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Rietz, JULIUS, 1812-1877. German musician, Mendels- i Rifled Projectiles. The most recent device to give rifled sohn's successor 1848 as director of the Gewandhaus concerts projectiles of heavy guns the rotating motion consists of a in Leipzig, and teacher of composition at the Conservatory. rotating band of copper fitted into an undercut groove near He wrote four symphonies and many other works.

the base of the projectile, having a steeper slope than that of Rime. In placer mining or gold washings, device whereby

the part of the chamber upon which it rests, so that when the current of water in a sluice-box or a tunnel is checked, so

pushed home it is centered for firing. To facilitate its readily is to facilitate the collection of the gold or the anialgam;

taking the rifling a number of grooves or cannelures are cut on usually a strip of wood. Also called Riffle Bar.

| the copper band. The systems of rifled projectiles for the now

obsolete muzzle-loading rifles comprised the studded or flanged, Rifle, INFANTRY. Small arm whose bore is cut into spiral

and the expanding classes, and are known by the names of grooves separated by lands, so as to impart a rotary motion to their inventors, as Hotchkiss, Parrott, Palliser, Butler, etc. the bullet. Rifling with straight grooves was used as early as

Riga. City and seaport of Russia, at n. end of Gulf of R.; 1498 in Germany, but the advantage of spiral grooves in imparting a rotary motion to the bullet, steadying its flight, and

capital of Livonia; founded ab.1200; taken by Swedes 1621, by increasing the range, was an accidental discovery, probably ab. 1520 or later. The rifle with spherical bullets began to be used as a military weapon ab. 1600, but elongated bullets were not used until 1729. Rifles were in common use by the American soldiers during the Revolutionary War. As early as 1814 military rifles, caliber 0.53 in., were made at the Harper's Ferry arsenal, but the smooth bore continued to be the main infantry arm till 1855. In 1818, however, ten thousand breech-loading Aint-lock rifle muskets, caliber 0.512 in. (Hall's pattern), were issued to the U. S. troops. The great objection, at first, to the use of the rifle as a military weapon was the difficulty experienced in loading it. The bullet had either to be driven in by a mallet or when home to be rammed so as to interlock in the grooves. This difficulty led to the introduction of the carabineà-tige 1821, in which there was a short cylinder or steel pin at the bottom of the bore, upon which the bullet rested and wbich acted as an anvil when the bullet was rammed. Repeated experiments finally led to the adoption of the elongated bullet having an open conical base, which the expansion of the powder forced to take the grooves, and Captain Minie, an instructor of the school at Vincennes, in 1847 further improved this, by introducing a wrought iron cup in the base of the bullet. The Minie rifle now became the favorite infantry arm, and though never generally issued to the English army was

Riga. used by them in the Caffre war of 1851 and in the Crimea in

Russia 1710. It has a large commerce, ranking in this respect the battles of the Alma and Inkerman. This was followed by

second only to St. Petersburg. Pop., 1890, 180,278. the Enfield rifle, introduced in 1855, which resulted from the

Riga, GULF OF. Arm of the Baltic, extending into Russia. improvements and alterations suggested by many experiments at Enfield, and it held its place until the adoption of the breech

Dimensions 105 m. by 60. loading rifle in 1867. The Prussians were the first to foresee the

Rigaud, HYACINTHE, 1659-1743. French portrait painter great advantage of the breech-loader and adopted the needle of marked talent.-His brother, GASPARD, was also a fine porgun in 1848, which they used with effect in the Danish war | trait painter. of 1864, the Austrian in 1866, and the French in 1870. The Rigdon, SIDNEY, 1793–1876. Copvist and editor of the Book French followed with the Chassepot in 1866, an improved of Mormon; associate of Joseph Smiti in founding the sect, and needle-gun, with a simpler action and smaller bore than the | elder in it; rival of Brigham Young; excommunicated 1844. Prussian arm. The Germans adopted the Mauser in 1871 and Rigg, JAMES HARRISON, D.D., b. 1821. English Wesleyan, the French superseded the Chassepot by the Gras, a modifica

pres. of Conference 1878–79 and 1892–93; ed. Quarterly Review, tion of the latter, in 1874. A scientific investigation of the

1885. Modern Anglican Theology, 1857–79; Wesley, 1875–91. proper relation between the charge, the caliber and the bullet,

Rigging. Combination of numerous ropes, chains, etc., based on the result of Prof. Bashford's experiments (begun in

which are employed to support and work all masts, yards, 1865), soon led to a marked advance in the rifle. The MartiniHenry rifle (1869) was issued to the English troops in 1871 and held for a long time the first place among military small arms. This gun was made up of a combination of the Henry barrel with the Martini breech action, and this latter was, in principle, a complete copy of the Peabody breech mechanism invented in the U. S. The development of small arms has been most rapid in recent years, owing to the introduction of metallic cartridges, and has been along the lines of smaller bore and the use of smokeless powder. The Krug-Jörgensen magazine rifle, used by the Danish troops, has been improved in many particulars and adopted as the infantry arm in the U. S. army. It is a magazine breech-loader, caliber 0.30 in. It has a magazine cut-off so that the five shots in the magazine can be held in reserve, for an emergency, and be used ordinarily as a single loader. The magazine is of the fixed type, lying horizontally under and to the left of the receiver. The bullet is of lead with nickel-steel jacket, 220 grains' weight, and is given a velocity of nearly 2,000 s.s. with a charge of 42 grains of American smokeless powder. See CHASSEPOT, ENFIELD RIFLE, MAGAZINE GUN, MINIE BALL, NEEDLE GUN, and REMINGTON RIFLE.

Rifled Guns. Modern firearms are breech-loading rifles in which the surface of the bore is cut into spiral grooves and

Rigging. bands, so that a rotary motion may be given to the projectile. Spars, etc.-A, Mast: B, Topmast: C, Topgallantmast: D, Royal-mast: E, Yard: F, The number of these is six times the caliber of the gun in

Topsailyard: G, Topgallantsail.yard: H, Royal-yard: K, Truck: L, Bowsprit: inches; thus giving 48 for the 8 in., 60 for the 10 in., etc. To s, Crosstrees: T, Topmast Cap: U, Gaft: V, Boom, or Spanker-Boom. impart the angular motion gradually and to bring a minimum

Snils.-a, Mainsail: b, Topsail: c, Topgallantsail: d, Royal: e, Spanker.

Standing Rigging. -I. Shrouds: II. Topmast Shrouds, crossed by Ratlings: III. Topstrain upon the gun, the twist is an increasing one, commenc- i gallant Shrouds: IV. Stays: v. Topmast Stay: vi. Topgallantmast Stay: VII. Royal ing with one turn in 50 calibers at the chamber and increasing

XI. Flying Jib-boom Martingale Stays: XII. Jib-boom kartingale Stays: Xii. to one turn in 25 calibers until a point two calibers from the Martingale Backstays; XIV. Bobstays.

Running Rigging.-1. Lifts: 2, Topsail Lifts: 3, Topgallantsail Lifts: 4, Royal Lifts: muzzle is reached, and from this point to the muzzle the twist

5. Braces: 6, Topsail Braces: 7, Topgallant Braces: 8. Royal Braces: 9, Signal is uniform. The curve of the twist when developed npon a plane is a cubic parabola whose equation is y}=2px. In

Vangs: 15, Topping Lifts: 16, Spanker Sheet. small arms the grooves are made as shallow as possible to sails, etc., in a ship. Standing rigging is that which is set up facilitate cleaning of the bore.

permanently, as shrouds and stays. Running rigging com

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M. Jib-boom: N. Flying Jib-boom: 0, Martingale: P, Chains: Q. Top: R, Cap:

Stay: vin. Topmast Backstay: IX. Topgallantmast Backstay: X. Royal Backstay:

Halvards: 10. Jib-stay: 11, Flying Jib-stay: 12, Sheet: 13, Peak Halyards: 14.

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prises all the ropes hauled upon to brace yards, make and take | Kulm, is seen a magnificent panorama, also the curious mirage in sail, etc., such as buntlines and halyards.

phenomenon, "The Specter of the Rigi.' Altitude 5,906 ft. Riggs, ELIAS, D.D., LL.D., b. 1810. American missionary Rigidity. That of any body is determined by the force in Greece 1832, at Smyrpa 1838, and at Constantinople since which must be applied to produce a change of shape. Fluids 1853; tr. Bible; author of Armenian, Bulgarian, and Turkish have none. That of a solid may be defined as the ratio of the grammars, 1847-56.

force applied per unit area, to the shear which is produced by Riggs, STEPHEN RETURN, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1883. Mission it. In no actual case is the rigidity perfect, and the ratio of ary to and writer on the Dakotas.

stress to strain is sometimes called the coefficient of rigidity. Right. 1. That quality of conduct which gives it moral

The torsional rigidity of a rod or prism is the ratio of the twist

per unit of length to the moment of the couple producing it. merit and makes it obligatory. 2. Claim to liberty of action,

One end is supposed fixed; to the other the couple is applied in which either alternative open to the will may be chosen with

perpendicular to the length of the rod. If a body be subjected impunity. In right as morality this impunity does not exist.

to stress, producing uniform distortion, the ratio of the norRight. In some European legislative assemblies, the con | mal traction or pressure per unit area to twice the elongation servative members, supporters of the government, have seats | or contraction in the direction of the stress is called the moduon the right of the presiding officer, the opposition on his left. | lus of rigidity. Right Angle. When two straight lines so intersect that

Rigveda. First of the four VEDAS (q.v.). the adjacent angles are equal, each is a right angle.

Rigor Mortis. Stiffening of a body after death, due to

chemical changes in the muscles. In cases of sudden death Right Ascension OF A STAR. Arc of the celestial equa

from violence, it is not uncommon for rigor mortis to fix the tor included between the vernal equinox and the great circle

body at the moment of death; this accounts for posture of drawn through the star perpendicular to the equator.

many bodies on the battle field or after a railway accident: Right Conduct. That which conforms to certain pre this is known as instantaneous rigor mortis. Usually, wbile cepts of duty recognized to be unconditionally binding.

the time of its appearance and disappearance varies greatly, it Righteousness, IMPUTED. Doctrine, long prominent in

comes on from 7 to 18 hours after death and lasts for from 24 Protestant theology, that Christ's merits are credited to the

to 36 hours. believer. The modern view is that they are meant to be stimu Riley, CHARLES VALENTINE, 1843–1895. Entomologist of lants to and producers of Christian character, not substitutes Mo. 1868, of U. S. 1878; author of many reports and papers. for it.

Potato Pests, 1876; Locust Plagrue, 1877. Right Figure. One in which the elements are at right

Riley, HENRY HIRAM, 1813–1888. Lawyer and judge in angles, as in a right prism. Here the lateral edges are per

| Michigan. Puddleford Papers, 1857. pendicular to the base. In a right cone, the axis is perpendicular to the base.

Riley, JAMES, 1777-1840. American seaman, slave in Africa Right-Handedness. This is due to lack of symmetry in 1815–16. His Narrative circulated widely. the human body, the right side weighing ab. 15 ounces more Riley, JAMES WHITCOMB, b. 1853. American dialect poet. than the left side.

The Old Swimmin' Hole, 1883; The Boss Girl, 1886; Afleruhiles, Right Line. Straight line; opposed to curved.

1887; Pipes o' Pan, 1888; Rhymes of Childhood, 1890; NeighRight of Way, Right enjoyed by a person or corporation

borly Poems, 1891; Armazindy, 1895. of passing over land the fee of which is vested in another

Rime-Frost. Formation of frost work from the air by party. Rights may be limited both as to intervals at which secretion of minute globules of mist. The vapor is deposited they may be exercised and as to the extent authorized.

as water and frozen after or at the moment of deposition: it Right Reverend. Title of a bishop, of a mitered abbot,

is always added to the wind ward side of the receiving surface, and of some other dignitaries.

and on the summits of mountains the growth is often of enor

mous size, owing to the strong winds. It is opaque and snowy, Rights. Abstract possessions vested in individuals by

as contrasted with hail. moral rules; such as rights to liberty, to personal safety, and

Rimini. Ancient Umbrian and Etruscan city, on the to property.

Adriatic, 69 m. s.e. of Bologna; held by Rome from 286 B.C., by Rights, DECLARATION OF. Adopted in Parliament Feb.

the Malatestas 1237-1503, and by the popes 1528–1860. It has 1689, condeinning the conduct of James II., and announcing

a fine cathedral and some remains of antiquity. The story of his abdication. The BILL OF RIGHTS (q.v.), Oct. 1689, was of

Francesca has been celebrated by many poets. Pop., with similar tenor and more voluminous.

suburbs, ab.20,000. Rights of Government. Rights possessed by the State,

Rimmer, WILLIAM, 1816-1879. American sculptor, painter, or by persons representing the community, to enforce the rules

and art teacher. Elements of Design, 1872–79; Art Anatomy, of human action necessary for the preservation and well-being

1877. of society.

Rimose. In Botany, structures with numerous cracks or Rights of Man, DECLARATION OF. Adopted by French chinks. Assenably Aug. 1789.

Rim-Rock. Borders or edges of the old channels or Right Sphere. Celestial sphere as seen from a point on

basins in Cal., in which the large quantities of gold-bearing the earth's equator. All the celestial bodies appear to de

gravels have collected. scribe circles perpendicular to the horizon.

Rimsky-Korsakow, NICHOLAS ANDREJEWITSCH, b. 1844. Right to Employment. Claim conceded by some gov- | Russian composer; since 1871 Prof. of Composition at the Conernments, that it is the duty of the state to provide employ servatory in St. Petersburg; musical inspector of the navy; an ment for those unable to find work and wages otherwise.

uncompromising champion of the young Russian school. See Right Whale. See BALEEN WHALE.

Rigi, or Righi. Mountain near Lake Lucerne; in Canton Rinderpest. See CATTLE PLAGUE.

Rindfleisch, GEORG EDUARD, b. 1836. Prof. Zurich, Bonn, and Würzburg; writer on pathology.

Rinehart, WILLIAM HENRY, 1825–1874. American sculptor, noted for many bronze busts and statues.

Ring, BERNARD JAQUES JOSEPH MAXIMILIAN, 1799–1875. Alsatian antiquarian, who wrote in French on old German buildings, establishments, and usages.

Ringbone. Exostosis on the coronet of the horse. It often occurs in newly dropped foals, but is most commonly due to overwork and strains. It stiffens a horse and is practically incurable.

Ring-Canal. Encircling canal in the outer edge of the umbrella' of Jelly fish, and uniting with the radiating canals from the central stomach.

Ringent. Irregular, wide-mouthed corolla of certain

plants of the gamopetalous families, especially ScrophulaThe Rigi, from Lucerne.

riaceo and Labiatæ. Schwyz; noted for its fine views; ascended by two railroads, Ringgold, SAMUEL, 1770–1829. M.C. from Md. 1811-15.-Of and frequented by many tourists. From the highest point, the ' his sons, SAMUEL, U.S.A., 1800–1846, inventor of the McClelland

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saddle, was killed at Palo Alto; CADWALADER, U.S.N., 1802– large export trade, mainly of sugar, cotton, coffee, and hides. 1367, became Rear-admiral 1866.

Pop., 1890, ab. 380,000. Ring Money. Used in ancient Egypt, and later in Europe, Rio de la Plata. River of S. America, with its branches before the introduction of coinage, as still in parts of Africa. the largest next to the Amazon. They drain nearly the entire Ring Puzzle. Ingenious toy, consisting of a series of

breadth of the continent from lat. 15° S. to 35° S., an area of rings attached to a rod from which they may be removed and

more than a million sq. m. It is formed by the junction of the replaced. Tradition ascribes its invention to the hero Hung

Parana and the Uruguay, the name being applied only to the Ming (181-234), who gave it to his wife when he went to the estuary below their junction. war, that she might forget her sorrow for his absence. In Rio Grande. One of the large rivers of the U.S. It Corea this puzzle is popular under the name of Delay Guest heads in the San Juan Mts., in Colorado, where it collects most Iøstrument.

of its waters, flows s. across New Mexico, then s.e. to the Gulf Rings, SYMBOLISM OF. From earliest historic times, finger- of Mexico, forming the boundary between Texas and Mexico. rings are found employed as personal emblems and badges of Its entire course is through an arid region, and though 1,800 rank. Marked with a distinguishing sign

| m. long, it carries comparatively little water. Drainage area K

upon the bezel or enlarged part, they 128,792 sq. m.
were used as a seal to give authenticity | Rioja, FRANCISCO DE, ab.1585–1659. Spanish poet.
to writings, and delivered, as by a royal Rio Negro. 1. Left hand branch of the Amazon, rising
personage, as a means of delegating au- |

in s. Colornbia; navigable for 600 of its 1,350 m. 2. River of thority to a subordinate. In China, the Argentina, formerly Patagonia; rising in the Andes and flowjade rings, formerly used in drawing the

ing e. to the Atlantic. Length ab. 600 m. bow, survive as insignia of military rank.

Rio Pilcomayo. See PILCOMAYO. A ring is given to a bishop, with his crozier, upon his consecration, as a mark Rio Salado. Tributary of the Parana, rising in the Andes of ecclesiastical rank; a bishop's ring is | and flowing e. and s.e. across Argentina. an amethyst; a cardinal's, a sapphire. Riot. At Common Law, unlawful act of violence by three The custom of exchanging rings as a or more. It is defined, and the punishment prescribed, by pledge of fidelity or friendship is wide- | modern statutes. spread, the wedding ring being a con

Rio Tinto. River in Spain uniting with the Odiel a little spicuous survival.

above its mouth in the Gulf of Cadiz. Columbus set sail from Jewish Marriage-Ring. Ring Toss. Indoor and outdoor the port, formed by the combined estuary, for the discovery of sport. A post set firmly upon a circular wooden base is the America. Length 70 m. target: at this rings of varying size are tossed, the object being

Riouw Lingga. Archipelago, at s. end of the Malay to land them upon the post. The smaller rings count the most.

Peninsula, com posed of two groups of islands, Riouw to the n. Ringwaldt, BARTHOLOMAUS, 1532-ab. 1599. German hym

and Lingga to the s. Most of the islands are covered with nist.

thick forest and some have deposits of tin, now almost exRing Worm. Name given to several diseases of the skin hausted. Pop., mixed races, ab. 100,000. whose eruption is usually circular in form. When it spreads Riparian. Plants or animals occurring naturally along and the part first attacked heals, the resemblance to a ring is

streams. quite marked. They are communicable, are caused by the

Riparian Rights. Those attending the ownership of presence of one of several vegetable parasites, and frequently

real property bounded by natural water courses. attack the scalp or the beard. Dermatologists are not agreed in their limitations of the use of this word. It is an object of

Ripidolite. Some of the varieties of the mineral chlorite; many popular superstitions.

so called in allusion to their fan-like shapes. Rink, HEINRICH JOHANN, 1819–1894. Danish geographer Ripley, ELEAZAR WHEELOCK, 1782-1839. Brig.-gen. U.S.A. and official. Greenland, 1877; Eskimo Tribes, 1887.

1814; distinguished on the Canada border, especially at Fort Rinkart, MARTIN, 1586–1649. German hymnist.

Erie; M.C. from La. from 1835. Rink-Ball. Game belonging to the roller skating rink;

Ripley, GEORGE, LL.D., 1802-1880. Founder of BROOK similar to Rink-Polo, except that no sticks are used, the ball

FARM (q.v.), Mass., 1841; critic of N. Y. Tribune from 1849; being large and driven with the foot, so that the play amounts ed. American Cyclopædia, 1858–63 and 1873–76. to a species of Association football on roller skates.

Ripley, HENRY JONES, D.D., 1798-1875. Prof. Newton Rink-Polo. Variety of Hockey, but played on a smooth | Theol. Inst., Mass., from 1826; N. T. commentator. made surface within doors, the players wearing roller skates. Ripon, FREDERICK JOHN ROBINSON, EARL OF, 1782-1859. The rules are similar to those of Hockey or Shinney as played M.P. 1806; member of several cabinets; Viscount Goderich upon ice.

and Premier 1827; Earl 1833.-His son, GEORGE FREDERICK Rinmann's Green. ZnCo0g. Green mass, made by SAMUEL, b. 1827, became M.P. 1852, Earl 1859, Sec. for War 1863, heating a zinc salt moistened with cobalt nitrate on char for India 1866, and Marquis 1871; Viceroy of India 1880–84. coal.

Ripon College Founded 1854 at Ripon, Wis. It has Rio, ANDRES MANUEL DEL, b. ab, 1769. Mexican mineralo preparatory, collegiate, musical, and art departments, the gist. His principal works were pub. 1790–1830.

second including classical, scientific, and literary courses, with Rio, ANTONIO DEL, 1745-ab. 1789. Spanish discoverer of the 16 teachers and ab. 240 students. ruins near Palenque, s. Mexico. His Description of them was Ripple Marks. Ridges like miniature waves on the surpub, 1794.

face of a stratum, produced by the oscillation of shallow water. Rio de Janeiro. Metropolis and capital of Brazil, a Rippon, JOHN. D.D., 1751-1836. Baptist pastor in London

from 1773. His Selection of Hymns, 1787, was the most important of many supplements to Dr. Watts', and contained numerous originals by various writers: it went through many editions, and exerted wide influence.

Riprap. Loose stones used to form an embankment or jetty, or for protection of a pier.

Rip Van Winkle. Hero of a famous story by W. Irving, 1820, and of a play by Boucicault, 1865, in which Joseph Jefferson gained his chief fame.

Rishanger, WILLIAM, b. 1250. English monk of St. Alban's Abbey, author in 1312 of a chronicle extending 1259–1307.

Rishi. Poets of the Vedas.

Risley, JOAN EWING, b. 1843. U. S. Minister to Denmark 1893.

Risotto. Italian preparation of rice, onions, and butter.

Rist, JOHANN, 1607-1667. Author of ab. 680 German hymns,

many of them long popular, and some known in English Rio de Janeiro.

versions. seaport on the Atlantic, with a fine harbor; founded 1566; ! Ristic, JOHN, b. 1831. Servian author and state official; capital of the viceroy 1763, and of the empire 1822. It has a head of the regency 1889–93.

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Ristori, ADELAIDE, b. 1821. Marchioness del Grillo 1847. Rittingerite. Rare mineral, found in Bohemia and Hun.
Italian actress, admired in Paris 1855, and in the U. S. 1866 and gary, containing silver, arsenic, and selenium.
1875. Her chief parts were Mary Stuart, Queen Elizabeth,
Medea, Marie Antoinette, Lady Macbeth, and Judith.


Ritual, ROMAN. Set forth by Paul V. 1614, to enforce Ritchie, MRS. ANNE ISABELLA, b. 1838, m. 1877. Daughter

ugner | uniformity of usages in R. C. service. Many different forms of W. M. Thackeray; author of Old Kensington, 1873, Miss

had previously been in use. Angel, 1875, and several vols. of reminiscences.

Ritualism. Effect of the Anglo-Catholic, Puseyite, or Ritchie, THOMAS, 1778–1854. Ed. Richmond Enquirer,

Tractarian movement in the English and P. E. Churches, in 180445.

emphasizing fullness and propriety of rite. Services in genRitchie, SIR WILLIAM JOHNSTON, 1813-1892. Chief-justice eral are more carefully planned and conducted, and more of New Brunswick Supreme Court 1855, and of Canada 1879; largely musical, than before 1850; but the motives for this knighted 1881.

are often æsthetic or utilitarian, and have little to do with

Tractarian or Catholic doctrine. Rite. 1. Ceremony. 2. Body of ritual, differing in different churches or countries.

Riva. Winter resort in the Tyrol at the n. extremity of

Lago di Garda. It has a castle, and some monasteries. Its Rites, CONGREGATION OF. Created by Pope Sixtus V., 1585–90.

Ritschl. ALBRECHT, D.D., Ph.D., 1822–1889. Prof. Bonn 1853, Göttingen 1864; founder of an important school independent alike of the traditional orthodoxy and of Tübingen rationalism: it denies much, but affirms God, Christ, and redemption. His chief work is Justification and Reconciliation, 1870–74.

Ritschl, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, 1806-1876. Prof. at Halle 1832, Breslau 1833, Bonn 1839, and Leipzig 1865. His most celebrated work was upon Plautus, which his pupils have continued and completed. He combined precision and rare critical insight.

Ritson, JOSEPH, 1752-1803. English antiquarian, editor of old songs and poems. Robin Hood. 1795; Metrical Romances, 1802. Rittenhouse, DAVID, LL.D., F.R.S., 1732–1796. Maker of

Riva. clocks and mathematical instruments at Phila.; eminent for

port is the largest on the lake and its vicinity furnishes tropical fruits in abundance. Pop. ab.6,000.

Rivadavia, BERNARDINO, 1780–1845. Pres. of Argentina 1826–27; exiled 1834.

Rival Commodities. Commodities capable of fulfilling the same function, one or another of which will be used according as it can be provided most cheaply.

Riva Palacio, MARIANO, 1803–1880. Premier of Mexico 1851; defender of Maximilian 1867; one of the first and purest of Mexican statesmen.

Rivarol, ANTOINE, 1753-1801. French satirist and royalist pamphleteer, in exile from 1792. Langue Française, 1784; Petit Almanach, 1788.

River. Agency by wbich the surplus rainfall is collected and carried back to the sea. Its source of supply is rain and melted snow, either directly or by means of springs. Its volume depends upon its drainage area, the rainfall, and the proportion of the latter which reaches the stream. The last factor varies with the slope of the ground, the character of the soil and vegetation, and the aridity of the atmosphere, ranging from 10 to 65 per cent of the rainfall. The variability of flow

of the stream depends on the character and distribution of the David Rittenhouse.

rainfall and the surface and vegetation of the drainage basin.

The maximum flow is often in cases of small rivers 10 to 20 many services to astronomy and to the State, in some of which

times the ordinary flow. The velocity of current depends upon his brother, BENJAMIN, 1740-1789, was associated.

the slope of the bed and the volume. It is greatest in midRitter, FREDERIC LOUIS, b. 1834 at Strassburg. Composer,

stream, and least near the banks and bottom. The slope of the conductor, and writer on the history of music.

river's bed is normally greatest near its head and diminishes

toward its mouth, and every river tends to establish this proRitter, HEINRICH, 1791–1869. Prof. Berlin 1824, Kiel 1833,

file. Lakes and waterfalls upon its course are ephemeral and Göttingen from 1837. Hist. Philosophy, 12 vols., 1829–55; features. Rivers are the most efficient of the agents of erosion, Christian Philosophy, 1858–59.

transportation and deposition of detritus. The greater the Ritter, KARL, 1779-1859. Prof. Berlin 1820; author of

velocity, the greater its erosive and transporting power. EroGeography, Nature, and Man, 19 vols., 1817–59, and other

sion is most extensive on the upper waters of the stream, where valuable geographical works. Palestine, 4 vols., tr. 1866.

the slope is greatest and deposition takes place mainly in its

lower course and at its mouth. A delta is a deposit of detritus Ritteric Rays. Ultra-red parts of the solar spectrum. near its mouth, through which by several channels the river Ritter's Pile. Constructed 1803; differing from the pile

finds its way to the sea. A bar is a deposit across the mouth,

where the river's velocity is suddenly checked on entering the of Volta only in the fact that all the plates were of copper.

sea. A small stream is known variously as creek, brook, alternating with disks of moistened cardboard. On connecting

branch, fork, prong, etc. this with the Volta pile, Ritter found that it became charged and was capable of producing an inverse current. Volta (1805) Rivera, José FRUCTUOSO, 1790–1854. Pres. of Uruguay explained correctly the result as depending upon the decompo 1830–35 and 1838–42. sition of the electrolyte between the plates, as due in fact to

River and Harbor Improvements. In U. S. this the polarization of the electrodes.

work is in charge of the Corps of Engineers of the army. The Rittinger, PETER, RITTER VON, 1811-1872. Austrian min country is divided into five sections, the Northwest, Southwest. ing engineer, inventor, and author of many papers on mining Northeast, Southeast, and Pacific, each in charge of a Colonel and ore-dressing machinery. His Lehrbuch der Aufbereitungs or senior officer. These sections are subdivided into ab. 50 diskunde, 1867, was a standard authority.

tricts, each in charge of an officer who is assisted by other

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officers and by civilians. The first appropriation by Congress Riveting. Operation of uniting plates of metal by lapfor this work was $9,500 in 1820. The total amount expended ping one part over another, and inserting, through holes which 1820–94 was $262,845,900. The largest annual appropriation match as the parts are superposed, what are known as rivets. was $25, 136,300 in 1890 for 436 separate rivers and harbors. These are short cylinders of the same metal as the plates, with

a head on one end, which are passed red-hot through the holes, River Engineering. Improvement of navigable streams

and are then headed over, either by hand or by machine (see by dredging, dams, and locks. "In U. S. this work is in charge

RIVETER). In hand riveting, a heavy sledge is held against of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

the formed head, and two men with alternating blows of their River Hydraulics. Flow of water in rivers, determined hammers upon the protruding shank upset it and form an by actual gauging or by computations. Only the simplest case

overlapping cone, which is the other head of the rivet. The of uniform permanent flow is well understood. If a be the area contraction of the rivet as it cools, moreover, makes a stronger of cross-section, r the hydraulic radius, s the slope, and q the

and tighter joint than any other, at less cost and with better discharge, then q = ca v rs, where c is a number depending

resistance to fire and to corrosion. Riveted seams are single

riveted or double-riveted, according as one or two rows of largely upon the roughness of surface. For a small rise of one

rivets are used parallel to the joint. In chain riveting the per cent of the total depth the velocity increases 0.5 per cent and the discharge increases 1.5 per cent.

holes are staggered, and not one behind the other. The aim is

to get the shearing strength of the aggregate rivet area of the River Pollution. Rivers whose water has been polluted joint equal to the tensile strength of the plate when dimintend to purify themselves by deposition and aeration, but this ished by the holes, but in boilers and tanks usually the rivet should not be relied upon as effective. Polluted streams whose area is in excess, to make the joint water- or steam-tight. water is used for the supply of cities and towns are always Riveted joints are lap or butt. In the latter, the plates butt, suspicious, if not dangerous. Pollution can be prevented only and a welt or cover-piece is riveted to both. Where two coverby legal enactments; in Europe these are often very stringent. strips are used, the strain passes through the axis of the sheets In U. S. many States have such laws but their enforcement is without a tendency to flex. The relative strengths are usually difficult.

rated thus: Original plate, 100 per cent; double riveted butt,

76 to 80 per cent; double riveted lap, 70 to 75 per cent; single Rivers, RICHARD HENDERSON, D.D., 1814-1894. Educator

riveted lap, 56 to 62 per cent. The usual sizes are $, y, and in M. E. Ch. South. Mental Philosophy, 1860.

1 in, in diameter. Rivers, RICHARD WOODVILLE, EARL, d. 1469. Father-in

Riviera. Coast of Italy from Spezia w.; usually including law of Edward IV.; knighted 1425; Baron 1448, Earl 1466; I also that of Fra

also that of France to Nice; famous and highly popular as a executed, as was his son ANTHONY in 1483.

River-Weed. Insignificant aquatic herbs of the genus Podostemon, natural family Fodostemacece, of wide geographical distribution.

Rives, AMÉLIE. See CHANLER, MRS. She became Princess Troubetzkoy 1896.-Her grandfather, WILLIAM CABELL, 1793– 1868, was M.C. from Va. 1823–27, U. S. Senator 1833-34 and 1835–45, and Minister to France 1829–32 and 1849–53.

Riveters. Machines for riveting by power instead of by hand (see RIVETING). There are four types: lever, steam, hydraulic, and air machines. All have an abutment or stake which holds a cup or swage to resist the pressure brought by a moving die or ram against the red-hot rivet in place in the

seam. The stake is inside the cyl-
inder or other work being operated
on, the pressure coming on the
outside. The differences are in the
way in wbich power is applied to
the moving ram. The lever ma-
chines force the ram forward by an
elbow-joint combination of links,
whose stationary point is the back

Riviera on the Taggia.
of the machine, and the links are
straightened out by a ram revolv- | winter resort. It is divided into the eastern and western sec-
ing under the joint of the links tion at Genoa. The western is the mildest, most frequented,
which hang down when the ram is and also has the most beautiful scenery.
back. The objection to this type
of machine is the constant travel

Rivière, BRITON, b. 1840. English painter, chiefly of aniof the ram, so that varying thick mals; R.A. 1881; widely known through engravings. ness of work can be handled only

Rivington, JAMES, 1724–1802. Tory journalist in New by changing the dies or swages. York, prominent before and during the British occupation. This has been remedied by putting | Rivington's N. Y. Gazetteer, 1773, Loyal Gazette, 1777, Gazette the abutment joint of the links on i and Universal Advertiser, 1783. a hydraulic plunger connected with an ACCUMULATOR (q.v.), so the | Rivoli, Village of n. Italy, 12 m. n.w. of Verona. Near it heading pressure cannot exceed the | the Austrians defeated the French Nov. 17, 1796, and were deaccumulator load, and pins between feated by Bonaparte Jan. 14–15, 1797. the plates are avoided. In steam

Rivulariaceæ. Family of Cyanophycece or blue-green riveters the ram is moved forward

Alga, comprising forms with filaments divided by transverse by a steam piston of large area, operated by steam of ordinary

septæ, their two ends being quite different, one consisting of pressure; in hydraulic riveters a

a globose cell, the other of a terminal hair.'
small plunger is protruded by high Rix-Dollar. Former coin of Sweden and some other
Steam Riveter.

pressure of water from an accu- | countries, varying in value from ab. 38 cents to $1.10.
mulator directly, or in portable

Rizzio, or Riccio, DAVID, 1540--1566. Page, secretary, machines, to increase lightness, the hydraulic piston works

and favorite of Mary Stuart; hated by the Reformers, and by a toggle-joint. The steam riveters act with a rapid impact

some regarded as her paramour; assassinated by a conspiracy followed by pressure; in hydraulic riveters there is no impact,

of Scottish nobles. but pressure only. In many of the best ones, the plate is pressed and held together by an annular die before the head Roach, John, 1815–1887. Irish-American shipbuilder. ing is done by a second inner die, so that no pin may be forced

Road Law. Body of rules applicable to persons using a between the sheets. The air riveters act either by air pressure on a cylinder operating a toggle-joint, or else by a rapid series

public highway either on land or sea. of blows from a small cylinder operated like a rock-drill. Air Road Locomotives. For use on common roads; made riveters are adapted for work in winter in open bridge sheds, | in France by Cugnot 1770, in England by Murdock 1782, and in where condensation or freezing would be against the other U. S. by Evans 1799. Numerous inventions in this direction types.

have been patented, but none has proved financially successful.

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