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saddle, was killed at Palo Alto; CADWAIADER, U.S.N., 18021367, became Rear-admiral 1866.

Ring Money. Used in ancient Egypt, and later in Europe, before the introduction of coinage, as still in parts of Africa.

Ring Puzzle. Ingenious toy, consisting of a series of rings attached to a rod from which they may be removed and replaced. Tradition ascribes its invention to the hero Hung Ming (181-234), who gave it to his wife when he went to the war, that she might forget her sorrow for his absence. In Corea this puzzle is popular under the name of Delay Guest Iostrument.

Rings, Symbolism Of. From earliest historic times, fingerrings are found employed as personal emblems and badges of rank. Marked with adistinguishingsign upon the bezel or enlarged part, they were used as a seal to give authenticity to writings, and delivered, as by a royal personage, as a means of delegating authority to a subordinate. In China, the jade rings, formerly used in drawing the bow, survive as insignia of military rank. A ring is given to a bishop, with his I crozier, upon his consecration, as a mark of ecclesiastical rank; a bishop's ring is Ian amethyst; a cardinal's, a sapphire. | The custom of exchanging rings as a pledge of fidelity or friendship is widespread, the wedding ring being a conspicuous survival. Jewish Marriage-Ring. Ring Toss. Indoor and outdoor sport. A post set firmly upon a circular wooden base is the target: at this rings of varying size are tossed, the object being to land them upon the post. The smaller rings count the most.

Ringwaldt, Bartholomacs, 1532-ab.l599. German hymnist.

Ring Worm. Name given to several diseases of the skin whose eruption is usually circular in form. When it spreads and the part first attacked heals, the resemblance to a ring is quite marked. They are communicable, are caused by the presence of one of several vegetable parasites, and frequently attack the scalp or the beard. Dermatologists are not agreed in their limitations of the use of this word. It is an object of many popular superstitions.

Kink. Heinrich Johann. 1819-1894. Danish geographer and official. Qreenland, 1877; Eskimo Tribes, 1887.

RinKart, Martin, 1586-1649. German hymnist.

Itiiik-ItalI. Game belonging to the roller skating rink; similar to Rink-Polo, except that no sticks are used, the ball being large and driven with the foot, so that the play amounts to a species of Association football on roller skates.

Rink-Polo. Variety of Hockey, but played on a smooth made surface within doors, the players wearing roller skates. The rules are similar to those of Hockey or Shinney as played upon ice.

Rilimann'i Green. ZnCoO,. Green mass, made by heating a zinc salt moistened with cobalt nitrate on charcoal.

Rio, Andres Manuel Del, b. ab. 1769. Mexican mineralogist. His principal works were pub. 1790-1830.

Rio, Antonio Del, 1745-ab.l789. Spanish discoverer of the ruins near Palenque, s. Mexico. His Description of them was pub. 1794.

Rio de Janeiro. Metropolis and capital of Brazil, a

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large export trade, mainly of sugar, cotton, coffee, and hides. Pop., 1890, ab. 380,000.

Rio de la Plata. River of S. America, with its branches the largest next to the Amazon. They drain nearly the entire breadth of the continent from lat. 15° S. to 35° S., an area of more than a million sq. m. It is formed by the junction of the Parana and the Uruguay, the name being applied only to the estuary below their junction.

Rio Grande. One of the large rivers of the U. S. It

heads in the San Juan Mts., in Colorado, where it collects most of its waters, flows s. across New Mexico, then s.e. to the Gulf of Mexico, forming the boundary between Texas and Mexico. Its entire course is through an arid region, and though 1,800 m. long, it carries comparatively little water. Drainage area 128,792 sq. m.

Rioja, Francisco De, ab. 1585-1659. Spanish poet.

Rio Negro. 1. Left hand branch of the Amazon, rising in s. Colombia; navigable for 600 of its 1,350 m. 2. River of Argentina, formerly Patagonia; rising in the Andes and flowing e. to the Atlantic. Length ab. 600 m.

Rio Pilcomayo. See Filcomayo.

Rio Salado. Tributary of the Parana, rising in the Andes and flowing e. and s.e. across Argentina.

Riot. At Common Law, unlawful act of violence by three or more. It is defined, and the punishment prescribed, by modern statutes.

Rio Tlnto. River in Spain uniting with the Odiel a little above its mouth in the Gulf of Cadiz. Columbus set sail from the port, formed by the combined estuary, for the discovery of America. Length 70 m.

Rlouw Liingga. Archipelago, at s. end of the Malay Peninsula, composed of two groups of islands. Riouw to the n. and Lingga to the s. Most of the islands are covered with thick forest and some have deposits of tin, now almost exhausted. Pop., mixed races, ab.100,000.

Riparian. Plants or animals occurring naturally along streams.

Riparian Rights. Those attending the ownership of real property bounded by natural water courses.

Ripidolite. Some of the varieties of the mineral chlorite; so called in allusion to their fan-like shapes.

Ripley, Eleazar Wheelock, 1782-1839. Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1814; distinguished on the Canada border, especially at Fort Erie; M.C. from La. from 1835.

Ripley, George, LL.D., 1802-1880. Founder of Brook Farm (q.v.), Mass., 1841; critic of N. Y. Tribune from 1849; ed. American Cyclopaedia, 1858-63 and 1873-76.

Ripley, Henry Jones. D.D., 1798-1875. Prof. Newton Theol. Inst.. Mass., from 1826; N. T. commentator.

Rlpon, Frederick John Robinson, Earl Of, 1782-1859. M.P. 1806; member of several cabinets; Viscount Goderich and Premier 1827; Earl 1833.—His son, George Frederick Samuel, b. 1827. became M.P. 1852, Earl 1859. Sec. for War 1863, for India 1866, and Marquis 1871; Viceroy of India 1880-84.

Ripon College. Founded 1854 at Ripon, Wis. It has preparatory, collegiate, musical, and art departments, the second including classical, scientific, and literary courses, with 16 teachers and ab. 240 students.

Ripple Marks. Ridges like miniature waves on the surface of a stratum, produced by the oscillation of shallow water.

Rippon, John. D.D., 1751-1836. Baptist pastor in London from 1773. His Selection of Hymns, 1787, was the most important of many supplements to Dr. Watts', and contained numerous originals by various writers: it went through many

editions, and exerted wide influence.

Riprap. Loose stones used to form an embankment or jetty, or for protection of a pier.

Rip Tan Winkle. Hero of a famous story by W. Irving. 1820, and of a play by Boucicault, 1865, in which Joseph Jefferson gained his chief fame.

Rislianger, William, b. 1250. English monk of St. Alban's Abbey, author in 1312 of a chronicle extending 1259-1307,

Rlshi. Poets of the Vedas.

Risley, John Ewing, b. 1843. U. S. Minister to Denmark 1893.

Risotto. Italian preparation of rice, onions, and butter.

Rlst, Johann, 1607-1667. Author of ab. 680 German hymns, many of them long popular, and some known in English versions.

Ristic, John, b. 1831. Servian author and state official; head of the regency 1889-93.

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Ristori, Adelaide, b. 1821. Marchioness del Grillo 1847. Italian actress, admired in Paris 1855, and in the U. S. 1866 and 1875. Her chief parts were Mary Stuart, Queen Elizabeth, Medea, Marie Antoinette, Lady Macbeth, and Judith.

Ritchie, Mrs. Anne Isabella, b. 1838. m. 1877. Daughter of W. M. Thackeray; author of Old Kensington, 1873, Miss Angel, 1875, and several vols, of reminiscences.

Ritchie, Thomas, 1778-1854. Ed. Richmond Enquirer, 1804^15.

Ritchie, Sir William Johnston, 1813-1892. Chief-justice of New Brunswick Supreme Court 1855, and of Canada 1879; knighted 1881.

Rite. 1. Ceremony. 2. Body of ritual, differing in different churches or countries.

Rites Congregation Of. Created by Pope Sixtus V., 1585-90.

Ritschl, Albrecht. D.D., Ph.D., 1822-1889. Prof. Bonn 1853, Gottingen 1864; founder of an important school independent alike of the traditional orthodoxy and of Tubingen rationalism: it denies much, but affirms God, Christ, and redemption. His chief work is Justification and Reconciliation, 1870-74.

Ritwchl, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1806-1876. Prof, at Halle 1832, Breslau 1833, Bonn 1839. and Leipzig 1865. His most celebrated work was upon Plautus, whicli his pupils have continued and completed. He combined precision and rare critical insight.

Ritsoil, JOSEPH, 1752-1803. English antiquarian, editor of old songs and poems. Robin Hood. 1795; Metrical Romances, 1802.

Rittenhouse, David, LL.D.. F.R.S.. 1732-1796. Maker of clocks and mathematical instruments at Phila.; eminent for

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many services to astronomy and to the State, in some of which his brother, Benjamin, 1740-1789, was associated.

Ritter, Frederic Louis, b. 1834 at Strassburg. Composer, conductor, and writer on the history of music.

Ritter, Heinrich, 1791-1869. Prof. Berlin 1824, Kiel 1833, and Gottingen from 1837. Hist. Philosophy, 12 vols., 1829-55; Christian Philosophy. 1858-59.

Ritter, Karl, 1779-1859. Prof. Berlin 1820; author of Geography, Nature, and Man, 19 vols.. 1817-59, and other valuable geographical works. Palestine, 4 vols., tr. 1866.

Ritteric Rays. Ultra-red parts of the solar spectrum.

Rltter'g Pile. Constructed 1803; differing from the pile of Volta only in the fact that all the plates were of copper, alternating with disks of moistened cardboard. On connecting this with the Volta pile, Ritter found that it became charged and was capable of producing an inverse current. Volta (1805) explained correctly the result as depending upon the decomposition of the electrolyte between the plates, as due in fact to the polarization of the electrodes.

■titlinger, Peter, Ritter Von, 1811-1872. Austrian mining engineer, inventor, and author of many papers on mining and ore-dressing machinery. His Lehrbuch der Aufbereitungskunde, 1867, was a standard authority.

Rittingeritc. Rare mineral, found in Bohemia and Hungary, containing silver, arsenic, and selenium.

Ritual Of The Dead. See Book Of The Dead.

Ritual, Roman. Set forth by Paul V. 1614. to enforce uniformity of usages in R. C. service. Many different forms had previously been in use.

Ritualism. Effect of the Anglo-Catholic, Puseyite, or Tractarian movement in the English and P. E. Churches, in emphasizing fullness and propriety of rite. Services in general are more carefully planned and conducted, and more largely musical, than before 1850; but the motives for this are often aesthetic or utilitarian, and have little to do with Tractarian or Catholic doctrine.

Riva. Winter resort in the Tyrol at the n. extremity of Lago di Garda. It has a castle, and some monasteries. Its

port is the largest on the lake and its vicinity furnishes tropical fruits in abundance. Pop. ab.6,000.

Rlvadavia, Bernardino, 1780-1845. Pres. of Argentina 1820-27; exiled 1834.

Rival Coinmoditiefi. Commodities capable of fulfilling the same function, one or another of which will be used according as it can be provided most cheaply.

Riva Palacio, Mariano, 1803-1880. Premier of Mexico 1851; defender of Maximilian 1867; one of the first and purest of Mexican statesmen.

Rivarol, Antoine, 1753-1801. French satirist and royalist pamphleteer, in exile from 1792. Langue Frangaise, 1784; Petit Almanach, 1788.

River. Agency by which the surplus rainfall is collected and carried back to the sea. Its source of supply is rain and melted snow, either directly or by means of springs. Its volume depends upon its drainage area, the rainfall, and the proportion of the latter which reaches the stream. The last factor varies with the slope of the ground, the character of the soil and vegetation, and the aridity of the atmosphere, ranging from 10 to 65 per cent of the rainfall. The variability of flow of the stream depends on the character and distribution of the rainfall and the surface and vegetation of the drainage basin. The maximum flow is often in cases of small rivers 10 to 20 times the ordinary flow. The velocity of current depends upon the slope of the bed and the volume. It is greatest in midstream, and least near the banks and bottom. The slope of the river's bed is normally greatest near its head and diminishes toward its mouth, and every river tends to establish this profile. Lakes and waterfalls upon its course are ephemeral features. Rivers are the most efficient of the agents of erosion, transportation and deposition of detritus. The greater the velocity, the greater its erosive and transporting power. Erosion is most extensive on the upper waters of the stream, where the slope is greatest and deposition takes place mainly in its lower course and .at its mouth. A delta is a deposit of detritus near its mouth, through which by several channels the river finds its way to the sea. A bar is a deposit across the mouth, where the river's velocity is suddenly checked on entering the sea. A small stream is known variously as creek, brook, branch, fork, prong, etc.

Rivera, Jose Fructuoso. 1790-1854. Pres. of Uruguay

1830-35 and 1838-42.

River and Harbor Improvements. In U. S. this

work is in charge of the Corps of Engineers of the army. The country is divided into five sections, the Northwest. Southwest. Northeast, Southeast, and Pacific, each in charge of a Colonel or senior officer. These sections are subdivided into ab. 50 districts, each in charge of an officer who is assisted by other

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River Engineering—Ro vi> Locomotives


officers and by civilians. The first appropriation by Congress for this work was $9,500 in 1820. The total amount expended 1820-94 was $262,845,900. The largest annual appropriation was $25,136,300 in 1890 for 436 separate rivers and harbors.

River Engineering. Improvement of navigable streams by dredging, dams, and locks. In U. S. this work is in charge of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

River Hydraulics. Flow of water in rivers, determined by actual gauging or by computations. Only the simplest case of uniform permanent flow is well understood. If a be the area of cross-section, r the hydraulic radius, s the slope, and q the discharge, then q = ca ^/TsT where c is a number dependiug largely upon the roughness of surface. For a small rise of one per cent of the total depth the velocity increases 0.5 per cent and the discharge increases 1.5 per cent.

River Pollution. Rivers whose water has been polluted tend to purify themselves by deposition and aeration, but this should not be relied upon as effective. Polluted streams whose water is used for the supply of cities and towns are always suspicious, if not dangerous. Pollution can be prevented only by legal enactments; in Europe these are often very stringent. In U. S. many States have such laws but their enforcement is difficult.

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Rives, Amelie. See Chanler, Mrs. She became Princess Troubetzkoy 1896.—Her grandfather. William Cabell, 17931868. was M.C from Va. 1823-27. U. S. Senator 1833-34 and 1835-45, and Minister to France 1829-32 and 1849-53.

Riveters. Machines for riveting by power instead of by hand (see Riveting). There are four types: lever, steam, hydraulic, and air machines. All have an abutment or stake which holds a cup or swage to resist the pressure brought by a moving die or ram against the red-hot rivet in place in the seam. The stake is inside the cylinder or other work being operated on, the pressure coming on the outside. The differences are in the way in which power is applied to the moving ram. The lever machines force the ram forward by an elbow-joint combination of links, whose stationary point is the back of the machine, and the links are straightened out by a ram revolving under the joint of the links which hang down when the ram is back. The objection to this type of machine is the constant travel of the ram, so that varying thickness of work can be handled only by changing the dies or swages. This has been remedied by putting the abutment joint of the links on a hydraulic plunger connected with an Accumulator (q.v.), so the heading pressure cannot exceed the accumulator load, and pins between the plates are avoided. In steam riveters the ram is moved forward by a steam piston of large area, operated by steam of ordinarypressure; in hydraulic riveters a small plunger is protruded by high pressure of water from an accumulator directly, or in portable machines, to increase lightness, the hydraulic piston works a toggle-joint. The steam riveters act with a rapid impact followed by pressure; in hydraulic riveters there is no impact, hut pressure only. In many of the best ones, the plate is pressed and held together by an annular die before the heading is done by a second inner die, so that no pin may be forced between the sheets. The air riveters act either by air pressure on a cylinder operating a toggle-joint, or else by a rapid series of blows from a small cylinder operated like a rock-drill. Air riveters are adapted for work in winter in open bridge sheds, where condensation or freezing would be against the other types.


Steam Riveter.

Riveting. Operation of uniting plates of metal by lapping one part over another, and inserting, through holes which match as the parts are superposed, what are known as rivets. These are short cvlinders of the same metal as the plates, with a head on one end, which are passed red-hot through the holes, and are then headed over, either by hand or by machine (see Riveter). In hand riveting, a heavy sledge is held against the formed head, and two men with alternating blows of their hammers upon the protruding shank upset it and form an overlapping cone, which is the other head of the rivet. The contraction of the rivet as it cools, moreover, makes a stronger and tighter joint than any other, at less cost and with better resistance to fire and to corrosion. Riveted seams are singleriveted or double-riveted, according as one or two rows of rivets are used parallel to the joint. In chain riveting the holes are staggered, and not one behind the other. The aim is to get the shearing strength of the aggregate rivet area of the joint equal to the tensile strength of the plate when diminished by the holes, but in boilers and tanks usually the rivet area is in excess, to make the joint water- or steam-tight. Riveted joints are lap or butt. In the latter, the plates butt, and a welt or cover-piece is riveted to both. Where two coverstrips are used, the strain passes through the axis of the sheets without a tendency to flex. The relative strengths are usually rated thus: Original plate, 100 per cent; double riveted butt, 76 to 80 per cent; double riveted lap, 70 to 75 per cent; single riveted lap, 56 to 62 per cent. The usual sizes are f, i, and 1 in. in diameter.

Riviera. Coast of Italy from Spezia w.; usually including also that of France to Nice; famous and highly popular as a


Riviera on the Toggia.

winter resort. It is divided into the eastern and western section at Genoa. The western is the mildest, most frequented, and also has the most beautiful scenery.

Riviere, Briton, b. 1840. English painter, chiefly of animals; R.A. 1881; widely known through engravings.

Rlvington, James, 1724-1802. Tory journalist in New York, prominent before and during the British occupation. Rivington's N. Y. Gazetteer. 1773, Loyal Gazette, 1777, Gazette and Universal Advertiser, 1783.

Rivoll. Village of n. Italy, 12 m. n.w. of Verona. Near it the Austrians defeated the French Nov. 17, 1796, and were defeated by Bonaparte Jan. 14-15, 1797.

Rivulariacew. Family of Cyanophycea or blue-green Algce, comprising forms with filaments divided by transverse septa?, their two ends being quite different, one consisting of a globose cell, the other of a terminal hair.

Rix-Dollar. Former coin of Sweden and some other countries, varying in value from ab. 38 cents to $1.10.

Rixzlo, or Riccio, David, 1540-1566. Page, secretary, and favorite of Mary Stuart; hated by the Reformers, and by some regarded ns her paramour; assassinated by a conspiracy of Scottish nobles.

Roach, John, 1815-1887. Irish-American shipbuilder.

Road Lhw, Body of rules applicable to persons using a public highway either on land or sea.

Road Locomotives. For use on common roads; made in France by Cngnot 1770. in England by Murdock 1782, and in U. S. by Evans 1799. Numerous inventions in this direction have been patented, but none has proved financially successful. 1298


A boiler supplies steam to one or two cylinders, and the shaft of such engine is connected by tooth or chain gearing- to the driving wheels. These latter are fitted with a very broad tire, to distribute the weight and prevent rutting of soft earth, the tire having grooves to increase adhesion and to avoid difficulties from small inequalities of surface. The front end or truck is pivoted to serve as steering apparatus. There is usually a Differential Gear (q.v.) on the drivers to enable them to turn easily. Such machines have also been applied for heavy plowing, with a number of plows abreast or en echelon, on prairie or large colonial farming. See Agriculture.

Bond Roller. Heavy cylinder driven by steam power or drawn by horses for consolidating the surfaceof aroad. The


Road Roller

heaviest weigh from 15 to 20 tons and cost ab. $6,000. A macadam road should be rolled from 50 to 100 times during the process of construction, to form a first-class pavement.

Roads. A road should be so located that the distance ma3be short and the grade low, but grade is more important than distance. Old roads were usually too steep. Toll roads were introduced in England ab. 1400. Road improvement began in France ab. 1750: the labors of McAdam and Telford ab. 18001820 did much to influence road-construction in Great Britain. Since 1880 the movement for good roads in U. S. has produced much improvement through the introduction of better methods of administration. Road construction is the simplest problem in civil engineering, and the presence of poor roads is always an indication that no engineering talent is employed upon them. The common methods of repair by scraping the mud of the gutters upon the road surface is an extravagant waste of money; a good road can never be made by this process. Broken stone coverings, well rolled, constructed under the supervision of an engineer, form a far more durable and economical surface. In N. Y. during 1893 the repair of common roads cost $2,716,000, nearly all of which was practically wasted. The appointment of road commissioners in several States has proved most advantageous in improving the condition of the public highways. See Macadam Road and PaveMents.

Roanoke. City of R. co., Va., on the R.; chartered 1884. Its rapid recent growth is due chiefly to iron industries. Pop., 1890, 16,159.

Roanoke College. At Salem, Va.; founded 1853. It has ab. 175 students.

Roanoke Island. On N. C. coast; settled by Sir Walter Raleigh unsuccessfully 1585. Gen. Wise with three forts and 2,500 men surrendered here to Gen. Burnside Feb. 8, 1862.

Roanoke River. In Va. and X. C. It heads in the Blue Ridge, flows generally s.e. to the head of Albemarle Sound, and is navigable to Weldon, N. C. Drainage area 9,237 sq. m., length 250 m.

Roaring Forties. Region of the Southern Ocean lying s. of 40° S. lat., especially s. of 45°. where there are strong w.n.w. and n.w. winds. The term is used by sailors, and is also applied to the region in the N. Atlantic.

Roasting. Consists in exposing the material to be treated to a temperature above the average red heat with access of air. It is done to render the material more friable, as in ore which contains a quartz gangue, more permeable to gases, or to drive off volatile elements as water and sulphur. When limestone is heated it is called calcination.

Robbery. At Common Law, open and violent larceny

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Robert II

Scotland was invaded bv the English 1384-85, and retaliated 1388.—His son, Robert ill., ab.1340-1406, succeeded 1390. His realm was invaded 1400, and his army overthrown at Homildon Hill 1402.

Robert II., Of Normandy, d. 1035. Duke 1028; capable and ruthless sovereign; father of William I. of England.

Robert, Louis Leopold, 1794-1835. Swiss painter.

Robert College. Founded 1863 at Constantinople by Americans; named from its benefactor, C. R. Robert. 1802-1878. It has done much for Christian education in that region.

Robert-Fleury, Joseph Nicolas, 1797-1890. French painter, as is his son Tony, b. 1838. Robert le Dlablc, See Damiens.

Robert of Brunne. Translator of French poem, Manxiel des Piches, 1303.

Robert of Gloucester. 13th century. Metrical chronicler of early British affairs. His work was" pub. 1724.

Roberts, Benjamin Stone, U.S.A., 1811-1875. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-65; inveutor of a breech-loading rifle.

Roberts, Charles George Douglas, b. 1860. Canadian poet and novelist; prof, at Windsor, N. S., 1885-96. In Divers Tones, 1887; Songs of the Common Day, 1893; Earth's Enigmas, 1896; Forge in the Forest. 1897.

Roberts, David, 1796-1864. Scottish painter, chiefly of buildings; R.A. 1841. Spain, 1837; Holy Land, 4 vols., 1842-49; Italy, 1859.

Roberts, Edmund, 1784-1836. First U. S. diplomatic agent in Asia. Embassy to Eastern Courts, 1837.

Roberts, Ellis Henry, LL.D., b. 1827. M.C. from N. Y. 1871-75; Asst. U. S. Treas. at N. Y. 1889-93. Revenue, 1884; Empire State, 1887.

Roberts, Isaac Phillips, b. 1833. Prof. Iowa Agricultural Coll. and Cornell Univ.; director of Cornell Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station.

Roberts, Joseph Jenkins, 1809-1876. Pres. of Liberia

1849-53 and 1871-75.

Roberts, Robert Richford. 1778-1843. M. E. bishop 1816; active in western missionary work.

Roberts, Solomon White, 1811-1882. Civil engineer, active in constructing railways in Pa.

Roberts, Sir William, F.R.S., b. 1830. English physician

and medical writer.

Roberts, William Henry, D.D., LL.D., b. 1844. Prof.

Lane Sem. 1886-93; clerk Presb. Gen. Assembly from 1884. Hist. Presb. Ch. in U. S., 1888.

Roberts, William Milnor. 1810-1881. Chief engineer Northern Pacific Railway 1870; Pres. American Soc. of Civil Engineers 1879.

Roberts of Kandabar, Frederick Sleigh Roberts,

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Lord, b. 1832. Anglo-Indian general, made famous by brilliant campaigns in Afghanistan 1878-80, culminating in the relief of Kandahar; knighted 1879, Baronet 1881, Baron 1892; commander in India 1885-93, in Ireland 1895.

Robert§on, Frederick William. 1816-1853. Minister of Trinity Chapel, Brighton, Eng., from 1857; greatest preacher of his time. His fame was merely local during his life, but hisSermons, 5 vols., 1855-63, showed rare insight into spiritual truth, and his Life and Letters, 1865, revealed a character of singular manliness, purity, and beauty. These, with his Lectures and Addresses, 1858, were eagerly read, and exerted a wide and deep influence. He was a solitary figure, disdaining connection with any party: his views resembled those of F. D. Maurice, but his power was more immediately and generally felt in the English Ch., and far beyond, than that of any other leader of liberal thought. Lectures on Corinthians, 1859; Notes on Genesis, 1877.

Robertson, George Croom, 1842-1892. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, from 1866; ed. Mind. 1876-91; Hobbes, 1886; Philosophical Remains, 1893.

Robertson, James, ab.1710-1788. British general; Gov. of N. Y. 1780-83.

Robertson, James. 1742-1814. Pioneer and Indian fighter, prominent with Sevier in the settlement of Tenn.; General U.S.A. 1790-96.

Robertson, James. D.D., b. 1840. Missionary in Syria 1864-75: prof. Glasgow 1877. Early Religion of Israel, 1889; The Psalms, 1894.

Robertson, James Craigie, 1813-1882. Canon of Canterbury 1859; Prof. King's Coll., London, 1864-74. Hist. Ch. to Reformation, 8 vols.. 1853-75.

Robertson, Joseph, LL.D., 1810-1866. Scottish antiquarian.

Robertson, Thomas William, 1829-1871. English playwright. Gar-rick, 1864; Society. Ours, Caste, Play, School, Home, Dreams, M.P., 1865-70; Works, 1889.

Robertson, William. D.D., 1721-1793. Scottish historian; pastor at Edinburgh from 1759, and principal Univ. Edinburgh 1762. His Scotland, 1758-59, and Charles V., 1769, were long valued. America, 1777; India, 1791.

Robert the Rruee. See Bruce, Robert.

Roberval, Giles Personne De, 1602-1675. French mathematician, who claimed to have preceded Cavalieri in inventing the method of Indivisibles; best known for his treatment of tangents.

Robeson, George Maxwell, 1827-1897. Sec. U. S. Navy 1869-77; M.C. from N. J. 1879-83.

Robespierre, Maxtmilien Marie Isidore, 1758-1794. Leader in the French Revolution, lawyer, enthusiast and theorizer; member of the Constitutional Assembly; head of the Jacobins; member of the National Convention for Paris 1792, leader of the Radicals or Mountain; as pres. of Com

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on cedar berries. It goes s. in Nov. 2. Erythacus rubicola, English Robin, length 5i inches, belonging to the Warbler family.

Robin, Charles Philippe. 1821-1885. Prof. Paris from 1847; Senator 1875; ed. Journal de Vanatomie et de la physiologic 1864-85. Traite du microscope, 1871.

Robin, Claude, b. ab.1750. French botanist. Voyages dans La., Fla., etc., 1802-6.

Robin Ooodfcllow, or Puck. Fairy of English legends, exploited in Midsummer Night's Dream. See Puck.

Robin Hood. Legendary English outlaw, robbing the rich and helping the poor; hero of many ballads from ab. 1380.

Robins. Benjamin. 1707-1751. English engineer and physicist. His Gunnery, 1742, had g-eat effect.

Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894. Gov. of Kansas 1856 and 1858-59.

Robinson, Charles Seymour, D.D., LL.D., b. 1829. Presb. pastor in New York from 1870; compiler of several popular hymnals.

Robinson, Conway, 1805-1884. Va. jurist. Principles and Practice, 1855-75.

Robinson, Edward. D.D.. LL.D.. 1794-1863. Ed. Biblical Repository, 1831-35, and Bibliotheca Sacra, 1843; tr. Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon. 1836; prof. Union Theol. Sem., N. Y.. from 1837. Lexicon N. T., 1836. His Biblical Researches in Palestine, 1841-56, is an important work.—His wife, Therese Albertine Luise, 1797-1869, daughter of Prof. L. H. von Jacob of Halle, m. 1828, wrote several books in German and English.

Robinson, Ezekiel Gilman, D.D., LL.D., b. 1815. Prof. Rochester Theol. Sem. 1853, pres. 1860; pres. Brown Univ. 1872-90. Yale Lectures, 1883; Morality, 1888.

Robinson, George Dexter, 1834-1896. M. C. 1877-83; Gov. of Mass. 1883-86.

Robinson, Henry Crabb, 1775-1867. English lawyer, retired 1828. Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence, 1867.

Robinson, Horatio Nelson, 1806-1867. American author of a series of mathematical text-books.

Robinson, John, ab.1575-1625. English separatist 1604, pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers at Leyden 1609; author of several treatises, and of a memorable saying, "God hath yet more light to break forth out of his Holy Word." Works, 3 vols.. 1851.

Robinson, John Cleveland, U.S.A., 1817-1897. Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; distinguished in the Va. campaigns and at Gettysburg; Major-gen. 1869; Lieut.-gov. of N. Y. 1872.

Robinson, Lucius. LL.D., 1810-1891. Gov. of N. Y. 1876.

Robinson, Moncure, 1802-1889. Civil engineer; locator of the first railroads of Pa.; chief engineer Phila. and Reading R. R.

Robinson, Robert, 1735-1790. Baptist pastor at Cambridge from 1759; tr. Saurin's Sermons, 1774-84; author of "Come Thou Fount," 1758, and other hymns. Arcana, 1774; Hist. Baptism, 1790.

Robinson, Solon, 1803-1880. American journalist. Hot Corn, 1853.

Robinson, Stuart, 1814-1881. Presb. pastor and journalist in Ky.

Robinson, William Erigena ("richelieu"). 1814-1892. Irish-American journalist, M. C. from N. Y. 1867-69 and 1882-85.

Robinson, William Stevens ("warrington"), 1818-1876. Journalist, influential in Mass. Parliamentary Law, 1875; Pen Portraits, 1877.

Robinson's Anemometer. See Anemometer.

Robison, John, 1739-1805. Prof. Edinburgh 1774. Mechanical Philosophy, 1822.

Rob Roy (robert Macgregor), 1660-1734. Scottish outlaw, who joined the Pretender 1715, celebrated by Scott.

Robsart, Amy, ab.1532-1560. Wife of Dudley, afterward Earl of Leicester, by whom she is said to have been murdered.

Robson, Frederick (brownhill), 1821-1864. English actor, eminent in burlesque.

Robson, Stuart, b. 1836. American actor.

Robnrite. Flameless explosive patented by C. Roth in 1887. It is composed of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and purified chlorinated dinitrobenzene. It must be used dry and is not sensitive to shock.

Robnstl, Jacopo. See Tintoretto.

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