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Rielz, Julius, 1813-1877. German musician, Mendelssohn's successor 1848 as director of the Gewandhaus concerts in Leipzig, and teacher of composition at the Conservatory, lie wrote four symphonies and many other works.

Riffle. In placer mining or gold washings, device whereby the current of water in a sluice-box or a tunnel is checked, so as to facilitate the collection of the gold or the amalgam; usually a strip of wood. Also called Riffle Bar.

Rifle, Infantry. Small arm whose bore is cut into spiral grooves separated by lands, so as to impart a rotary motion to the bullet. Rifling with straight grooves was used as early as 1498 in Germany, but the advantage of spiral grooves in imparting a rotary motion to the bullet, steadying its flight, and increasing the range, was an accidental discovery, probably ab.l520or later. The rifle with spherical bullets began to be used as a military weapon ab.1600, but elongated bullets were not used until 1729. Rifles were in common use by the American soldiers during the Revolutionary War. As early as 1814 military rifles, caliber 0.53 in., were made at the Harper's Ferry arsenal, but the smooth bore continued to be the main infantry arm till 1855. In 1818, however, ten thousand breech-loading flint-lock rifle muskets, caliber 0.512 in. (Hall's pattern), were issued to the U. S. troops. The great objection, at first, to the use of the rifle as a military weapon was the difficulty experienced in loading it. The bullet had either to be driven in by a mallet or when home to be rammed so as to interlock in the grooves. This difficulty led to tiie introduction of the carabineA-tige 1821, in which there was a short cylinder or steel pin at the bottom of the bore, upon which the bullet rested and which acted as an anvil when the bullet was rammed. Repeated experiments finally led to the adoption of the elongated bullet having an open conical base, which the expansion of the powder forced to take the grooves, and Captain Minie, an instructor of the school at Vincennes, in 1847 further improved this, bv introducing a wrought iron cup in the base of the bullet, "fhe Minie rifle now became the favorite infantry arm, and though never generally issued to the English army was used by them in the Caffre war of 1851 and in the Crimea in the battles of the Alma and Inkerman. This was followed by the Enfield rifle, introduced in 1855, which resulted from the improvements and alterations suggested by many experiments at Enfield, and it held its place until the adoption of the breechloadiug rifle in 1867. The Prussians were the first to foresee the great advantage of the breech-loader and adopted the needlegun in 1848, which they used with effect in the Danish war of 1864, the Austrian in 1866, and the French in 1870. The French followed with the Chassepot in 1866, an improved needle-gun, with a simpler action and smaller bore than the Prussian arm. The Germans adopted the Mauser in 1871 and the French superseded the Chassepot by the Gras, a modification of the latter, in 1874. A scientific investigation of the proper relation between the charge, the caliber and the bullet, baaed on the result of Prof. Bashford's experiments (begun in 1865), soon led to a marked advance in the rifle. The MartiniHenry rifle (1869) was issued to the English troops in 1871 and held for a long time the first place among military small arms. This gun was made up of a combination of the Henry barrel with the Martini breech action, and this latter was, in principle, a complete copy of the Peabody breech mechanism invented in the U. S. The development of small arms has been most rapid in recent years, owing to the introduction of metallic cartridges, and has been along the lines of smaller bore and the use of smokeless powder. The Krug-Jorgensen magazine rifle, used by the Danish troops, has been improved in many particulars and adopted as the infantry arm in the U. S. army. It is a magazine breech-loader, caliber 0.30 in. It has a magazine cut-off so that the five shots in the magazine can be held in reserve, for an emergency, and be used ordinarily as a single loader. The magazine is of the fixed tvpe. lying horizontally under and to the left of the receiver, "f he bullet is of lead with nickel-steel jacket, 220 grains' weight, and is given a velocity of nearly 2.000 f.s. with a charge of 42 grains of American smokeless powder. See Chassepot, Enfield Rifle, Magazine Gun, Minie Ball, Needle Gun, and Remington Rifle.

Rifled Guns. Modern firearms are breech-loading rifles in which the surface of the bore is cut into spiral grooves and bands, so that a rotary motion may be given to the projectile. The number of these is six times the caliber of the gun in inches; thus giving 48 for the 8 in., 60 for the 10 in., etc. To impart the angular motion gradually and to bring a minimum strain upon the gun, the twist is an increasing one, commencing with one turn in 50 calibers at the chamber and increasing to one turn in 25 calibers until a point two calibers from the muzzle is reached, and from this point to the muzzle the twist is uniform. The curve of the twist when developed upon a plane is a cubic parabola whose equation is y| = 2px. In small arms the grooves are made as shallow as possible to facilitate cleaning of the bore. I

Rifled Projectiles. The most recent device to give rifled projectiles of heavy guns the rotating motion consists of a rotating band of copper fitted into an undercut groove near the base of the projectile, having a steeper slope than that of the part of the chamber upon which it rests, so that when pushed home it is centered for firing. To facilitate its readily taking the rifling a number of grooves or cannelures are cut on the copper band. The systems of rifled projectiles for the now obsolete muzzle-loadingrifles comprised the studded or flanged, and the expanding classes, and are known by the names of their inventors, as Hotchkiss, Parrott, Palliser, Butler, etc.

Riga. City and seaport of Russia, at n. end of.Gulf of R.; capital of Livonia; founded ab.1200; taken by Swedes 1621, by

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Russia 1710. It has a large commerce, ranking in this respect second only to St. Petersburg. Pop., 1890, 180,278.

Riga. Gulf Of. Arm of the Baltic, extending into Russia. Dimensions 105 m. by 60.

Rigaud, HYACINTHE. 1659-1743. French portrait painter of marked talent.—His brother, Gaspard, was also a fine portrait painter.

Rigdon, Sidney. 1793-1876. Copyist and editor of the Book of Mormon; associate of Joseph Smith in founding the sect, and elder in it; rival of Brigham Young; excommunicated 1844.

Riffg, James Harrison, D.D.. b. 1821. English Wesleyan, pres. or Conference 1878-79 and 1892-93; ed. Quarterly Review, 1885. Modern Anglican Tlieology, 1857-79; Wesley, 1875-91.

Ritfgillg. Combination of numerous ropes, chains, etc., which are employed to support and work all masts, yards,

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prises all the ropes hauled upon to brace yards, make and take in sail, etc., such as buntlines and halyards.

Riggs, Elias, D.D., LL.D.. b. 1810. American missionary in Greece 1832, at Smyrna 1838, and at Constantinople since 1853; tr. Bible; author of Armenian, Bulgarian, and Turkish grammars, 1847-56.

Riggs, Stephen Return, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1883. Missionary to and writer on the Dakotas.

Right. 1. That quality of conduct which gives it moral merit and makes it obligatory. 2. Claim to liberty of action, in which either alternative open to the will may be chosen with impunity. In right as morality this impunity does not exist.

Right. In some European legislative assemblies, the conservative members, supporters of the government, have seats on the right of the presiding officer, the opposition on his left.

Right Angle. When two straight lines so intersect that the adjacent angles are equal, each is a right angle.

Right Ascension Of A Star. Arc of the celestial equator included between the vernal equinox and the great circle drawn through the star perpendicular to the equator.

Right Conduct. That which conforms to certain precepts of duty recognized to be unconditionally binding.

Righteousness, Imputed. Doctrine, long prominent in Protestant theology, that Christ's merits are credited to the believer. The modern view is that they are meant to be stimulants to and producers of Christian character, not substitutes for it.

Right Figure. One in which the elements are at right angles, as in a right prism. Here the lateral edges are perpendicular to the base. In a right cone, the axis is perpendicular to the base.

Right-Handedness. This is due to lack of symmetry in the human body, the right side weighing ab. 15 ounces more than the left side.

Right Line. Straight line; opposed to curved.

Right of Way. Right enjoyed by a person or corporation of passing over land the fee of which is vested in another party. Rights may be limited both as to intervals at which they may be exercised and as to the extent authorized.

Right Reverend. Title of a bishop, of a mitered abbot, and of some other dignitaries.

Rights. Abstract possessions vested in individuals by moral rules; such as rights to liberty, to personal safety, and to property.

Rights, DECLARATION OF. Adopted in Parliament Feb. 1689, condemning the conduct of James II., and announcing his abdication. The Bill OF Rights (q.v.), Oct. 1689, was of similar tenor and more voluminous.

Rights of Government. Rights possessed by the State, or by persons representing the community, to enforce the rules of human action necessary for the preservation and well-being of society.

Rights of Man, Declaration Of. Adopted by French Assembly Aug. 1789.

Right Sphere. Celestial sphere as seen from a point on the earth's equator. All the celestial bodies appear to describe circles perpendicular to the horizon.

Right to employment. Claim conceded by some governments, that it is the duty of the state to provide employment for those unable to find work and wages otherwise.

Right Whale. See Baleen Whale.

Rlgl, or RIGHI. Mountain near Lake Lucerne; in Canton

The Kigi, from Lucerne.

Schwvz: noted for its fine views; ascended bv two railroads, and frequented by many tourists. From the highest point, the

Kulm, is seen a magnificent panorama, also the curious mirage phenomenon. '"The Specter of the Rigi.' Altitude 5,906 ft.

Rigidity. That of any body is determined by the force which must be applied to produce a change of shape. Fluids have none. That of a solid may be defined as the ratio of the force applied per unit area, to the shear which is produced by it. In no actual case is the rigidity perfect, and the ratio of stress to strain is sometimes called the coefficient of rigidity. The torsional rigidity of a rod or prism is the ratio of the twist per unit of length to the moment of the couple producing it. One end is supposed fixed; to the other the couple is applied perpendicular to the length of the rod. If a body be subjected to stress, producing uniform distortion, the ratio of the normal traction or pressure per unit area to twice the elongation or contraction in the direction of the stress is called the modulus of rigidity.

Rigveda. First of the four Vedas (q.v.).

Rigor Mortis. Stiffening of a body after death, due to chemical changes in the muscles. In cases of sudden death from violence, it is not uncommon for rigor mortis to fix the body at the moment of death; this accounts for posture of many bodies on the battle field or after a railway accident: this is known as instantaneous rigor mortis. Usually, while the time of its appearance and disappearance varies greatly, it comes on from 7 to 18 hours after death and lasts for from 24 to 36 hours.

Riley, Charles Valentine, 1843-1895. Entomologist of Mo. 1868, of U. S. 1878; author of many reports and papers. Potato Pests, 1876; Locust Plague, 1877.

Riley, Henry Hiram, 1813-1888. Lawyer and judge in Michigan. Puddleford Papers, 1857.

Riley, James, 1777-1840. American seaman, slave in Africa

1815-16. His Narrative circulated widely.

Riley, James Whitcomb. b. 1853. American dialect poet. The Old Swimmin' Hole, 1883; The Boss Girl. 1886; Aflenchiles, 1887; Pipes a Pan, 1888; Rhymes of Childhood, 1890; Neighborly Poems, 1891; Armazindy, 1895.

Rime-Frost. Formation of frostwork from the air by secretion of minute globules of mist. The vapor is deposited as water and frozen after or at the moment of deposition: it is always added to the windward side of the receiving surface, and on the summits of mountains the growth is often of enormous size, owing to the strong winds. It is opaque and snowy, as contrasted with hail.

Rimini. Ancient Umbrian and Etruscan city, on the Adriatic, 69 m. s.e. of Bologna; held by Rome from 286 B.C., by the Malatest;is 1237-1503, and by the popes 1528-1860. It has a fine cathedral and some remains of antiquity. The story of Francesca lias been celebrated by many poets. Pop., with suburbs, ah.20,000.

Rimmer, William. 1816-1879. American sculptor, painter, and art teacher. Elements of Design, 1872-79; Art Anatomy, 1877.

Rimose. In Botany, structures with numerous cracks or


Rim-Rock. Borders or edges of the old channels or

basins in Cal., in which the large quantities of gold-bearing gravels have collected.

Rimsky-Korsakow, Nicholas Andrejewitsch, b. 1844. Russian composer; since 1871 Prof, of Composition at the Conservatory in St. Petersburg; musical inspector of the navy; an uncompromising champion of the young Russian school. See Russian Music.

Rinderpest. See Cattle Plague.

RlndflelHCh, Georg Eduard, b. 1836. Prof. Zurich, Bonn, and Wilrzburg; writer on pathology.

Rinchart, William Henry, 1825-1874. American sculptor, noted for many bronze busts and statues.

Ring, Bernard Jaques Joseph Maximilian, 1799-1875. Alsatian antiquarian, who wrote in French on old German buildings, establishments, and usages.

Ringbone. Exostosis on the coronet of the horse. It often occurs in newly dropped foals, but is most commonly due to overwork and strains. It stiffens a horse and is practically incurable.

Ring-Canal. Encircling canal in the outer edge of the umbrella of Jelly fish, and uniting with the radiating canals from the central stomach.

Ringcnt. Irregular, wide-mouthed corolla of certain plants of the gamopetalous families, especially Scrophidariacece and Labiata;.

Ringgold, Samuel, 1770-1829. M.C. from Md. 1811-15.—Of his sons, Samuel, U.S.A., 1800-1846, inventor of the McClelland

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saddle, was killed at Palo Alto; CADWAIADER, U.S.N., 18021367, became Rear-admiral 1866.

Ring Money. Used in ancient Egypt, and later in Europe, before the introduction of coinage, as still in parts of Africa.

Ring Puzzle. Ingenious toy, consisting of a series of rings attached to a rod from which they may be removed and replaced. Tradition ascribes its invention to the hero Hung Ming (181-234), who gave it to his wife when he went to the war, that she might forget her sorrow for his absence. In Corea this puzzle is popular under the name of Delay Guest Iostrument.

Rings, Symbolism Of. From earliest historic times, fingerrings are found employed as personal emblems and badges of rank. Marked with adistinguishingsign upon the bezel or enlarged part, they were used as a seal to give authenticity to writings, and delivered, as by a royal personage, as a means of delegating authority to a subordinate. In China, the jade rings, formerly used in drawing the bow, survive as insignia of military rank. A ring is given to a bishop, with his I crozier, upon his consecration, as a mark of ecclesiastical rank; a bishop's ring is Ian amethyst; a cardinal's, a sapphire. | The custom of exchanging rings as a pledge of fidelity or friendship is widespread, the wedding ring being a conspicuous survival. Jewish Marriage-Ring. Ring Toss. Indoor and outdoor sport. A post set firmly upon a circular wooden base is the target: at this rings of varying size are tossed, the object being to land them upon the post. The smaller rings count the most.

Ringwaldt, Bartholomacs, 1532-ab.l599. German hymnist.

Ring Worm. Name given to several diseases of the skin whose eruption is usually circular in form. When it spreads and the part first attacked heals, the resemblance to a ring is quite marked. They are communicable, are caused by the presence of one of several vegetable parasites, and frequently attack the scalp or the beard. Dermatologists are not agreed in their limitations of the use of this word. It is an object of many popular superstitions.

Kink. Heinrich Johann. 1819-1894. Danish geographer and official. Qreenland, 1877; Eskimo Tribes, 1887.

RinKart, Martin, 1586-1649. German hymnist.

Itiiik-ItalI. Game belonging to the roller skating rink; similar to Rink-Polo, except that no sticks are used, the ball being large and driven with the foot, so that the play amounts to a species of Association football on roller skates.

Rink-Polo. Variety of Hockey, but played on a smooth made surface within doors, the players wearing roller skates. The rules are similar to those of Hockey or Shinney as played upon ice.

Rilimann'i Green. ZnCoO,. Green mass, made by heating a zinc salt moistened with cobalt nitrate on charcoal.

Rio, Andres Manuel Del, b. ab. 1769. Mexican mineralogist. His principal works were pub. 1790-1830.

Rio, Antonio Del, 1745-ab.l789. Spanish discoverer of the ruins near Palenque, s. Mexico. His Description of them was pub. 1794.

Rio de Janeiro. Metropolis and capital of Brazil, a

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large export trade, mainly of sugar, cotton, coffee, and hides. Pop., 1890, ab. 380,000.

Rio de la Plata. River of S. America, with its branches the largest next to the Amazon. They drain nearly the entire breadth of the continent from lat. 15° S. to 35° S., an area of more than a million sq. m. It is formed by the junction of the Parana and the Uruguay, the name being applied only to the estuary below their junction.

Rio Grande. One of the large rivers of the U. S. It

heads in the San Juan Mts., in Colorado, where it collects most of its waters, flows s. across New Mexico, then s.e. to the Gulf of Mexico, forming the boundary between Texas and Mexico. Its entire course is through an arid region, and though 1,800 m. long, it carries comparatively little water. Drainage area 128,792 sq. m.

Rioja, Francisco De, ab. 1585-1659. Spanish poet.

Rio Negro. 1. Left hand branch of the Amazon, rising in s. Colombia; navigable for 600 of its 1,350 m. 2. River of Argentina, formerly Patagonia; rising in the Andes and flowing e. to the Atlantic. Length ab. 600 m.

Rio Pilcomayo. See Filcomayo.

Rio Salado. Tributary of the Parana, rising in the Andes and flowing e. and s.e. across Argentina.

Riot. At Common Law, unlawful act of violence by three or more. It is defined, and the punishment prescribed, by modern statutes.

Rio Tlnto. River in Spain uniting with the Odiel a little above its mouth in the Gulf of Cadiz. Columbus set sail from the port, formed by the combined estuary, for the discovery of America. Length 70 m.

Rlouw Liingga. Archipelago, at s. end of the Malay Peninsula, composed of two groups of islands. Riouw to the n. and Lingga to the s. Most of the islands are covered with thick forest and some have deposits of tin, now almost exhausted. Pop., mixed races, ab.100,000.

Riparian. Plants or animals occurring naturally along streams.

Riparian Rights. Those attending the ownership of real property bounded by natural water courses.

Ripidolite. Some of the varieties of the mineral chlorite; so called in allusion to their fan-like shapes.

Ripley, Eleazar Wheelock, 1782-1839. Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1814; distinguished on the Canada border, especially at Fort Erie; M.C. from La. from 1835.

Ripley, George, LL.D., 1802-1880. Founder of Brook Farm (q.v.), Mass., 1841; critic of N. Y. Tribune from 1849; ed. American Cyclopaedia, 1858-63 and 1873-76.

Ripley, Henry Jones. D.D., 1798-1875. Prof. Newton Theol. Inst.. Mass., from 1826; N. T. commentator.

Rlpon, Frederick John Robinson, Earl Of, 1782-1859. M.P. 1806; member of several cabinets; Viscount Goderich and Premier 1827; Earl 1833.—His son, George Frederick Samuel, b. 1827. became M.P. 1852, Earl 1859. Sec. for War 1863, for India 1866, and Marquis 1871; Viceroy of India 1880-84.

Ripon College. Founded 1854 at Ripon, Wis. It has preparatory, collegiate, musical, and art departments, the second including classical, scientific, and literary courses, with 16 teachers and ab. 240 students.

Ripple Marks. Ridges like miniature waves on the surface of a stratum, produced by the oscillation of shallow water.

Rippon, John. D.D., 1751-1836. Baptist pastor in London from 1773. His Selection of Hymns, 1787, was the most important of many supplements to Dr. Watts', and contained numerous originals by various writers: it went through many

editions, and exerted wide influence.

Riprap. Loose stones used to form an embankment or jetty, or for protection of a pier.

Rip Tan Winkle. Hero of a famous story by W. Irving. 1820, and of a play by Boucicault, 1865, in which Joseph Jefferson gained his chief fame.

Rislianger, William, b. 1250. English monk of St. Alban's Abbey, author in 1312 of a chronicle extending 1259-1307,

Rlshi. Poets of the Vedas.

Risley, John Ewing, b. 1843. U. S. Minister to Denmark 1893.

Risotto. Italian preparation of rice, onions, and butter.

Rlst, Johann, 1607-1667. Author of ab. 680 German hymns, many of them long popular, and some known in English versions.

Ristic, John, b. 1831. Servian author and state official; head of the regency 1889-93.

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Ristori, Adelaide, b. 1821. Marchioness del Grillo 1847. Italian actress, admired in Paris 1855, and in the U. S. 1866 and 1875. Her chief parts were Mary Stuart, Queen Elizabeth, Medea, Marie Antoinette, Lady Macbeth, and Judith.

Ritchie, Mrs. Anne Isabella, b. 1838. m. 1877. Daughter of W. M. Thackeray; author of Old Kensington, 1873, Miss Angel, 1875, and several vols, of reminiscences.

Ritchie, Thomas, 1778-1854. Ed. Richmond Enquirer, 1804^15.

Ritchie, Sir William Johnston, 1813-1892. Chief-justice of New Brunswick Supreme Court 1855, and of Canada 1879; knighted 1881.

Rite. 1. Ceremony. 2. Body of ritual, differing in different churches or countries.

Rites Congregation Of. Created by Pope Sixtus V., 1585-90.

Ritschl, Albrecht. D.D., Ph.D., 1822-1889. Prof. Bonn 1853, Gottingen 1864; founder of an important school independent alike of the traditional orthodoxy and of Tubingen rationalism: it denies much, but affirms God, Christ, and redemption. His chief work is Justification and Reconciliation, 1870-74.

Ritwchl, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1806-1876. Prof, at Halle 1832, Breslau 1833, Bonn 1839. and Leipzig 1865. His most celebrated work was upon Plautus, whicli his pupils have continued and completed. He combined precision and rare critical insight.

Ritsoil, JOSEPH, 1752-1803. English antiquarian, editor of old songs and poems. Robin Hood. 1795; Metrical Romances, 1802.

Rittenhouse, David, LL.D.. F.R.S.. 1732-1796. Maker of clocks and mathematical instruments at Phila.; eminent for

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many services to astronomy and to the State, in some of which his brother, Benjamin, 1740-1789, was associated.

Ritter, Frederic Louis, b. 1834 at Strassburg. Composer, conductor, and writer on the history of music.

Ritter, Heinrich, 1791-1869. Prof. Berlin 1824, Kiel 1833, and Gottingen from 1837. Hist. Philosophy, 12 vols., 1829-55; Christian Philosophy. 1858-59.

Ritter, Karl, 1779-1859. Prof. Berlin 1820; author of Geography, Nature, and Man, 19 vols.. 1817-59, and other valuable geographical works. Palestine, 4 vols., tr. 1866.

Ritteric Rays. Ultra-red parts of the solar spectrum.

Rltter'g Pile. Constructed 1803; differing from the pile of Volta only in the fact that all the plates were of copper, alternating with disks of moistened cardboard. On connecting this with the Volta pile, Ritter found that it became charged and was capable of producing an inverse current. Volta (1805) explained correctly the result as depending upon the decomposition of the electrolyte between the plates, as due in fact to the polarization of the electrodes.

■titlinger, Peter, Ritter Von, 1811-1872. Austrian mining engineer, inventor, and author of many papers on mining and ore-dressing machinery. His Lehrbuch der Aufbereitungskunde, 1867, was a standard authority.

Rittingeritc. Rare mineral, found in Bohemia and Hungary, containing silver, arsenic, and selenium.

Ritual Of The Dead. See Book Of The Dead.

Ritual, Roman. Set forth by Paul V. 1614. to enforce uniformity of usages in R. C. service. Many different forms had previously been in use.

Ritualism. Effect of the Anglo-Catholic, Puseyite, or Tractarian movement in the English and P. E. Churches, in emphasizing fullness and propriety of rite. Services in general are more carefully planned and conducted, and more largely musical, than before 1850; but the motives for this are often aesthetic or utilitarian, and have little to do with Tractarian or Catholic doctrine.

Riva. Winter resort in the Tyrol at the n. extremity of Lago di Garda. It has a castle, and some monasteries. Its

port is the largest on the lake and its vicinity furnishes tropical fruits in abundance. Pop. ab.6,000.

Rlvadavia, Bernardino, 1780-1845. Pres. of Argentina 1820-27; exiled 1834.

Rival Coinmoditiefi. Commodities capable of fulfilling the same function, one or another of which will be used according as it can be provided most cheaply.

Riva Palacio, Mariano, 1803-1880. Premier of Mexico 1851; defender of Maximilian 1867; one of the first and purest of Mexican statesmen.

Rivarol, Antoine, 1753-1801. French satirist and royalist pamphleteer, in exile from 1792. Langue Frangaise, 1784; Petit Almanach, 1788.

River. Agency by which the surplus rainfall is collected and carried back to the sea. Its source of supply is rain and melted snow, either directly or by means of springs. Its volume depends upon its drainage area, the rainfall, and the proportion of the latter which reaches the stream. The last factor varies with the slope of the ground, the character of the soil and vegetation, and the aridity of the atmosphere, ranging from 10 to 65 per cent of the rainfall. The variability of flow of the stream depends on the character and distribution of the rainfall and the surface and vegetation of the drainage basin. The maximum flow is often in cases of small rivers 10 to 20 times the ordinary flow. The velocity of current depends upon the slope of the bed and the volume. It is greatest in midstream, and least near the banks and bottom. The slope of the river's bed is normally greatest near its head and diminishes toward its mouth, and every river tends to establish this profile. Lakes and waterfalls upon its course are ephemeral features. Rivers are the most efficient of the agents of erosion, transportation and deposition of detritus. The greater the velocity, the greater its erosive and transporting power. Erosion is most extensive on the upper waters of the stream, where the slope is greatest and deposition takes place mainly in its lower course and .at its mouth. A delta is a deposit of detritus near its mouth, through which by several channels the river finds its way to the sea. A bar is a deposit across the mouth, where the river's velocity is suddenly checked on entering the sea. A small stream is known variously as creek, brook, branch, fork, prong, etc.

Rivera, Jose Fructuoso. 1790-1854. Pres. of Uruguay

1830-35 and 1838-42.

River and Harbor Improvements. In U. S. this

work is in charge of the Corps of Engineers of the army. The country is divided into five sections, the Northwest. Southwest. Northeast, Southeast, and Pacific, each in charge of a Colonel or senior officer. These sections are subdivided into ab. 50 districts, each in charge of an officer who is assisted by other

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River Engineering—Ro vi> Locomotives


officers and by civilians. The first appropriation by Congress for this work was $9,500 in 1820. The total amount expended 1820-94 was $262,845,900. The largest annual appropriation was $25,136,300 in 1890 for 436 separate rivers and harbors.

River Engineering. Improvement of navigable streams by dredging, dams, and locks. In U. S. this work is in charge of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

River Hydraulics. Flow of water in rivers, determined by actual gauging or by computations. Only the simplest case of uniform permanent flow is well understood. If a be the area of cross-section, r the hydraulic radius, s the slope, and q the discharge, then q = ca ^/TsT where c is a number dependiug largely upon the roughness of surface. For a small rise of one per cent of the total depth the velocity increases 0.5 per cent and the discharge increases 1.5 per cent.

River Pollution. Rivers whose water has been polluted tend to purify themselves by deposition and aeration, but this should not be relied upon as effective. Polluted streams whose water is used for the supply of cities and towns are always suspicious, if not dangerous. Pollution can be prevented only by legal enactments; in Europe these are often very stringent. In U. S. many States have such laws but their enforcement is difficult.

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Rives, Amelie. See Chanler, Mrs. She became Princess Troubetzkoy 1896.—Her grandfather. William Cabell, 17931868. was M.C from Va. 1823-27. U. S. Senator 1833-34 and 1835-45, and Minister to France 1829-32 and 1849-53.

Riveters. Machines for riveting by power instead of by hand (see Riveting). There are four types: lever, steam, hydraulic, and air machines. All have an abutment or stake which holds a cup or swage to resist the pressure brought by a moving die or ram against the red-hot rivet in place in the seam. The stake is inside the cylinder or other work being operated on, the pressure coming on the outside. The differences are in the way in which power is applied to the moving ram. The lever machines force the ram forward by an elbow-joint combination of links, whose stationary point is the back of the machine, and the links are straightened out by a ram revolving under the joint of the links which hang down when the ram is back. The objection to this type of machine is the constant travel of the ram, so that varying thickness of work can be handled only by changing the dies or swages. This has been remedied by putting the abutment joint of the links on a hydraulic plunger connected with an Accumulator (q.v.), so the heading pressure cannot exceed the accumulator load, and pins between the plates are avoided. In steam riveters the ram is moved forward by a steam piston of large area, operated by steam of ordinarypressure; in hydraulic riveters a small plunger is protruded by high pressure of water from an accumulator directly, or in portable machines, to increase lightness, the hydraulic piston works a toggle-joint. The steam riveters act with a rapid impact followed by pressure; in hydraulic riveters there is no impact, hut pressure only. In many of the best ones, the plate is pressed and held together by an annular die before the heading is done by a second inner die, so that no pin may be forced between the sheets. The air riveters act either by air pressure on a cylinder operating a toggle-joint, or else by a rapid series of blows from a small cylinder operated like a rock-drill. Air riveters are adapted for work in winter in open bridge sheds, where condensation or freezing would be against the other types.


Steam Riveter.

Riveting. Operation of uniting plates of metal by lapping one part over another, and inserting, through holes which match as the parts are superposed, what are known as rivets. These are short cvlinders of the same metal as the plates, with a head on one end, which are passed red-hot through the holes, and are then headed over, either by hand or by machine (see Riveter). In hand riveting, a heavy sledge is held against the formed head, and two men with alternating blows of their hammers upon the protruding shank upset it and form an overlapping cone, which is the other head of the rivet. The contraction of the rivet as it cools, moreover, makes a stronger and tighter joint than any other, at less cost and with better resistance to fire and to corrosion. Riveted seams are singleriveted or double-riveted, according as one or two rows of rivets are used parallel to the joint. In chain riveting the holes are staggered, and not one behind the other. The aim is to get the shearing strength of the aggregate rivet area of the joint equal to the tensile strength of the plate when diminished by the holes, but in boilers and tanks usually the rivet area is in excess, to make the joint water- or steam-tight. Riveted joints are lap or butt. In the latter, the plates butt, and a welt or cover-piece is riveted to both. Where two coverstrips are used, the strain passes through the axis of the sheets without a tendency to flex. The relative strengths are usually rated thus: Original plate, 100 per cent; double riveted butt, 76 to 80 per cent; double riveted lap, 70 to 75 per cent; single riveted lap, 56 to 62 per cent. The usual sizes are f, i, and 1 in. in diameter.

Riviera. Coast of Italy from Spezia w.; usually including also that of France to Nice; famous and highly popular as a


Riviera on the Toggia.

winter resort. It is divided into the eastern and western section at Genoa. The western is the mildest, most frequented, and also has the most beautiful scenery.

Riviere, Briton, b. 1840. English painter, chiefly of animals; R.A. 1881; widely known through engravings.

Rlvington, James, 1724-1802. Tory journalist in New York, prominent before and during the British occupation. Rivington's N. Y. Gazetteer. 1773, Loyal Gazette, 1777, Gazette and Universal Advertiser, 1783.

Rivoll. Village of n. Italy, 12 m. n.w. of Verona. Near it the Austrians defeated the French Nov. 17, 1796, and were defeated by Bonaparte Jan. 14-15, 1797.

Rivulariacew. Family of Cyanophycea or blue-green Algce, comprising forms with filaments divided by transverse septa?, their two ends being quite different, one consisting of a globose cell, the other of a terminal hair.

Rix-Dollar. Former coin of Sweden and some other countries, varying in value from ab. 38 cents to $1.10.

Rixzlo, or Riccio, David, 1540-1566. Page, secretary, and favorite of Mary Stuart; hated by the Reformers, and by some regarded ns her paramour; assassinated by a conspiracy of Scottish nobles.

Roach, John, 1815-1887. Irish-American shipbuilder.

Road Lhw, Body of rules applicable to persons using a public highway either on land or sea.

Road Locomotives. For use on common roads; made in France by Cngnot 1770. in England by Murdock 1782, and in U. S. by Evans 1799. Numerous inventions in this direction have been patented, but none has proved financially successful.

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