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Radish. Raphanns satiims. Fleshy-rooted herb of the

natural family Cruciferce, unknown in the wild state, cultivated from remote antiquity, and supposed to have been derived fro m R. raphanistrum, which is native of Europe and widely diffused as a weed in i America.

Radios. Constant distance from a fixed point to any point on the circumference of the circle, or surface of the sphere, of which the fixed point is the center.

Radius. Second vein of an insect's wing, counting from

the anterior margin. Long-rooted and Turnip-rooted Radishes. _ -. . ,

6 Radius-Arc. Arc

used on the surface of a sphere to describe, from a fixed point called the pole, any circle on that sphere.

Radius of Curvature Of Any Curve. Radius of the oscillatory circle at the given point.

Radius of Gyration. See Gyration. Radius Of, and Moment Of Inertia.

Radius of Oscillation. See Pendulum.

Radius Vector. 1. One of the co-ordinates in the polar system. 2. Variable distance from a fixed point called the pole to a moving point.

Radowitz, Joseph Maria Von. 1797-1853. Prussian officer, diplomatist, and writer. Schriften, 5 vols., 1853-53.

Radula. Lingual ribbon; movable, tape-like structure, carrying transverse rows of teeth. It lies on the ventral wall of the oesophagus of univalve Mollusks.

Rae, John, M.D., LL.D., 1813-1893. English Arctic explorer, who went in search of Sir John Franklin 1848-51, and found the first signs of his fate.

Raeburn, Sir Henry. 1756-1823. Scottish portraitpainter; R.A. 1815, knighted 1822.

Raff, Joseph Joachim, 1822-1882. Swiss composer in all forms, but chiefly successful as S3'mphonist; early and enthusiastic champion of Wagner and his theories. His compositions number over 200 and include an opera, Konig Alfred, 1851, eleven symphonies, an oratorio, Beveral overtures, suites, concertos, chamber pieces, pianoforte pieces, and songs.

Rail!nose. Cuhjjoh.shjo. Melitose; species of sugar found in the sugar beet and molasses in small quantities. Its appearance is like that of cane sugar, but is nearly tasteless. It does not reduce Fehling's solution.

Raffles, Thomas, D.D., LL.D., 1788-1863. Cong, pastor at Liverpool 1812-61; hymnist.

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford, 1781-1826. Lieut.-gov. of Java 1811-16, and of Bencoolen, Sumatra, 1818-23; knighted 1817. Hist. Java, 1817.

Raflnesque, Constantino Samuel, 1784-1842. Prof. Transylvania Univ. 1818. Florula Ludoviciana, 1817; Medical Flora, 1828-30; Botany of N. America, 1836; Conchology, 1864.

Rafn, Karl Christian, 1795-1864. Danish antiquarian, prof. Copenhagen 1826. Antiquitates Americana;. 1837.

Rafter. Beam or joist of a roof laid parallel to the main trusses, and serving to support the purlins or the roof covering. In large roofs the rafters are made of iron or steel angles and plates. The lower end of a rafter, if supported by a wall, exerts a horizontal thrust upon it which often renders necessary a tie rod.

Raga Raga. Malay name for the ball used in the most popular athletic game in s.e. Asia. The ball consists of intertwined rings of rattan, and is thrown from any part of the body, including the foot, but may not be touched with the hand. The game is played in Siam, Burmah, the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines.

Ragged Schools. Begun in England 1819 by John Pounds (d. 1839), a Portsmouth cobbler; urged and extended by Dr. T. Guthrie of Edinburgh 1847; first opened on Sunday in London 1838; first supplied with food at Aberdeen 1841. They have done much to lessen juvenile offenses.

■tagging. Preliminary breaking by hand and rough clas

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Waterloo, where he lost an arm; knighted 1815; Baron 1852; commander in the Crimea 1854. where he won great victories and endured a severe defeat; Field-marshal Nov. 1854.

Ragman-Roll. Collection of parchments kept in the Tower of London, on which the Scottish nobility and clergy subscribed their allegiance to Edward I. 1296.

Ragnarok. Norse destruction of the earth and the gods, heralding a new order.

Ragozin, Zenaide. b. ab.1835. Russian-American writer, especially on ancient history of the East.

Raguet, Condy, LL.D., 1784-1842. U. S. Consul at Rio Janeiro 1822-27. Free Trade, 1835; Currency and Banking, 1839.

Ragusa. Dalmatian town, on the Adriatic; important and powerful in the Middle Ages; held by Austria since 1815; now greatly decayed. Pop., 1891. 7,143. See Geavosa.

Ragweed. Plants of the genus Ambrosia, weeds of the Composite family, natives of N. America.

Ragwort. Senecio aureus. Yellow-flowered herb of the natural family Composite, native of N. America; known alsc as Squaw-weed; also other species of the genus.

Rahab. Woman of Jericho, who entertained and concealed the spies sent out by Joshua, was spared by the Israelites, married to a Jewish prince, and became an ancestress of Christ.

Rahbek, Knud Lyne, 1760-1830. Danish poet, dramatist, and editor.

Raikcs, Robert, 1735-1811. English printer of Gloucester, founder of modern Sunday-schools, 1780. Rail Render. Apparatus for curving railroad rails;

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two curved branches on which the rail rests, while a powerful screw or a hydraulic plunger is brought upon a point midway between them.

Railroad Accidents. The number of train accidents in the U. S. in 1895 was 1,487, of which 602 were due to collisions, 810 to derailments, and 75 to other causes. In these accidents 1,811 employees, 170 passengers, and 4,155 other persons were killed. In 1892 in Great Britain one passenger out of 6,701,000 was killed, in U. S. one out of 2.984,832 in 1895; in U. S., 1895, one out of 213,651 was injured; of employees, one out of 433 was killed and one out of 31 injured: of trainmen, one out of 155 was killed and one out of 10 injured. The increasing use of the block system and of automatic car couplers tends to decrease the number of accidents. "Other persons" includes casualties at stations and crossings and trespassers.

Railroad Bagatelle. Game resembling Tivoli, in which balls are rolled down an inclined trough or a spiral tube upon a board containing pins, and numbered holes or stalls.

Railroad Gauge. Distance between the inner sides of the heads of the rails; for the standard "range 4 ft. Hi in. The standard gauge is used for main lines in U. S., England, France and Germany, the narrow gauges of 31 and 3 ft. being adopted only for branch roads in mountainous districts. Ireland has a gauge of 5 ft. 3 in.; Spain and Portugal have 5 ft. 6iin.; in India 5 ft. 6J in. is mostly used. Of the total railroad mileage of the world 76 per cent is of standard gauge, 10 of larger, and 14 of smaller gauges. See Battl'' Of The Gauges.

Railroad Rails. The earliest tramway rails were of wood or stone, but in 1805 cast-iron rails ab. 5 ft. long were introduced. Ab. 1820 a strap rail of wrought-iron fastened upon longitudinal wooden stringers came into use. These were soon followed by the double-headed rail, which is still used in England. The rail with flat base was invented by R. L. Stevens, and first used 1831 on the Camden and Amboy R.R. The crosssection of the early rails was pear-shaped, but this has been gradually niodifind to the present form, the head being with sides almost vertical while the web is comparatively thin. Prior to 1800 rails were rolled of wrought-iron, but the invention of Bessemer 1862 caused steel to be used, and the cost of production has been lowered from $150 to $20 per ton. The weight and size of rails has gradually increased with the growth of traffic and the decrease in their cost. The minimum weight now used is 50 or 60 lbs. per yard, while 80, 90 and 100 lbs. per yard are frequently found on roads of heavy traffic. The average distribution of the metal in the best forms is ab. 42 per cent in the head, 21 in the web, and 37 in the base.

Railroads. At the beginning of the 19th century a number of tramways were in use in Great Britain for transporting coal and freight; these had timber or cast-iron rails, and the motive power was horses. The first locomotives were introduced by Trevithick 1804, who used waste steam in the chimney for draft, and by Blinkinsop 1811. In 1825 the Stockton and Darlington road, 38 m. long, was opened, and a train weighing 90 tons was drawn at a speed of 5 m. per hour by an engine built by George Stephenson. In 1829 the Liverpool and Manchester road was opened with a train weighing 12£ tons drawn at an average speed or 13.8 m. per hour by an engine, the Rocket, weig b i n g tons, built by Robert Stephenson; a maximum speed of 29 m. was attained. In the U. S. railroad construction began 1826, when a tramway for transporting stone was built at Quincy, Mass.; in 1827 one for coal traffic was built at Mauch Chunk, Pa.: horses were used in both cases. The first locomotive was operated at Honesdale, Pa., on the Delaware and Hudson road, by Horatio Allen, on Aug. 8. 1829. In 1830 the Baltimore and Ohio, the S. Carolina, the Mohawk and Hudson, and the Camden and Amboy railroads were under construction, and soon after locomotive power was rapidly introduced. The railroads of the world in 1840 had a total

length of 4,933 m., of which 2,117 m. were in Europe, and 2,816 m. in U. S. In 1850 the total mileage was 23.473, of which


The Eocket.

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At the close of 1896 the number of miles of railroad in U.S. was 182.600, and in the world 405,583. The total railroad capital of U.S. was $12,107,853,637, of which 45 per cent was in stock, 46 in funded debt, and 9 in other forms. The average cost of construction has been $47,100 per mile, and that of equipment $5,000. The number of passengers carried one mile was 13,054,840.243, and of the tons of freight carried one mile 93.885.853,634. The average cost of carrying a passenger one mile is 1.91 cents; the revenue received is 2.14 cents. The average cost of carrying one ton of freight one mile is 0.58 cents; the revenue received is 0.89 cents. The average cost of running- a train one mile is 97 cents, the revenue received 147 cents. The net earnings are less than 4 per cent upon the capital invested.

Railroad Weather Signal. Introduced by the Ohio State Weather Service 1881, to be borne on the side of a baggage or freight car, and changed daily by orders from the central weather bureau, announcing the weather to be expected during the next 24 hours; subsequently adopted by U.S. Signal Office and all State Weather services.

Ralls (marsh Hens). Grallatory birds of relatively small size, with long toes, short wings, fairly long bill and legs, and a turned-up tail. They are strong fliers, but prefer to run when pursued. They nest in the long grass of marshes. The plumage is dun or mud-colored, streaked with ashy and dark bars posteriorly. Rallus elegans, Fresh-water Marsh Hen, is 18 in. long and with ruddier color, while It. longirostris (crepitans), the Clapper Rail of salt marshes, is 15 in. long, with a more ashy brown hue. The former has one, the latter two broods in a season. The Virginia Rail and the Sora resemble the elegans and crepitans respectively, but are only 9 or 10 in. long.

Ralmondi, Antonio, 1826-1890. Naturalist, b. at Milan; prof, at Lima from 1851. El Peru. 3 vols., 1874-97. His explorations, collections, and notes furnish material for 20 vols.

Ralmondi. See Mark Antonio.

Rain. The amount of moisture contained in a cubic foot of saturated air increases with the temperature, being 2.13 gns. at 32° F., 4.09 at 50°, 6.15 at 62°, 7.99 at 70°, 10.90 at 80% 14.81 at 90° and 19.79 at 100°. When the air is saturated the humidity is 100; if it contains three-fourths the moisture possible at the given temperature the humidity is 75. Rains, fogs, and clouds are due to the cooling of moist air, warm air moving into cooler regions, or warm and cold air coming together and reducing the temperature below the saturation point. The mean annual rainfall is the depth of rain and melied snow in a year and in Boston is 45 inches, New York 44.8, Philadelphia 39.8, Baltimore 43.8, Washington 43.5, Charleston 56.7, Mobile 62.2, New Orleans 60.5, Louisville 45.8, Chicago 34.8, Dubuque 35.5, Oswego 35, Cincinnati 39.9, Leavenworth 38.4, Bismarck 18.4. Santa Fe 14.2, Fort Grant, Ariz. 16.5, Sacramento 20.9. Portland, Ore.. 46.8, Cheyenne 12.2, London 25. Paris 71. Berlin 24, Vienna 19, St. Petersburg 17, Valdivia 106. Vera Cruz 180. San Domingo 108. Maranham 277. Hong Kong 101, Port Said 2, Astrakhan 6. Cherrapongee in Assam, 610 inches. See HuMidity and Hygrometry.

Rainbow. Optical phenomenon consisting of an arch of concentric colored bands, arranged in prismatic order, red being on the outside. It occurs when the sun or moon, not far above the horizon, throws its beams upon a sheet of falling 1260



drops on the opposite side of the heavens. A secondary bow is sometimes seen, in which the order of the colors is reversed.

Rainej '« Corpuscle*. See Spokozoa.

Rain Gauge. Funnel-shaped dish, having a graduated

small cylinder below it. whereby the depth of the rainfall during'a shower can be measured. It should be placed near the level of the ground in a location unobstructed by trees.

Rainier, Mr., or Tacoma. An extinct volcano in the Cascade Range o f Washington. Elevation 14,444 feet.

■Cains, George WashingTon, b. 1817. Brigadier-gen. C.S.A.; founder of Confederate powder works at Augusta. Ga.; prof. Univ. Ga. 1867: improver of portable steam engines. Chemistry. 1872: Qualitative Analysis, 1879. —His brother, Gabriel James. 1803-1881. was Rain Gauge. distinguished in the Seminole,

Mexican, and Civil wars, especially (as brig.-gen. C.S.A.) at Fair Oaks.

Ratnsford, William Stephen, D.D., b. 1850 in Ireland. Rector of St. George's, New York, since 1883; prominent in reforms and charities.

Rain Tree. Plant of Peru, which, according to Rotolf, condenses the atmospheric moisture so freely as to produce a swampy ground beneath its shade.

Rainy Lake. Between Minnesota and Ontario; connected with Lake of the Woods by Rainy River. Area 146 sq. m.

Raisin River. In s.e. Mich.; scene of a massacre of Ky. forces by Indians, Jan. 22, 1813.

Raising. Dried grapes, deriving their names from the place where they grow, as Smyrnas, Valencias, etc.; or from the species of grape, as muscatels, blooms, and sultanas. The finest are cured by cutting the stalk half through, when the grapes are nearly ripe, and allowing them to dry on the vine: or when fully ripe, by dipping them in a lye made from the ashes of the burned tendrils, after which they are dried by the sun. Inferior sorts are often dried in ovens.

Rajah. Title of a native sovereign in India; now extended to chiefs and prominent persons.

Rajides. See Rays.

Rajon, Paul Adolpho, 1842-1888. French etcher.

Rajputana. Twenty States of n. India, under British protection. Area 132,461 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 12,089,330, of which the Rajputs, the ruling race, are less than 7 per cent.

Rake Vein. In n. England, a highly inclined Assure vein, as contrasted with pipe veins or flats.

Raking Prop. In Mining; (1) short piece of timber used to support a curb during the excavation of the sides of a shaft; (2) prop set in an inclined position to prevent the fall of a loose roof.

Rakoczy, Francis Leopold, 1676-1735. Prince of Transylvania; head of an insurrection against Austria. The independence of Hungary was proclaimed May 31, 1707, but overthrown 1708-11.

Rakoczy March. National air of Hungary and Transylvania. The composer is not known. It is named in honor of Francis Rakoczy II.

Rale. Sound observed in ausculting the lungs in certain diseased conditions. It is formed by the breaking of the air through fluid in the air passages.

Raleigh. Capital of N. C, in Wake co., on the Neuse. Pop., 1890, 12,678.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 1552-1618. Leader of the expedition which discovered Virginia 1585; prominently connected with the defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588; organizer of an expedition to S. America for the discovery of Eldorado 1595; imprisoned and condemned to death 1603 by James I.; during his imprisonment in the Tower he wrote a History of the World and some poetical pieces; released 1616 and permitted to make an expedition to Guiana. 1617, which proved a failure; foully

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Rallidae (rails). Family of Grallatores, having characters intermediate between Natatores and Gallinacei. There are four elongated toes; the wings are small, the beak, neck, and legs not long. See Rails.

Ralph, James, ab.1696-1762. American versifier, in England from 1724; lampooned by Pope in the Dunciad.

Ralph, Julian, b. 1852. American magazinist, traveler, and author. Our Great West, 1894; Dixie, 1895; People we Pass, 1895: Alone in China, 1896.

It a 1*1 on. William C. 1826-1875. Pres. Bank of Cal.j active in the development of San Francisco and the Pacific Coast; ruined by a combination against him.

Ralston, William Shodden, 1828-1889. English author. Kriloffand His Fables, 1869; Russian Folk-Tales, 1873.

Rain. Ironclad vessel, armed at the prow, below the water line, with a sharp, heavy, steel beak, with a sloping edge on the upper side. This is of the strongest formation and built as an independent adjunct of the ship for the purpose of attack.

Ramadan, or Ramazan. Mohammedan 9th month, during which the strictest fasting is obligatory in daylight.

Ramah. 1. Town of Benjamin, 5 m. n. of Jerusalem; identified 1838. 2. Home of the prophet Samuel; in Ephraim, not located.

Ramanci. See Rameses.

Ramayana. Oldest of the Sanskrit epic poems, written by the sage Valniiki; attributed to the 5th century B.C. It celebrates the life and exploits of Rama, and his wife Sita, and the rape of the latter by Ravana, the demon king of Ceylon. The story closes with her death and vindication and Rama's translation to heaven.

Rambaeh, Johann Jakob, D.D., 1693-1735. German hymnist; prof. Halle 1723-31, and Giessen from 1731.

Rambler, 1750-52. Periodical founded and mainly written by Dr. Johnson. It consisted of short essays on topics ot the times, moral subjects, and follies of the day, after the manner of the Spectator.

Rambouillet, Catherine De Vivonne, Marquise De, 1588-1665. Founder of a salon which long included the best brains and accomplishments of Paris.

Rameau, Jean Philippe, 1683-1764. French musician, founder of the science of harmony, organist and composer. Traite de Vharmonie, 1721, was approved by the Academy 1737. Louis XV. created the post of Compositeur de Cabinet for him. He composed over 30 operas, several cantatas, motets, and clavichord pieces.

Raincnts. Thin scales borne on the leaves and petioles

of certain plants, especially ferns.

RamesCN, or Ramses. Thirteen Egyptian kings of the 19th and 20th dynasties. The second (Sesostris) built temples throughout his empire, the Ramesseum opposite Karnak among them, intended for the worship of his manes; fought in Nubia and Libya, conquered the Hittites, and reigned 66

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Ramie (Bcemeria nivea).

years. The third had a brilliant reign; waged war with the Libyans and Hittites, and received tribute from Punt and Ethiopia. He is supposed to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The mummies of Rameses I., II., and III. were discovered 1881, and are now at the Gizeh Museum.

Ramie. Boehmeria nivea. Herb of the natural family

Urticacece, native of Asia; widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable fiber, known also as China grass and rhea and used for making rope, cordage and grasscloth.

Ramification. System of branching of a plant or animal.

Ramillies. Village of Belgium; scene of a brilliant victory of Marlborough, May 23, 1706, over the French, who were thereby driven out of the Low Countries.

Ramirez, AleJandro, 1777 -1821. Spanish official in Guatemala and Cuba, eminent for financial and other reforms, and for beneficent foundations.

Ramirez, Ignacio, 1818-1879. Mexican poet and scholar, of native descent; Minister of Justice 1860-61: banished 1865; Judge of the Supreme Court from 1867; imprisoned 1876.

Rammelsberg, Karl Friedrich, b. 1813. German scientist; a leading investigator of the chemical nature and relations of minerals. Handwdrterbuch des chemischen Theils der Mineralogie, 1841; Handbuch der Mineralchemie, 1860; Handbuch der krystallographisch-physikalischen Chemie, 1881.

Rammelsbergite. NiAs,. Rare mineral, containing nickel and arsenic, found in Saxony associated with other minerals containing nickel and cobalt.

Rammohun Roy, 1772-1833. Bengalese reformer, founder of the Brahmo Somaj 1828; in England from 1831. He opposed idolatry and suttee, tr. the Vedanta, 1816, and pub. Precepts of Jesus, 1820.

Ramnes. See Rome.

Ramose. Branching plants, especially if the number of branches is large.

Ramotll Gilead. Amorite town, made a city of refuge and held bv Levites; identified with Es-Salt, e. of the Jordan. Pop. ab. 4,000.

Rampant Arch. One whose abutments are not on the

same level.

Ramsay, Allan, 1686-1758. Scottish poet. The Gentle Shepherd, 1725. His Evergreen, 1724, and Tea-Table Miscellany, 4 vols., 1724-40, were collections of old songs and ballads.—His son, ALLAN, 1713-1784, was a portrait painter of repute.

Ramsay, Sir Andrew Crombie, 1814-1891. Prof. Univ. Coll., London, 1848; director of the geological survey of Great Britain 1872; knighted 1881; advocate of the theory that many lake basins have been eroded by glacier ice. Physical Geology, 1803.

Ramsay, David, M.D., 1749-1815. Historian of the American Revolution. 1785-89, of S. C„ 1809, and of the U. S., 1816-17.

Ramsay, Edward Bannerman Burnett, LL.D., 1793-1872. Dean of Edinburgh 1846. He declined three bishoprics, and pub. several books, chief of which is Scottish Life and Character, 1856-61.

Prof. Ab

English maker of telescopes

Ramsay, William Mitchell. D.C.L., b. 1851. «rdeen 1886. St. Paul's Travels. 1895.

Ramsden, Jesse, 1735-1800. and astronomical instruments.

Ramses. See Rameses.

Ramsey, Alexander, b. 1815. Gov. of Minn. 1849-53 and 1860-63; U. S. Senator 1863-75; Sec. of War 1879-81.

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Entrance to Ramsgatc Harbor.

steam packet station, and does considerable trade in coal and fish. It is a fashionable watering place. Its harbor covers 47 acres. Pop., 1*91, 24.700.

Ramus, Petrus (or Ramie, Pierre De La), 1515-1572. French humanist, prof, at Paris 1551. His book attacking scholasticism and the Aristotelian logic, 1543, caused much wrath and the suspension of his lectures for some years. He wrote luminously on mathematics, language, theology, philosophy, and ethics, became a Protestant ab.1562, and was one of the most illustrious victims of the massacre of St. Bartholomew.

Rana. See Oxydactylia and Ranidje.

Rancagua. Town of Chili, 43 m. s. of Santiago. Here Gen. O'Hisgins was besieged bv Spanish troops, and defeated Oct. 1-2, 1814. Pop. ab. 8.000.

Ranee, Armand Jean Le Bouthillier De, 1626-1700. Abbot of La Trappe 1662, author of its severe discipline, of a work thereon, in 4 vols., 1696, of Monastic Life, 1683. and other books. See Trappists.

Rancidity of Fats. This is due to the absorption of oxygen and the decomposition of mucilaginous and albuminous substances, which in decaying react on the fat, setting free fatty acids and decomposing the glycerin. The exciting cause is probably bacteria. It may be removed by melting the fat, washing it with hot water, and then with a weak, cold solution of sodium hydroxide.

Rancor. Fixed hatred which by its inward working has diseased the mind.

Randall. Alexander Williams, 1819-1872. Gov. of Wis. 1&57-60; U. S. Minister to Italy 1861-02; Postmaster-gen. 1*66-69.

Randall, Henry Stephens, 1811-1876. American writer on sheep-keeping. Practical Shepherd, 1864.

Randall, James Ryder, b. 1839. Author of the Confederate song, My Maryland, 1861.

Randall, Robert Richard, ab.1740-1801. Founderof Sailors' Snug Harbor, New York, removed to Staten Is. 1833.

Randall, Samuel Jackson, 1828-1890. M.C. from Pa. from 1863: Speaker 1876-81; prominent chiefly as a Protectionist.

Randolph, Beverley, 1755-1797. Gov. of Va. 1788-92.

Randolph, Edmund Jennings. 1753-1813. Member of Con gress 1779-83, anil of the convention which framed the Constitution: Gov. of Va. 1788: first U. S. Atty.-gen. 1789; Sec. of State 1794-95. Accused by Fauchet. the French Minister, he was sacrificed to public exigencies. His memory has been vindicated by M. D. Conway 1888.

Randolph, Edward, ab. 1620-1694. British agent in America from 1676; noted for his misrepresentations and oppressions. He procured the recall of the charter of Mass. 1684, and was imprisoned with Gov. Andros 1689.

Randolph, John. 1773-1833. M.C. from Va. 1799-1818

and 1815-25; U. S. Senator 1825-27; Minister to Russia 1830-31. His brilliant abilities, fierce sarcasm, and strange peculiarities made him long the most prominent member of the House. He spared Clay's life in a duel 1826.

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Randolph, Peyton, 1721-1775. Va. patriot, uncle of Edmund; Atty.-gen. 1748-66; Pres. of Congress 1774 and 1775.

Randolph, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 1816-1883. Gov. of N. J. 1808-72; U. S. Senator 1875-81.—His father, James Fitz, 1791-1871, was M.C. 1829-33.

Randolph, Thomas, 160.5-1635. English dramatist and lyric poet.

Randolph, Thomas Mann, 1768-1828. M.C. 1803-7; Gov. of Va. 1819-21.—His son, Thomas Jefferson, 1792-1875, was a grandson of the third President, and his biographer 1829.

Random Stone. Large angular stones used in building embankments and breakwaters.

Random Work. Rough masonry not laid in courses. Random coursed work applies to stones brought to horizontal beds, but of unequal height.

Ranelagh. Hall at Chelsea, London, rival of Vauxhall as a place of amusement and resort; built 1742, demolished 1803-4.

Rangahe, Alexander Rhizos, 1810-1892. Modern Greek dramatic poet.

Range. In Gunnery, the horizontal distance from the muzzle to the point where the trajectory pierces the horizontal plane passing through the muzzle of the gun: it varies with the elevation, the initial velocity, resistance of the air, character of the projectile, etc.

Range Finders. Instruments by which the distance of a target from the gun may be readily determined: based on the trigonometric relations of the circular functions of the angles of a triangle to the length of its sides. In those with fixed angles and variable bases, the latter are taken in some simple ratio, such as fo, etc., of the range: thus angles of 88° 34' at the base correspond to bases of the range. With fixed bases and variable angles, the angles must be so carefully read as to require the use of a telescope. Fiske's Range and Position finder employs a galvanometer and Wheatstone's bridge to find the angle at the target for a fixed base.

Range (or Run) of PoilltH. Figure made up of points on a straight line, the base of the range. A range joined by straight lines with auy point without the base forms a pencil. A transversal cutting a flat pencil forms a range.

Rangifer. See Deer and Reindeer.

Rangoon. City of British Burmah, in the Delta of the Irrawaddy. 20 ni. from the sea; held by England since 1852, and

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of commercial importance. It ranks third among the seaports of British India, having two-thirds of the exports and nearlv all the imports. Pop., 1891, 180,324.

Ranidae. Family of anurous Amphibia, i.e. Frogs, including 248 species, the majority of which are East Indian. Of these forms some burrow, others are arboreal, like the Tree Toads (Tree-frogs). One species has expanded webs on hands and feet, which act as parachutes when it takes flying leaps; others have opposable fingers for grasping twigs. The genus Rana is represented by 110 species. R. catesbiana, the Bullfrog, is largest, approaching 8 in. in length. It is noted for its bellowing voice, but as a rule the frogs are not so noisy as are the Hylidce. R. temporaria lives in dry woods, seeking the water only to spawn.

RanJIt Singh, 1780-1839. Sikh chieftain, founder of the Punjab kingdom; owner of the Kohinoor diamond which was presented to Queen Victoria 1850, on the confiscation of the property of the state.

Rank. In Botany, vertical row of leaves.

Rank, Brevet. Rank conferred upon an officer, by a commission giving him a grade in the army additional to and

higher than that which he holds by virtue of his commission in a particular corps of the legally established military organization. He thus becomes eligible for assignment by the President to the rank which it confers: without such assignment it has no effect on the officers status.

Rank, Military. In U. S. army the grades are: 1, majorgen.; 2, brig.-gen.; 3, colonel; 4, lieut.-colonel; 5, major; 6, captain; 7, 1st lieutenant; 8, 2d lieut.; 9, cadet; 10, sergeantmajor (regimental); 11, quartermaster-sergeant (regimental); 12, ordnance, commissary, and post quartermaster-sergeant, hospital steward, first-class sergeant of the signal corps, chief musician, principal musician, chief trumpeter, and saddlersergeant; 13, first sergeant; 14, sergeant and acting hospital steward; 15, corporal. In each grade date of commission, appointment, or warrant, determines the order of precedence.

Ranke, Johannes, b. 1836. Prof. Munich; writer on anthropology.

Ranke, Leopold Von, 1795-1886. Prof. Berlin 1825-72: historiographer of Prussia 1841; ennobled 1865. Popes of Rome, 1834-37, tr. 1840: Germany in the Reformation. 6 vols., 1839-47; House of Brandenburg, 1847-J8; Hist. England,^ vols., 1859-67, tr. 1875. His works to 1868 were collected in 47 vols.; his VVeltgeschichte, 9 vols., 1881-88, occupied his later years.

Rankine, William John Macquorn, 1820-1872. Scientist and civil engineer; prof. Glasgow 1855. Applied Mechanics, 1868; Civil Engineering, 1862-65; Machinery and Mill Work, 1869-83.

Rank of motives. Their relation in the order of their comparative excellence or ethical value.

Ransom. In early English law, pecuniary fine in lieu of bodily punishment; in international law, payment to secure the surrender of military captives or of captured vessels.

Ransom, George Marcellus, U.S.N., b. 1820. Commander 1863, Captain 1870, Commodore 1877; engaged on the Gulf 1862, and on the Atlantic coast 1863-64.

Ransom, Matthew Whttaker, b. 1826. Brig.-gen. C.8. A. 1863; TJ. S. Senator from N. C. 1872-95; Minister to Mexico 1895.

Ransom, Robert. 1829-1892. Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1862: Major-gen. 1863; engineer on U. S. rivers and harbors from 1878.

Ransom, Thomas Edward Greenfield. 1834-1864. Brig.gen. U.S.A. 1862; distinguished in the West, as at Forts Henry and Donelson.—His father. Truman Bishop, 1802-1847, pres. of Norwich Univ., Vt.. was killed at Chapultepec.

Ransom of Prisoners. Soldiers captured during war are now regarded as prisoners of the government of the belligerent that captures them and are exchanged by cartel or agreement determined upon by the belligerents: formerty. in feudal times and among barbarous peoples they were considered the property of the captors and were released upon the payment of ransom.

Ranstcad-Weed. See Butter-and-egos.

Ranters. 1. Anabaptist sect in England ab. 1645; AntinomiaDS in theory and practice; short-lived. 2. Primitive Methodists.

Rantoul, Robert. 1805-1852. U. S. District-attorney for Mass. 1845-49; M. C. 1851; active in the anti-slavery cause and other reforms, as was his father, Robert. 1778-1858.

Ranunculaecre. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermoz and sub-class Dicotyledons,comprising ab. 45 genera and 750 species, widely distributed throughout all parts of the earth; called the Buttercup or Crowfoot fam


Ranvier, Louis, b. 1835. Prof. Coll. de France; writer on histology.

Ranz des Vaehes.

Melodies of the Swiss Alps,
played by herdsmen on the
keep-horn; painfully effec-
tive when heard by natives
in exile.
Rapacia. See Poly-


Rapateaeese. Natural family of flowering Ranunculus aaiaticut, | plants, of the class Angiospermoz and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 6 genera and ab. 20 species, natives of Brazil and Guiana.

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