is the palace of Diocletian at

Romanes, GEORGE JOHN, LL.D., F.R.S., 1848–1894. B. in
Canada; prof. Royal Institution, 1888–91, and at Oxford.
Theism, 1878; Animal Intelligence, 1881; Mental Evolution,
1883-88; Darwin, 1896.
Roman Games. See CIRCUS, GLADIATORS, CÆSTUS, etc.

Roman Law. System of jurisprudence developed by the Roman Republic and Empire. Its earliest records are contained in the Twelve Tables, adopted ab.450 B.C.; its final reduction into systematic form occurred under Justinian ab.527534, when the Institutes, Digest, and Code were published. This body of rules forms the basis of the modern law of every country in Europe except England; it has also affected the English common law both in Britain and the U.S. Romano, GIULIO. See Giulio ROMANO.

Romanoff, HOUSE OF. Descended from Andrew Kobyla, who came from Prussia to Moscow 1341. Fifth in descent

from him was Roman Juricvitch, d. 1543, whose daughter Courtyard of Diocletian's Palace at Spalato, Dalmatia.

married Ivan the Terrible, and whose son, Nikita Jurief, also Spalato, which is accordingly regarded as the beginning of allied himself by marriage with the royal house of Rurik. His Romanesque architecture. From Italy the Romanesque spread grandson, Michael Romanoff, was chosen Czar 1612, after the until it prevailed in Spain, France, Germany, and England. false Dmitri. The succeeding names are: Alexei, 1648-76; The local variations were numerous and so important that Feodor, 1676–82; Peter the Great, 1682–1725. After the death · many of them are treated as separate styles, under the names of Catharine I., Peter II., 1727-30, Jast of the male line: Anna of Italian, Provençal, Rhenish, and Norman. But all the vari Ivanovna, daughter of Ivan, brother of Peter I., 1730–40; Ivan ations had in common the use of the Roman features of con IV., 1740–41; Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I. and Catharine, struction, the column and the round arch, with a divergency | 1741-61; Peter III., 1761-62, assassinated. After Catharine II., from the forms of classical Roman, increasing with the dis Paul I., 1796–1801, Alexander I., 1801–25; Nicholas I., 1825–55; tance, in space and time, from the Roman examples. For || Alexander II., 1855–81; Alexander III., 1881–94; Nicholas II., nearly a thousand years the influence of Roman architecture 1894. is more or less distinctly perceptible in all the ambitious and

Roman Roads. These were stone pavements from 3 to important buildings of w. Europe. The modifications in it

16 ft. in width, built produced in the 13th century, beginning in France, by the development of groined vaulting, were so great as to deserve

on a foundation of

masonry laid in ceand obtain the name of a new style, the Gothic; but this was

ment. Twenty-nine nevertheless the product as well as the successor of Roman

roads centered at the esque, and the transition from the style of the round arch to

Forum in Rome, and that of the pointed arch affords one of the most interesting

the length of these, chapters in the history of architecture. See ARCHITECTURE.

with their branches, Roman Archæology. See ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, was 52,964 Roman PAINTING, THERMÆ, TRIUMPHAL ARCH, CARACALLA, FORUM, AM miles. They were laid PHITHEATER, COLOSSEUM, PANTHEON, etc.; also BATHS, ROMAN. | out for long distances

in straight lines with Roman Aqueducts. See AQUEDUCT.

little regard to grade, Roman Baths. See Baths, Roman.

were built by soldiers Roman Catholic Church. Aggregate of those churches,

and slaves, and under

present conditions forming about half of Christendom, which, under their bishops,

would be uneconomacknowledge the Pope as having by divine right, as defined

ical. 1870, "ordinary and immediate” episcopal authority. Most of these follow the Latin rite. The number of Roman Catholics

Romans, EPISTLE CUAB in the world in 1892 was estimated to be as follows: Europe,

TO THE. Sixth N. T. 160,165,000; America, 58,393,882; Oceanica, 6,574,481; Africa,

book, written by St. 2,655,920; Asia, 3,007,250; total, 230,866,533. Total number of

Paul ab.58, developing

J.H.M.

the doctrine of SalvaChristians in the world was estimated to be 477,080,158. In U.S. |

SECTION. 1895 there were 7,474,850 members of R. C. Ch. out of a total

|tion through Faith, as of 23,231,490 members of all denominations.

engendering a more

Roman Roads:

Example of early basalt road by the temple of Romance Languages. Made up of Italian, French, Provençal, Spanish, Portuguese, Rhæto-Romanic, Wallachian

paving. B. Polygonal basalt blocks. C Concrete ence.

bedding. D. Rain-water gutter. The curb shown or Roumanian, and other dialects, all descended from the lingua

Romans. KING OF 1s taken from another part of the road. rustica or vulgar tongue of the Romans. Rhæto-Romanic and

THE. Title assumed by Henry II. prior to his coronation as Roumanian play but a small part, and have few monuments.

emperor, and by his successors till Maximilian. French, with its enormous literature and linguistic influences, is reckoned from the Strassburg Oaths 842. Italian begins Romantic. In musical criticism, as in literary, the anab. 1200. Spanish and Portuguese begin as independent and tithesis of classical; word of inexact meaning, often applied literary tongues ab. 1200. The Romance Languages are re very arbitrarily. Its origin and significance are plain as apceiving increased attention at universities everywhere, and | plied to operas or other vocal compositions which tell stories form a prominent part of philological investigation.

of chivalry and knighthood, either drawn from romance liter

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Rongan Proads by the

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atures or imitative of them, as the operas of Weber, Marsch-/ lowed. R. had thus become the virtual mistress of the world. ner, and Wagner. It can be used in instrumental music, in! Her provinces lined the Mediterranean. Meanwhile the muwhich the composer gives a clew to his aims by means of titles, nicipal constitution had remained unchanged. The aristocracy superscriptions, or mottoes (see PROGRAMME MUSIC); in general | had become intrenched in power and enriched with the wealth it is independent of conventional restrictions in its strivings of the subjugated. The problem of administration was yet to for expression, or has a preponderance of the subjective ele be solved. The strain upon the inadequate municipal conment, or its content outweighs form, whereas classical music stitution became insupportable. The incongruousness of a has been developed to the highest pitch of perfection on its municipal empire was evident. Flagrant misgovernment reformal side in obedience to generally accepted laws, placing sulted. The provinces were systematically pillaged. The æsthetic beauty over emotional content, or refusing to sacri enormous increase of slaves, with vicious economic legislafice form to characteristic expression.

tion, pauperized free laborers. Small farms were replaced by Romanticism. Literary movement opposed ab. 1800 to

latifundia. Millionaires and paupers confronted each other in

sullen hate. The rabble of the city had swelled to a dangerous classicism, and more recently to realism. It aimed at a wider range of topics and motives, and a freer admission of the

mob. Greed of wealth corrupted the aristocracy. A contest

was inevitable. Tiberius Gracchus began it 133 B.C. by deimagination and emotions. In its earlier form it revolted against cold formality, in its later against superficiality and

manding a surrender of the public lands illegally occupied, and "the deadly commonplace." Though often extravagant, its

their redistribution among the poor. He was murdered by the work has been essential to breadth and health. Victor Hugo,

aristocrats, as was his brother Caius, 123 B.C., who followed

in his steps. The Jugurthine war, which followed. illustrated one of its chief apostles, called it simply liberalism in litera

the venality of the administration. Marius, the victor, beture.

came the popular leader; he utterly failed as a statesman. Romany, or ROMMANY. Language spoken by GYPSIES The murder of Drusus for favoring the admission to citizen(q.v.). Rom signifies a man in their dialect.

ship of the Italian allies incited them to arms 90 B.C. The Roma Quadrata. Original settlement of Rome on the

social war was ended by the grudging concession of citizenship.

Thus the municipality was virtually destroyed. The opposi. Palatine Hill, with some portion of the land adjacent, all sur

tion of Optimates and Populares continued, and resulted in the rounded by walls in quadrangular form.

Civil war, 88-81 B.C., with Sulla and Marius as leaders. Sulla's Romberg, ANDREAS JAKOB, 1767-1821. German violinist success in the Mithradatic war. 85 B.C., secured to him the and composer, who succeeded Spohr 1815 as Hofkapellmeister army, and he easily destroyed the popular forces, proscribed at Gotha. He wrote eight operas and many other works, now his enemies, and reconstructed the government upon an arisforgotten, except a setting of Schiller's Die Glocke.

tocratic basis, subjecting the troublesome tribunate to the Romberg, BERNHARD, 1742–1814. German violoncello

senate. The antagonism was, however, only aggravated. The

popular party only awaited a leader. Insurrections of slaves virtuoso and composer.

and gladiators, the formidable conspiracy of Cataline, revolts Rome. Capital of Italy, on the Tiber, 14 m. from its mouth. of provinces, revealed the incapacity of the aristocracy. This Its history is that of a municipality. Tradition alleges that the confusion furnished the opportunity of ambitious men. Pomcity was founded 753 B.C. by Romulus upon the Palatine Hill. pey, a successful general, Crassus, a wealthy politician, and The union of the Latins on the Palatine and the Sabines on the Cæsar formed a triumvirate to divide among themselves the Quirinal Hill, tribes belonging to the two great races of Cen power and profits of the incapable aristocracy. The death of tral Italy, Latin and Oscan, was prophetic of the Roman policy Crassus was followed by a rupture between Cæsar and Pompey, of incorporation, which was the source of her strength. Early whereupon civil war ensued. Cæsar, with a disciplined and R. was a non-hereditary monarchy till 510. There was also a devoted army, seized R., conquered Pompey at Pharsalia, 48 council of elders, the Senate, and an assembly of the people, B.C., and established the military monarchy with great skill Comitia. After the expulsion of the kings this power fell to and moderation. His assassination by Brutus and others, two magistrates, Consuls, elected annually. Very early two March 15, 44 B.C., was a grave calamity to the state. Civil distinct classes appear in the city; Patricians, heads of families, war again broke out, and resulted (30 B.C.) in the ultimate who alone were citizens and eligible to the magistracies, and supremacy of Octavianus, nephew of Cæsar, by whose judicious Plebeians, a class recruited from former clients, emancipated management the foundations of the empire were securely laid. slaves, refugees, traders, etc. The Plebeians became numerous The Augustan age was R.'s most illustrious period. There and prosperous, and were admitted to the citizen army, but was, however, no formal revolution. The fiction of a lifelong not to citizenship. The internal history of the Republic for magistracy was successfully maintained until Diocletian, 284, two centuries is the struggle of the Plebs for political equality. threw off disguise and revealed a monarchy supported by solTheir secession from the city 494 B.C. secured them the Tribune diers. The commonwealth had gradually ceased to exist. The ship, an inviolable office and independent of the Senate, created | inhabitants of the provinces had been admitted to Roman citifor the protection of the Plebs; but politically it separated zenship, and all merged in the empire. The succession was rather than united the two classes, and was liable to great maintained for a while in the family of Augustus and affiliated abuse. The Plebs obtained political equality ab.300 B.C., with branches. Peace and wise administration secured the prospera separate assembly, Comitis Tribula, and the right of legisla ity of the empire. But from the time of Marcus Aurelius, 161– tion. R. then became in name a democracy, but in fact it was 180, dates the period of decline. Emperors were declared and administered by a narrow aristocracy. The conduct of foreign dethroned by the army, or the throne was sold to the highest affairs required some such arrangement. But the aristocrats bidder. Rival emperors contended, provinces revolted, and turned their power to private ends, and the attempt of the the barbarians were pouring in on all sides. Diocletian dipopular party to recover its power caused the overthrow of vided the empire into four parts. R. was deserted by the the Republic.

em perors; Constantine transferred the seat of government to The expansion of R. steadily followed upon her numerous Constantinople 330, and fixed the absolutism of imperial ausuccessful wars. The Etruscans were conquered 396 B.C., but thority. Accelerated decline followed. Julian fell before the the city was destroyed by the Gauls of n. Italy 390 B.C. A Persians, and Valens was destroyed by an irruption of the series of wars began ab.343 with the Samnites and Latins, who Visigoths 378. Theodosius conquered his rivals and was acwere jealous of R.'s growing power. It resulted in Roman | knowledged ruler of the whole empire 394. Under his imbecile supremacy over Central Italy. R. came next in contact with successors it was again divided. The barbarians were subsithe Greeks of s. Italy, who appealed to Pyrrhus for aid 281. dized, and then turned against their incapable rulers. R. was He was conquered and s. Italy subjugated. R. was now neigh sacked by Alaric 410, by the Vandals 45i. The emperors bebor to Carthage, and rivalry was inevitable. The Punic wars came the tools of their generals, and Romulus Augustulus wis began 264 B.C. Carthage was defeated and Sicily annexed 241 deposed 476. The Eastern empire at Constantinople continued B.C.; this was the beginning of Ri's provincial system. The till overthrown by the Turks 1453. The Western empire was second Punic war, 218–202 B.C., was a desperate life-and-death revived by Charlemagne 800, and continued in the German line struggle, noted for Hannibal's march over the Alps to Italy, until terminated by Napoleon 1806. Meantime R. gained new where he repeatedly defeated the Romans. The fidelity of R.'s importance as the seat of the popes, and suffered heavily in Italian allies and her own superb courage saved her; Carthage the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, being repeatedly was subjugated. R.'s power had now become immensely aug taken, sacked, and burned. It was held by the French 1797– mented. She bound ber allies to herself by a prudent system 1814, and was a nominal republic 1799 and 1848. Since 1871 it of colonization and local segregation and a network of mili has been the capital of Italy. It is celebrated for its architary roads; but citizenship was charily granted.

tectural works, chief among which are the cathedral of St. R.'s alliance was now courted by rival factions in the East, Peter and the palace of the Vatican, and its treasures of art. and the Macedonian wars, 214–168 B.C., broke out, resulting in | R. is situated on an undulating plain (85 by 25 m.) of marine the subjection of Greece and the Macedonian provinces. R. and alluvial deposits, intersected by volcanic masses. It lies was now inevitably launched upon her career of conquest. chiefly on the left bank of the Tiber, on the plain; on the same Her commercial rivals, Corinth and Carthage, were cruelly | side are the Seven Hills of R., the Capitoline, Palatine, Avencrushed. The subjugation of Spain, and later of Gaul, fol- ' tine, Colian, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal, and upon these

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was the ancient city; in the Middle Ages these were unin Romilly, SIR SAMUEL, 1757-1818. London lawyer, knighted habited. On the right bank is the smaller portion of the city, 1806; M.P. and Solicitor-gen. 1806; active and able reformer, connected with the greater by several bridges. The Tiberi especially of the criminal law, wherein his success was postflows through the city in an artificial channel, constructed in humous. Speeches, 1820; Autobiography, 1840.—His son, John, 1876. The average width of the river is 195 ft. and its depth 1802–1874, was M.P. 1832–35 and 1846–52, Solicitor-gen. 1848, 20 ft., sometimes rising 35 ft. more. The first walls of R. were | Attorney-gen. 1850, Master of the Rolls 1851-72, and Baron about the Palatine bill, 48 ft. high, with 3 gates; under Servius 1866. Tullius they were 7 m. long, across the valleys only, with 37

Romney, GEORGE, 1734–1802. English portrait painter, gates; under Aurelian, they were 11 m. long, with 14 gates and 8 bridges across the Tiber; under Vespasian, they were 13

ranking next to Reynolds and Gainsborough. m. long, with 13 gates; they were built of tufa concrete, faced Romsdal. Mountain valley of s.w. Norway, noted for its with brick, 55 ft. high. The walls now are 10 m, on the left bank wild scenery. It comprises the R. Fiord, an inlet of the sea, and 4 m. on the right. The area within the walls is 3,880

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The Bridge and Castle of St. Angelo. acres. Since 1870 R. bas been fortified by 30 forts in a 30 m. circle. Its manufactures are of little importance, mostly in jewelry, silk and the fine arts. The university, founded 1303,

Veblungsnaes. had si instructors and 1,543 students in 1891. The public libraries have ab. 1,000,000 books and manuscripts. Under

60 m. in length and on an arm of which are the villages R. and Augustus the population was 1,300,000, one-half slaves; under

Veblungsnaes. Area 6,030 sq. m., pop. 117,200. Vespasian it was 2,000,000; in 1894, it was 463,790. See AQUE Romulus. Mythical founder of Rome. He and Remus, DUCT.

sons of the Vestal Rhea Silvia by Mars, were suckled by a wolf Rome. City of Oneida co., N. Y., on the Mohawk; char

and reared by a shepherd. Disagreeing as to the site of their tered 1819 and 1870: site of Fort Stanwix, besieged by the

city, Remus was slain by R., who reigned 37 years, and was British 1777. Gen. Herkimer, going to its relief, was ambus

taken to heaven in a fiery chariot and worshiped under the caded at Oriskany, 6 m. s.e. Pop., 1890, 14,991.

name of Quirinus. Rome, PRIX DE. Prize given by the Conservatory and the Romulus Augustulus. Last emperor of Rome 475–476; School of Fine Arts in Paris. The recipient is expected to study deposed by Odoacer. painting at Rome and to lodge in the Villa Medici. It con

Roncesvalles. In the Pyrenees: place where Roland, tinues for four years. The second prize is a gold medal.

Charlemagne's paladin, is said to have been defeated and slain Rome, RELIGION OF ANCIENT. This was the outgrowth of by the Basques 778. The French under Soult were defeated the mythological and legendary beliefs of the various peoples here July 25, 1813. who migrated to Italy. The predominant features were those Rondeau. Short poem involving a refrain or repetition; of the Etruscans, Sabines, and Latins, later influenced by the

popular in 17th century, and recently revived in English Greeks, and the gods were derived from these sources. The

verse. Romans regarded the highest duty to be submission to authority, they worshiped an abstraction. Every event, act, thing,

Rondeau, José, 1773-1834. Argentine director or dictator and person had a tutelary deity, and the promises to the gods

1815 and 1819-20; Pres. 1828–29. were carried out to the letter. They had prayers, vows, offer Rondo. Musical form, frequently used for the last moveings, sacrifices, libations, songs, dances, and games. Their

ment of sonatas, concertos and symphonies, copied after the sacred places were hallowed spots on bills or in groves; or

French verse form, rondeau. In it the principal theme is respecial temples were provided with altars for libations and

peated several times, like the literary refrain, the repetitions burnt offerings. A priesthood grew up, which gradually

being separated by new themes called episodes. acquired privileges; the Augurs, Vestal Virgins, Pontifices, Sibyls, Fetiales, and Salii. The gods were grouped in sets

Ronge, JOHANNES, 1813–1887. German-Catholic leader. as Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, the Capitoline deities of power, excommunicated 1844, in exile 1849–61. womanliness, and wisdom; Sol, Luna. Tellus, the stars; Or Ronins. Japanese swordsmen, subjects of a famous rocus. Dives, Libitina, the infernal regions; Vulcan, Fire, and

mance. Vesta, the domestic hearth; Saturnus and Ops, agriculture; Pales, flocks: Faunus and Fauna, oracles; Parcæ, fates; For

Ronsard, PIERRE DE, 1524-1585. French poet, founder of tuna, luck; Lares, life, Manes, death, Penates, after death,

the classical school; extremely popular in his day. Odes, the household gods; Mars, war, comes next to Jupiter. The 1550-52; Amours, 1552–56; Hymns, 1555. Works, 1560–84. Romans addressed their prayers directly to the god, without

Rood. See HOLY ROOD. any mediator. This religion held firm hold of the people until the Roman simple and industrious life degenerated into luxuri

Rood. In Gothic Architecture, a crucifix, especially when ous ease, when it was replaced by unbelief, sectarianism, and placed upon a screen in front of the chancel, mysticism, under mercenary and ignorant priests. Constan Rood, OGDEN NICHOLAS, LL.D., b. 1831. Prof. of Physics tine the Great established Christianity as the state religion,

at Columbia 1863; microscopist and inventor. Modern Chroand abolished the last trace of the Roman religion.

matics, 1881. Römer, OLE, 1644–1710. Prof. of Mathematics and Astron

Rood-Loft, or ROOD-SCREEN. Partition, sometimes of omy at Copenhagen 1681; inventor of the transit instrument,

masonry, but more commonly of wood, between the nave or and discoverer of the fact that light occupies an appreciable

| part appropriated to the congregation and choir, or place retime in its passage through space.

served for the clergy, in a church or cathedral. They were Romero, MATIAS, b. 1837. Mexican minister at Washing- often of great elaboration and elegance. One of the most ton 1863–68, 1882, and since 1884; Sec. Treasury 1868–73 and famous, a work of the French Renaissance, is in the church 1876-79.

of St. Etienne du Mont in Paris. Rome-Scot. See PETER'S PENCE.

Rood Tower. Name sometimes given to a tower erected

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