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in front of the command while the drum and fife played a derisive tune, called the rogue's march: this sentence has of late years been entirely abrogated in the U. S. Service.

Rohan, Henri, Due De, 1579-1638. French soldier, leader in Huguenot revolts. Memoires, pub. 1644-1738.

Rohan, Louis Rene Edouard, Prince De, 1735-1803. Cardinal 1778; Bp. of Strassburg 1779. See Diamond NeckLace.

Rohillai. Afghan Pathans who rose in power in Rohilcund, India, ab.1750. They were subdued in 1773.

Rohlfs, Mrs. Anna Katherine (green), b. 1846, m. 1884. American writer of detective stories. The Leavenworth Case, 1878; X Y Z, 1883; Mill Mystery, 1886; Behind Closed Doors, 1888; Marked Personal, 1893.

I< oil Its. Gerhard, 1832-1896. German explorer in Africa; author of many books of travel. Morocco, 1868, tr. 1874; Abyssinia, 1869, tr. 1883.

Rojas, Juan Ramon, 1784-1824. Poet of the Argentine revolution. Poesias patrias, 1820.

Rojas J Zorilla, Francisco De, 1607-ab.l680. Spanish dramatist.

Rokitansky, Kasl, Baron Von, 1804-1878. Prof. Vienna 1834-75. His Handbook of Pathological Anatomy, 5 vols., 1842-46, tr. 1849-52, is of great importance.

Roland. Hero of legend and poetry; warden of Brittany under Charlemagne; killed 778 at Roncesvalles in Spanish Navarre.

Roland de la Piatt ere, Jean Marie. 1734-1793. French official, author of a Dictionary of Manufactures, 1785.—His wife, Manon Jeanne Phlipon, 1754-1793, a Girondist leader, was guillotined, leaving Memoirs, pub. 1864, and letters, 1867.

Rolander, Daniel, 1720-1774. Swedish naturalist, who studied and described the flora of Guiana.

Rolfe, William James, b. 1827. American editor (1870-83) and critic of Shakespeare. Shakespeare the Boy, 1896.

Roll, Alfred Philippe, b. 1847. French painter.

Rolled Sections Of Iron. The usual sections of structural iron are the I-beam (q.v.), channel-iron, angle-iron (of equal and unequal legs), tee-iron, deck-beam (or bulb-iron),'and rail rolled from iron or steel billets. The usual merchant sections are the flat, square, round, hexagon, and octagon. The usual strength per sq. in. of these sections is from 50,000 to 55,000 lbs.

Roller-Rail. Sport aiming at the propulsion of a large ball between two goals. Attempts have been made to develop this in many ingenious ways, but no great advance has been made.

Roller Mill. Form of flouring machine in which the grain is crushed by passing between two rolls either smooth or toothed and revolving in the same or opposite direction at different velocities. The rolls are made of hardened steel or porcelain. See Flour.

Rollers. Picarian Old World birds of bright colors, common in the Ethiopic-Indian region. They, like the Tumbler

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with cinnamon color on the wings. Eurystomus of India and Australia includes the Broad-billed Rollers.

Rolleston, George, F.R.S., 1829-1881. Prof. Oxford 1860. Forms of Animal Life, 1870.

Rollin, Charles. 1661-1741. French historian, prof. Paris 1688, and Beauvais 1699-1711 and 1720. His Ancient History, 13 vols., 1730-38, was widely used. Traite des Etudes, 4 vols., 1726-31; Roman History, 16 vols., 1738-48.

Rolling Mill. See Roll Train.

Rolltn L.edru. See Ledru-rollin.

Rollins, Edward Henrt, 1824-1889. M.C. from N. H. 1861-67; U. S. Senator 1877-83.

Rollo, or Rolf, ab.850-930. Chief of the Northmen, who headed piratical expeditions against Scotland. England, and Flanders, and in 912 established himself on the Seine, acknowledged Charles III. as his overlord, and founded the duchy of Normandy.

Rolls, or Cornish Rolls. Machine used in mining districts, in which rock or ore is reduced in size by passing between revolving cylinders, either smooth or corrugated, lying side bv side, the fine material produced dropping between the cylinders into proper receptacles below.

Roll Sulphur. See Sulphur.

Roll-Train. Machine by which spongy and porous masses of weld-metal are compacted and welded, and market shapes produced from rectangular billets, blooms, or ingots by pressure. A roll consists of a body smooth and cylindrical for plate metal, but with grooves and fillets of various profile for shapes. At the ends of the body are the two necks, which are the journals on which the roll turns, and beyond the necks are the pods by which rolls are coupled by junction-rods and boxes. These junction-rods permit vertical adjustment of one set of rolls without distress to the next set, and the junctionboxes are calculated so as to break under undue strain, before accident to the rolls. The rolls are carried in a housing at each end, and are two-high or three-high. Where but two rolls are used, the rolling engine must be reversed, or the work passed back over the top roll, so as always to be entered from the same side. The three-high train involves the use of a table for heavy work, where rolls are large for stiffness. The opening part in one roll and part in the other is called a pass. Passes are classified according to function, as welding, shaping, drawing, edging, flatting, and polishing passes; according to shape, as flat, box, gothic, square, round, pol3'gonal and shape passes; according to construction, as open or closed, eccentric, spiral and intermittent. The first set of rolls for operating on hottest and roughest work is called the roughing or breaking down rolls, and in England the cogging rolls. For perfecting the profiles, the train is called the finishing train. For adjusting the spaces between rolls, the brasses under the necks of the rolls are adjusted by screws in the housings. The middle roll of three may be screwed up and down, or the upper and lower roll may move together toward the middle roll. The weight of the roll or rolls is largely borne by counterweights below the floor level. Reversing trains are driven by a double engine without fly-wheel and with cranks at 90°, the valve-gear link-motion being operated by a hydraulic cylinder. Similarly the feeding tables of three-high trains are raised and lowered by hydraulic power, and the feeding rolls in them nre driven by a smaller engine with link-motion. Turning of the piece is done by sets of fingers coming up between the rolls as the table is lowered. The largest roll-trains in this country are those of Carnegie, Phipps & Co., which are 32 in. by 115 in. long. Krupp's large rolls, at Essen, Prussia, are 34 in. diam. by 120 in. long.

Romagna. N. part of Papal States till 1861; now provinces of Bologna, Ravenna. Ferrara. and Forli.

Romagnosi, Gian Domenico, 1761-1835. Law prof, at Parma 1802, and Milan 1807; legal and philosophical writer. Works, 19 vols., 1832-35.

Romaic. Modern Greek, descendant of classical Hellenic speech.

Romaine, William.1714-1795. London divine, prominent in the Evangelical party. His Lift, Walk, and Triumph of Faith, 1763-71-94, were long popular-. Works, 8 vols., 1796.

Roman and Romanesque Architecture. Roman building employed the arch, but the decorative elements of Roman architecture were those of the Grecian construction, | of which the structural elements were the post and lintel. The Roman temples were imitations of those of Greece and the Greek colonies, and resembled them in all essentials, although they substituted for the simplicity and lucidity of the Grecian examples a method of decoration at once more ornate and less refined. The Doric and Ionic orders were thus only mixed in their Roman use. Only in the Corinthian order can it be maintained that the Roman examples will bear a comparison with those of Greece. In other works than temples the Romans undertook to combine the Greek architecture with an arched construction. This was done both on exteriors and in interiors, and in both cases with awkwardness and want of success. On the exterior they employed a system of columns and entablatures to decorate a wall pierced with arched openings. Sometimes, as in the temple at Baalbec, the order extended through several stories or stages, and sometimes, as in the Colosseum at Rome, it was repeated with or without variations at every stage. In the interiors, the entablature was retained and the arches opening from it. In the case of a detached column a fragment of entablature was interposed under the springing of the arch or vault. The omission of this undermost fragment, and the imposition of the arch directly upon the column, was the beginning of Romanesque Architecture, the architecture of the column and round arch. This was derived from classical Roman architecture, and obtained in w. Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. The earliest building to which this innovation has been traced is the palace of Diocletian at


Courtyard of Diocletian's Palace at Spalato, Dalmatia.

Spalato, which is accordingly regarded as the beginning of Romanesque architecture. From Italy the Romanesque spread until it prevailed in Spain, France, Germany, and England. The local variations were numerous and so important that many of them are treated as separate styles, under the names of Italian, Provencal, Rhenish, and Norman. But all the variations had in common the use of the.Roman features of construction, the column and the round arch, with a divergency from the forms of classical Roman, increasing with the distance, in space and time, from the Roman examples. For nearly a thousand years the influence of Roman architecture is more or less distinctly perceptible in all the ambitious and important buildings of w. Europe. The modifications in it produced in the 13th century, beginning in France, by the development of groined vaulting, were so great as to deserve and obtain the name of a new style, the Gothic; but this was nevertheless the product as well as the successor of Romanesque, and the transition from the style of the round arch to that of the pointed arch affords one of the most interesting chapters in the history of architecture. See Architecture.

Roman Archaeology. See Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Therms. Triumphal Arch, Caracalla, Forum, AmPhitheater, Colosseum, Pantheon, etc.; also Baths. Roman.

Roman Aqueducts. See Aqueduct.

Roman Hath*. See Baths, Roman.

Roman Catholic Church. Aggregate of those churches, forming about half of Christendom, which, under their bishops, acknowledge the Pope as having by divine right, as defined 1870, "ordinary and immediate" episcopal authority. Most of these follow the Latin rite. The number of Roman Catholics in the world in 1892 was estimated to be as follows: Europe, 160,165,000; America, 58,393,882; Oceanica, 6,574,481; Africa, 2,655,920; Asia, 3,007,250; total, 230.866,533. Total number of Christians in the world was estimated to be 477,080,158. In U. S. 1895 there were 7,474,850 members of R. C. Ch. out of a total of 23,231.490 members of all denominations.

Romance Languages. Made up of Italian. French, Provengal, Spanish, Portuguese. Rhasto-Romanic, Wallachian or Roumanian, and other dialects, all descended from the lingua rustica or vulgar tongue of the Romans. Rhasto-Romanic and Roumanian play but a small part, and have few monuments. French, with its enormous literature and linguistic influences, is reckoned from the Strassburg Oaths 842. Italian begins ab.1200. Spanish and Portuguese begin as independent and literary tongues ab. 1200. The Romance Languages are receiving increased attention at universities everywhere, and form a prominent part of philological investigation.

Roman Cement. Hydraulic cement made from volcanic rock by the Romans. See Puzzolana.

Romances of Arthur. Originating with Nennius, a Breton monk of 9th century, these were enlarged by Geoffrey of Monmouth 1140. and completed by Sir T. Malory, whose Morte oV Arthur, 1470, was the source of Tennyson's "idylls of the King.

Romances of Chivalry. Third form of Spanish writings in order of development. They were the literature of the knightly classes, as the ballads were of the people. During the 16th century the passion for them was intense.

Roman Colonies. See Colonies, Roman.

Roman de la Rose. Allegorical French poem begun ab.1237 by Guillaume de Lorris, and finished by Jean de Meuag ab.1277, in a coarse and satirical vein; tr. by Chaucer.

Roman Empire. See Holy Roman Empire.

Romanes, George John, LL.D., F.R.S., 1848-1894. B. in Canada; prof. Roval Institution, 1888-91, and at Oxford. Tlieism, 1878; Animal Intelligence, 1881; Mental Evolution, 1883-88; Danciti, 1896.

Roman Games. See Circus, Gladiators, < \f.sits. etc.

Roman Law. System of jurisprudence developed by the Roman Republic and Empire. Its earliest records are contained in the Twelve Tables, adopted ab.450 B.C.; its final reduction into systematic form occurred under Justinian ab.527534, when the Institutes, Digest, and Code were published. This body of rules forms the basis of the modern law of every countrj' in Europe except England; it has also affected the English common law both in Britain and the U. S.

Romano, Giulio. See Giulio Romano.

Romanoff, House Of. Descended from Andrew Kobyla, who came from Prussia to Moscow 1341. Fifth in descent from him was Roman Juricvitch, d. 1543. whose daughter married Ivan the Terrible, and whose son, Nikita Jurief, also allied himself by marriage with the royal house of Rurik. His grandson, Michael Romanoff, was chosen Czar 1612. after the false Dmitri. The succeeding names are: Alexei. 1648-76; Feodor, 1676-82; Peter the Great, 1682-1725. After the death of Catharine I., Peter II., 1727-30, last of the male line: Anna Ivanovna, daughter of Ivan, brother of Peter I., 1730-40; Ivan IV., 1740-41; Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I. and Catharine, 1741-61; Peter III., 1761-62, assassinated. After Catharine II., Paul I., 1796-1801; Alexander I., 1801-25; Nicholas I., 1825-55; Alexander II., 1855-81; Alexander III., 1881-94; Nicholas II., 1894.

Roman Roads. These were stone pavements from 3 to 16 ft. in width, built on a foundation of masonry laid in cement. Twenty-nine roads centered at the Forum in Rome, and the length of these, with their branches, was 52,964 Roman miles. They were laid out for long distances in straight lines with little regard to grade, were built by soldiers and slaves, and under present conditions would be uneconomical.

Romans, Epistle To The. Sixth N. T. book, written by St. Paul ab.58, developing the doctrine of Salvation through Faith, as engendering a more perfect, because internally prompted, obedience.

Romans, King Of THE. Title assumed by Henry II. prior to his coronation as emperor, and by his successors till Maximilian.

Romantic. In musical criticism, as in literary, the antithesis of classical; word of inexact meaning, often applied very arbitrarily. Its origin and significance are plain as applied to operas or other vocal compositions which tell stories of chivalry and knighthood, either drawn from romance liter


Roman Roads:

Example of early basalt road by the temple of Saturn on the Clivus Capitollnus. A. Travertine B. Polygonal basalt blocks. C Concrete D. Rain-water gutter. The curb shown Is taken from another part of the road.

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atures or imitative of them, as the operas of Weber, Marschner, and Wagner. It can be used in instrumental music, in which the composer gives a clew to his aims by means of titles, superscriptions, or mottoes (see Programme Music); in general it is independent of conventional restrictions in its strivings for expression, or has a preponderance of the subjective element, or its content outweighs form, whereas classical music has been developed to the highest pitch of perfection on its formal side in obedience to generally accepted laws, placing aesthetic beauty over emotional content, or refusing to sacrifice form to characteristic expression.

Romanticism. Literary movement opposed ab.1800 to classicism, and more recently to realism. It aimed at a wider range of topics and motives, and a freer admission of the imagination and emotions. In its earlier form it revolted against cold formality, in its later against superficiality and "the deadly commonplace." Though often extravagant, its work has been essential to breadth and health. Victor Hugo, one of its chief apostles, called it simply liberalism in literature.

Romany, or Rommany. Language spoken by Gypsies (q.v.). Rom signifies a man in their dialect.

Ronut Quadrata. Original settlement of Rome on the Palatine Hill, with some portion of the land adjacent, all surrounded by walls in quadrangular form.

Romberg, Andreas Jakob, 1767-1821. German violinist and composer, who succeeded Spohr 1815 as Hofkapellmeister at Gotha. He wrote eight operas and many other works, now forgotten, except a setting of Schiller's Die Olocke.

Romberg, Beknhard, 1742-1814. German violoncello virtuoso and composer.

Rome. Capital of Italy, on the Tiber, 14 m. from its mouth. Its history is that of a municipality. Tradition alleges that the city was founded 753 B.C. by Romulus upon the Palatine Hill. The union of the Latins on the Palatine and the Sabines on the Quirinal Hill, tribes belonging to the two great races of Central Italy, Latin and Oscan, was prophetic of the Roman policy of incorporation, which was the source of her strength. Early R. was a non-hereditary monarchy till 510. There was also a council of elders, the Senate, and an assembly of the people, Comitia. After the expulsion of the kings this power fell to two magistrates, Consuls, elected annually. Very early two distinct classes appear in the city; Patricians, heads of families, who alone were citizens and eligible to the magistracies, and Plebeians, a class recruited from former clients, emancipated slaves, refugees, traders, etc. The Plebeians became numerous and prosperous, and were admitted to the citizen army, but not to citizenship. The internal history of the Republic for two centuries is the struggle of the Plebs for political equality. Their secession from the city 494 B.C. secured them the Tribuneship, an inviolable office and independent of the Senate, created for the protection of the Plebs; but politically it separated rather than united the two classes, and was liable to great abuse. The Plebs obtained political equality ab.800 B.C., with a separate assembly, Comitis Tribula, and the right of legislation. R. then became in name a democracy, but in fact it was administered by a narrow aristocracy. The conduct of foreign affairs required some such arrangement. But the aristocrats turned their power to private ends, and the attempt of the popular party to recover its power caused the overthrow of the Republic.

The expansion of R. steadily followed upon her numerous successful wars. The Etruscans were conquered 396 B.C., but the city was destroyed by the Gauls of n. Italy 390 B.C. A series of wars began ab.343 with the Samnites and Latins, who were jealous of R.'s growing power. It resulted in Roman supremacy over Central Italy. R. came next in contact with the Greeks of s. Italy, who appealed to Pyrrhus for aid 281. He was conquered and s. Italy subjugated. R. was now neighbor to Carthage, and rivalry was inevitable. The Punic wars began 264 B.C. Carthage was defeated and Sicily annexed 241 B.C.; this was the beginning of R.'s provincial system. The second Punic war, 218-202 B.C., was a desperate life-and-death struggle, noted for Hannibal's march over the Alps to Italy, where he repeatedly defeated the Romans. The fidelity of R.'s Italian allies and her own superb courage saved her; Carthage was subjugated. R.'s power had now become immensely augmented. She bound her allies to herself by a prudent system of colonization and local segregation and a network of military roads; but citizenship was charily granted.

R.'s alliance was now courted by rival factions in the East, and the Macedonian wars, 214-168 B.C., broke out, resulting in the subjection of Greece and the Macedonian provinces. R. was now inevitably launched upon her career of conquest. Her commercial rivals, Corinth and Carthage, were cruelly crushed. The subjugation of Spain, and later of Gaul, fol

lowed. R. had thus become the virtual mistress of the world. Her provinces lined the Mediterranean. Meanwhile the muI nicipal constitution had remained unchanged. The aristocracy had become intrenched in power and enriched with the wealth of the subjugated. The problem of administration was yet to be solved. The strain upon the inadequate municipal constitution became insupportable. The incongruousness of a municipal empire was evident. Flagrant misgovernment resulted. The provinces were systematically pillaged. The enormous increase of slaves, with vicious economic legislation, pauperized free laborers. Small farms were replaced by latifundia. Millionaires and paupers confronted each other in sullen hate. The rabble of the city had swelled to a dangerous mob. Greed of wealth corrupted the aristocracy. A contest was inevitable. Tiberius Gracchus began it 133 B.C. by demanding a surrender of the public lands illegally occupied, and their redistribution among the poor. He was murdered by the aristocrats, as was his brother Cuius, 123 B.C., who followed in his steps. The Jugurthine war, which followed, illustrated the venality of the administration. Marius, the victor, became the popular leader; he utterly failed as a statesman. The murder of Drusus for favoring the admission to citizenship of the Italian allies incited them to arms 90 B.C. The social war was ended by the grudging concession of citizenship. Thus the municipality was virtually destroyed. The opposition of Optimates and Populares continued, and resulted in the Civil war, 88-81 B.C., with Sulla and Marius as leaders. Sulla's success in the Mithradatic war. 85 B.C., secured to him the army, and he easily destroyed the popular forces, proscribed his enemies, and reconstructed the government upon an aristocratic basis, subjecting the troublesome tribunate to the senate. The antagonism was, however, only aggravated. The popular party only awaited a leader. Insurrections of slaves and gladiators, the formidable conspiracy of Cataline, revolts of provinces, revealed the incapacity of the aristocracy. This confusion furnished the opportunity of ambitious men. Pompey, a successful general, Crassus, a wealthy politician, and Caesar formed a triumvirate to divide among themselves the power and profits of the incapable aristocracy. The death of Crassus was followed by a rupture between Cassar and Pompey, whereupon civil war ensued. Ca?sar, with a disciplined atid devoted army, seized R., conquered Pompey at Pharsalia, 48 B.C., and established the military monarchy with great skill and moderation. His assassination by Brutus and others, March 15, 44 B.C., was a grave calamity to the state. Civil war again broke out, and resulted (30 B.C.) in the ultimate supremacy of Octavianus, nephew of Caesar, by whose judicious management the foundations of the empire were securely laid. The Augustan age was R.'s most illustrious period. There was, however, no formal revolution. The fiction of a lifelong magistracy was successfully maintained until Diocletian, 284, threw off disguise and revealed a monarchy supported by soldiers. The commonwealth had gradually ceased to exist. The inhabitants of the provinces had been admitted to Roman citizenship, and all merged in the empire. The succession was maintained for awhile in the family of Augustus and affiliated branches. Peace and wise administration secured the prosperity of the empire. But from the time of Marcus Aurelius, 161180, dates the period of decline. Emperors were declared and dethroned by the army, or the throne was sold to the highest bidder. Rival emperors contended, provinces revolted, and the barbarians were pouring in on all sides. Diocletian divided the empire into four parts. R. was deserted by the emperors; Constantine transferred the seat of government to Constantinople 330, and fixed the absolutism of imperial authority. Accelerated decline followed. Julian fell before the Persians, and Valens was destroyed by an irruption of the Visigoths 378. Theodosius conquered his rivals and was acknowledged ruler of the whole empire 394. Under his imbecile successors it was again divided. The barbarians were subsidized, and then turned against their incapable rulers. R. was sacked by Alaric 410, by the Vandals 451. The emperors became the tools of their generals, and Romulus Augustulus was deposed 476. The Eastern empire at Constantinople continued till overthrown by the Turks 1453. The Western empire was revived by Charlemagne 800, and continued in the German line until terminated by Napoleon 1806. Meantime R. gained new importance as the seat of the popes, and suffered heavily in the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, being repeatedly taken, sacked, and burned. It was held by the French 17971814, and was a nominal republic 1799 and 1848. Since 1871 it has been the capital of Italy. It is celebrated for its architectural works, chief among which are the cathedral of St. Peter and the palace of the Vatican, and its treasures of art. R. is situated on an undulating plain (85 by 25 m.) of marine and alluvial deposits, intersected by volcanic masses. It lies chiefly on the left bank of the Tiber, on the plain: on the same side are the Seven Hills of R., the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Ccelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal, and upon these

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was the ancient citv; in the Middle Ages these were uninhabited. On the right bank is the smaller portion of the city, connected with the greater by several bridges. The Tiber flows through the city in an artificial channel, constructed in 1876. The average width of the river is 195 ft. and its depth 20 ft., sometimes rising 85 ft. more. The first walls of R. were about the Palatine bill, 48 ft. high, with 3 gates; under Servius Tulliusthey were 7 m. long, across the valleys only, with 37 gates; under Aurelian, they were 11 m. long, with 14 gates and 8 bridges across the Tiber; under Vespasian, they were 13 m. long, with 13 gates; they were built of tufa concrete, faced with brick. 55 ft. high. The walls now are 10 m. on the left bank and 4 m. on the right. The area within the walls is 3,880

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acres. Since 1870 R. has been fortified by 30 forts in a 30 m. circle. Its manufactures are of little importance, mostly in

J'ewelry. silk and the fine arts. The university, founded 1303, lad 81 instructors and 1.543 students in 1891. The public libraries have ab. 1,000,000 books and manuscripts. Under Augustus the population was 1,300,000, one-half slaves; under Vespasian it was 2,000,000; in 1894, it was 463,790. See AqueDuct.

Rome. City of Oneida co., N. Y.. on the Mohawk; chartered 1819 and 1870: site of Fort Stanwix, besieged by the British 1777. Gen. Herkimer, going to its relief, was ambuscaded at Oriskany, 6 m. s.e. Pop., 1890, 14,991.

Rome, Prix De. Prize given by the Conservatory and the School of Fine Arts in Paris. The recipient is expected to study painting at Rome and to lodge in the Villa Medici. It continues for four years. The second prize is a gold medal.

Rome, Religion Of Ancient. This was the outgrowth of the mythological and legendary beliefs of the various peoples who migrated to Italy. The predominant features were those of the Etruscans, Sabines, and Latins, later influenced by the Greeks, and the gods were derived from these sources. The Romans regarded the highest duty to be submission to authority, they worshiped an abstraction. Every event, act, thing, and person had a tutelary deity, and the promises to the gods were carried out to the letter. They had prayers, vows, offerings, sacrifices, libations, songs, dances, and games. Their sacred places were hallowed spots on hills or in groves; or special temples were provided with altars for libations and burnt offerings. A priesthood grew up, which gradually acquired privileges; the Augurs, Vestal Virgins, Pontifices, Sibyls, Fetiales, and Salii. The gods were grouped in sets as Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, the Capitoline deities of power, womanliness, and wisdom; Sol, Luna. Tellus. the stare; Orcus. Dives, Libitina. the infernal regions; Vulcan, Fire, and Vesta, the domestic hearth; Saturnus and Ops, agriculture; Pales, flocks: Faunus and Fauna, oracles; Parcaa, fates; Fortuna, luck; Lares, life, Manes, death, Penates, after death, the household gods; Mars, war, comes next to Jupiter. The Romans addressed their prayers directly to the god, without any mediator. This religion held firm hold of the people until the Roman simple and industrious life degenerated into luxurious ease, when it was replaced by unbelief, sectarianism, and mysticism, under mercenary and ignorant priests. Constantine the Great established Christianity as the state religion, and abolished the last trace of the Roman religion.

R6mcr, OLE, 1644-1710. Prof, of Mathematics and Astronomy at Copenhagen 1681; inventor of the transit instrument, and discoverer of the fact that light occupies an appreciable time in its passage through space.

Romero, MATIAS. b. 1837. Mexican minister at Washington 1863-68. 1882. and since 1884; Sec. Treasury 1868-73 and 1876-79.

Rome-Scot. See Peter's Pence.

Romllly, Sir Samuel, 1757-1818. London lawver, knighted 1806; M.P. and Solicitor-gen. 1806; active and able reformer, especially of the criminal law, wherein his success was posthumous. Speeches, 1820; Autobiography, 1840.—His son. John 1802-1874, was M.P. 1832-35 and 1846-52, Solicitor-gen. 1848, Attorney-gen. 1850, Master of the Rolls 1851-72, and Baron 1866.

Romney, George. 1734-1802. English portrait painter, ranking next to Reynolds and Gainsborough.

Romsdal. Mountain valley of s.w. Norway, noted for its wild scenery. It comprises the R. Fiord, an inlet of the sea,

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60 m. in length and on an arm of which are the villages R. and Veblungsnaes. Area 6,030 sq. m., pop. 117,200.

RomuIu§. Mythical founder of Rome. He and Remus, sons of the Vestal Rhea Silvia by Mars, were suckled by a wolf and reared by a shepherd. Disagreeing as to the site of their i city, Remus was slain by R., who reigned 37 years, and was taken to heaven in a fiery chariot and worshiped under the name of Quirinus.

Romulni Augustulus. Last emperor of Rome 475-476; deposed by Odoacer.

Roncesvallea. In the Pyrenees: place where Roland, Charlemagne's paladin, is said to have been defeated and slain by the Basques 778. The French under Soult were defeated here July 25, 1813.

Rondeau. Short poem involving a refrain or repetition; popular in 17th century, and recently revived in English verse.

Rondeau, Jose, 1773-1834. Argentine director or dictator 1815 and 1819-20; Pres. 1828-29.

Rondo. Musical form, frequently used for the last movement of sonatas, concertos and symphonies, copied after the French verse form, rondeau. In it the principal theme is repeated several times, like the literary refrain, the repetitions being separated by new themes called episodes.

Ronge, Johannes, 1813-1887. German-Catholic leader, excommunicated 1844, in exile 1849-61.

Ronins. Japanese swordsmen, subjects of a famous romance.

Ronsard, Pierre De, 1524-1585. French poet, founder of the classical school; extremely popular in his dav. Odes, 1550-52; Amours, 1552-56; Hymns, 1555. Works, 1560-84.

Rood. See Holt Rood.

Rood. In Gothic Architecture, a crucifix, especially when placed upon a screen in front of the chancel.

Rood, Ogden Nicholas, LL.D., b. 1831. Prof, of Physics at Columbia 1863; microscopist and inventor. Modern Chromatics, 1881.

Rood-Loft, or Rood-screen. Partition, sometimes of masonry, but more commonly of wood, between the nave or part appropriated to the congregation and choir, or place reserved for the clergy, in a church or cathedral. They were often of great elaboration and elegance. One of the most famous, a work of the French Renaissance, is in the church of St. Etienne du Mont in Paris.

Rood Tower. Name sometimes given to a tower erected

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