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Quadratic Expression. Product of two binomial facto rs of the first degree, eacli containing the variable associated with a constant which with changed sign is one of the roots ■ of the equation formed by equating the quadratic expression with zero.

xa—5x + 6 = (x—3) (x—2) If Xs—5x + 6 = 0. x = 3 or 2.

Quadratic Reciprocity. Law established byLegendre and called by Gauss the gem of arithmetic, connecting any two odd primes.

Quadratojugal. Bone in the upper jaw, between the quadrate and jugal, in Vertebrates below Mammals.

Quadrature. Obtaining the measure of any surface in terms of the unit applied to rectilinear plane surfaces.

Quadrature. Position of the moon when 90° from the sun, and therefore in first and last quarter; also of a planet when 90" from the sun.

Quadratus. Christian apologist 125. A fragment is preserved by Eusebius.

Quadribasic Acids. See Acid.

Quadric. Algebraic expression of the second degree between two or more variables, as

ax4 + bxy + y« + c. Quadrifoliolate. Compound leaves with four leaflets.

Quadriga. Greek or Roman chariot drawn by four horses, as a biga by two. The two center ones were only yoked while

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the two outside ones were attached by ropes. It was the common racing chariot of the circus and in processions.

Quadrigarius, 1st cent. B.C. Historian of Rome from the invasion of the Gauls to Sulla. Of his 23 books only fragments remain.

Quadrigemininal Undies. Optic lobes of the midbrain in the higher Vertebrates; on each side divided by a transverse groove into an anterior natis and posterior testis.

Quadrijiigate. Pinnately compound leaves with four pairs of leaflets.

Quadrilatcra. See Crabs.

Quadrilateral. Surface bounded by four lines. A complete quadrilateral is one each of whose sides intersect the other three. By placing conditions upon the relations of the sides, specific forms of the quadrilateral are ob.tained.

Quadrilateral. Four strong fortresses in n. Italy, Verona and Legnago on the Adige, Mantua and Peschiera on the Mincio; surrendered by Austria to the Italians Oct. 16, 1866. The

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autonomy of Bulgaria. Novogeorgievsk, Warsaw. I vangorod and Brest Litovsk constitute another in Russian Poland.

Quadrille. 1. French dance of four or more couples, popular in England since 1808. 2. Card game, resembling l'hombre, which was a three hand game and preceded it; much played ab.1670-1740.

Quadrilocular. Four-celled anthers in the flowers of certain plants. Quadrivium. See Seven Liberal Arts. Quadroon. Person with one-fourth negro blood. Quadrumana. See Simiad.i-:.

Quadrupeds. Broadly, all four-footed vertebrated animals; but usually and popularly, mammals that walk on all four feet.

Quadruple Alliance. Between England, France and the German emperor. July 22, 1718; joined by Holland Feb. 8, 1719. It guaranteed the succession to the reigning houses of England and France.

Quadruples (telegraphy). System of multiple transmission in telegraphy, by which two messages in each direction may be transmitted over the same wire at the same time. Suggestions of the possibility of such a system were made 1855 by Dr. Stark of Vienna, but the first practical instruments were brought out by Edison in New York in 1874.

Quadruplicate Ratio. Ratio of the fourth powers of quantities.

Quaestor. Roman annual magistrate, who assisted the higTier officials. He had the supervision of the treasury, of the streets of the city, and of certain courts. From 421 B.C., military quaestors accompanied the commander to his province and had charge of the finances and commissariat.

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on the wild plains, but is rare near civilized communities. See Zebra.

Quahaug. See Isomya.

Quails. Gallinaceous partridge-like birds, including the Old World genera Coturnix, Turnix, Perdicula, etc., and the New World Colinus (Ortyx), Lophortyx, Oreortyx, etc. C. communis, the European .quail, can cross the Mediterranean In its migrations. C. virginianus, the quail of e. U. S., or Bob White, known as partridge in the South, resembles grouse but is smaller. Length 9 in. Its head is not crested, the plumage is chestnut red, and greatly barred and streaked. They nest in May. L. californicus, of the Pacific coast, has a black crest, blue breast, plumage chestnut, each feather edged with black. 0. pictus, the Mountain quail of the same region, is also crested, ami a large, handsomely marked bird. See Partridges.

Quain, Jones, 1796-1865. Prof, at London Univ. 1833-61. His Anatomy, 1828, was much used.—His brother, Richard, F.R.S., 1800-1887, prominent .as practitioner and writer, was pies. Royal Coll. of Surgeons 1868. Anatomy of Arteries, 1845. —A half-brother, Sir John Richard, 1817-1876. became a jiutee of Queen's Bench 1872.—Their cousin, SIR RICHARD, LL.D., b. 1810, a leading physician and medical writer, was made Baronet 1891.

Quaker Bridge Dam. See Dams.

Quaker Guns. False guns made of logs and placed in embrasures to deceive the enemy.

Quaker Hill. In R. I.; scene of a battle between British anil Americans, Aug. 29, 1778, the latter holding the field.

Quakers. Name given to FRIENDS (q. v.) in derision, and largely though unollicially used.

Quaking Grans. of the genus Briza, mainly natives of the Old World, sparingly introduced as weeds into N. America.

Quality. 1. Property of anything, determining its kind. 2. That characteristic of sound which depends upon the waveform, or of radiation, which depends on the state of polarization.

Quamasli. See CAmass.

Quantlc. General term covering all algebraic functions of two or more variables. The number of variables is indicated by an adjective ending in "ary," binary, ternary, quatenary, "n"-ary, designating quantities having two, three, four, or "u" variables respectively.

Quantin, Albert Marie Jerome, b. 1850. Parisian printer. Oritjines de I'Impriinerie, 1877.

Quantitative Hedonism. That form of judging moral actions by their felicilic character, in which it is recognized that all pleasures and pains have definite degrees of desirability or its opposite, in addition to their pleasurable or painful quality. See Hedonism.

Quantity. In a limited sense, anything capable of measurement, increase, or decrease. In wider mathematical use, anything subject to mathematical processes and investigation.

Quantity. Relative length of a syllable, not to be confounded with its force or accent. It is of grammatical as well as prosodical importance, particularly in Latin.

Quantlvalencc. See Valence.

Quaquaversal. Rocks dipping in all directions from a common point.

Quarantine. Methods involving the isolation of the sick having communicable diseases. The word was applied in the Middle Ages to the 40 days' detention of vessels in the Mediterranean ports when they had sailed from countries infected with plague. Out of this has grown the modern system of maritime quarantine, which includes inspection of incoming vessels, isolation of the sick with certain communicable diseases, more especially cholera and yellow fever, detention and observation of the well of the vessels where cases of communicable diseases are found, or are suspected, and disinfection. The word has been applied to inland quarantine, when non-intercourse with a district where communicable diseases are epidemic is enforced; and to domiciliary quarantine, when the inmates of a house are isolated because of the presence of a communicable disease. Regulations against the plague were tirst established at Venice, then the foremost port on the Mediterranean, ab. 1448. A century earlier the household property of such as had died was destroyed to prevent infection. In the U. S. quarantine laws were passed by the colonies, and afterward by the several States. A national act was passed April 29, 1878. The rules now in force were promulgated April 26,1894.

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Granite Quarries, Monson, Mass.

in ore at the earth's surface; also sometimes underground excavations in non-metalliferous formation, as in gypsum.

Quarry Bed. Stone is said to be laid on its quarry bed when so placed that its strata have the same position as they had in the quarry. This position is conducive to durability.

Quarrying. Stone is quarried by hand tools, by explosives, and by Channeling Machines (q.v.). the last being extensively used since 1880. By the use of explosives large blocks are detached which are afterward split by hand, but by channeling machines blocks can be cut to dimension size on five of the six sides.

Quart. Fourth part of a gallon, capacity of U. S. 57.75 cu. in., English quart 69.318 cu. in. The ordinary "quart bottle" contains ab. the sixth part of a gallon in U. S.

Quartan Fever. Intermittent Fever (q.v.), the paroxysms of which occur every fourth day.

Quarter Crack. Separation of the horn fibers in a horse's hoof, caused by bad shoes and bad shoeing. Weakness of the fiber is generally found in hoofs subject to inflammation.

Quarter Days. Four days in the year upon which, by law or custom, moneys payable in quarter-yearly installments are collectable. They differ in different jurisdictions. In N. Y. City, as between landlord and tenant, they are the first days of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.

Quarter Deck. Uppermost deck of a ship between the main and mizzen masts, when there is a poop; otherwise from the mainmast to the stern. It is the place of honor, and on ships of war this forms the parade.

Quarter Evil. Form of malignant vesicle frequently fatal to the lower order of animals.

Quarterly Review. Founded in London by John Murray 1809: edited by W. GifTord till 1824, and by J. G. Lockhart 1826-53. Scott, Southey, and Croker were among the chief contributors.

Quartermaster. Officer having charge of supplies and transportation in a regiment. For the whole army these are controlled by a quartermaster-general.

Quartermaster's Department, U.S.A. This is under the Quartermaster-general (Brigadier-general), and is charged with the duty of providing means of transportation of every character, either under contract or in kind, which may be needed in the movement of troops and material of war. It furnishes all public animals employed in the service of the army, the forage consumed by them, wagons and all articles necessary for their use, except the equipment of cavalry and artillery. It furnishes clothing, camp and garrison equipage, barracks, store-houses, and other buildings; constructs and repairs roads, railways, bridges; builds and charters ships, boats, docks, and wharfs needed for military purposes, and attends to all matters connected with military operations which are not expressly assigned to some other bureau of the War Department.

Quarter Sessions. Courts of general sessions of the

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peace, which are held quarterly. They are mostly for the trial of criminals.

Quarter Stuff. Defensive weapon formerly used in England, consisting of a pole ab. 6i ft. long, which was grasped with both hands, one near the middle and the other between the middle and the end. Dr. Johnson explains its name by this manner of holding. Combats with quarter staves were a common rustic amusement.

Quartet. Composition for four instruments or voices. Quartets for stringed instruments originated with Haydn, and were developed by Mozart and Beethoven. Vocal quartets, up to the time of Wagner, were frequent features in operas.

Quarter-twist Belt. Arrangements of a flat endless belt which transmits power from a pulley on one shaft to another on a shaft at right angles to it and not in the same plane as the first. In the simplest case, with no guide pulleys, the driving pulley must be placed so that the plane through the center of the face passes tangent to the driven pulley at the point where the belt leaves it. The belt in this case drives by an ed^e only; a wider belt is necessary than for parallel shafts, and the shafts should not be too near, nor should there be too great difference in the diameters of the pulleys. If a guide pulley is introduced, or two, so that the lateral stiffness of the belt is not called upon to help keep the belt in place, more friction is introduced, but the full driving power of the belt can be used. For round or triangular belts with grooved pulleys, no appreciable loss occurs.

Quarter Undulation Plate. Plate of some doubly refracting substance, of such a thickness that, when interposed in the path of a beam of plane polarized light of a particular color, and with its principal section making an angle J-45° with the plane of polarization, it converts that beam into circularly polarized light. This result may be brought about in two ways; either a small plate may be of just the right thickness to cause a relative retardation of a quarter wave length in the two rays produced by double refraction, or two thicker plates may be used, so placed that their differential action produces the same retardation.

Quartic. Quantic of the fourth degree; as, x4-|-y4-(-4x,y+6x"y»+4x»y+C.

Quartine. In Botany, fourth coat in the wall of certain ovules.

Quartlcy, Arthur, 1839-1886. American painter of marine subjects.

Quartz. SiO,. One of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust; silica, containing 46} per cent of silicon and 53} per cent of oxygen. It occurs in many forms, colors, and conditions, but is usually recognized with ease by its hardness and its power of resisting the ordinary chemical reagents. When occurring by itself in crystalline masses of great extent, it forms the rock known as quartzite; in rounded grains cemented together, it constitutes sandstone. Associated with other minerals, as feldspar, mica, or amphibole, it is an im

Sortant constituent of many of the common crystalline rocks, ee AMETHY8T, CHALCEDONY, Carnelian, AOATE, ONYX, FLINT

and Jasper.

Quartz Mining. Mining for gold on veins of auriferous quartz, in distinction from the methods employed in the hydraulic process or in working placer deposits.

Quartz Porphyry. Porphyry consisting of feldspar and quartz with large grains of the latter.

Quartz Rock, or Quartzite. See Quartz.

Quasi Contract. Obligation created by law and not by

a true contract. It may be redressed in a contract action.

Quasimodo Sunday. In France and Germany name given to Low Sunday (q.v.).

Quasi-moral Sentiments. Sentiments of repugnance at the performance of actions which we believe to be right and vet have been in the habit of considering as dubious or which would in other circumstances be wrong.

Quasi Rent. Payment received by those who at any time have special advantages or facilities for production, not accessible to all; differing from Rent as usually understood, principally in its more temporary character.

Quasi Taxes. Sources of revenue to the State which are in their nature not exactly the exploitation of public property, nor ordinary taxes collected from individuals, but something between the two, such as the granting of monopolies and lotteries, and fees for public services.


Quassia (Quaaria amara).

Quassia. Quassia amara. Small tree of the natural

family Simarubacece, native of n. S. America; the whole plant is intensely bitter, as are others of the same family. The name Quassia is now transferred to the bitterwood of W.Indies; the Quassia excelsa, which contains quassiin, Ciohijoj, a bitter principle. The chips have been used in making beer and the decoction of it in medicine and in killing flies.

Q u a t ernary. Division of the Caenozoic age, often called the era of Man, including the Glacial period and all subsequent time. See Column.

Qu atcrnion.

In the Roman army, guard of four soldiers, "corporal's guard"; mentioned in Acts xii. 4, in the narrative of St. Peter's imprisonment and deliverance.

Quaternions. System of analysis devised by Sir W. R. Hamilton ab. 1843. It grew out of efforts to interpret the imaginaries of algebra. The elements are: Vectors = V, tensors T, versors U, scalars S, and quaternions. A vector is a symbol of transference in direction or a directed line. The unit vector is the same for all lines having the same direction. That which repeats the unit vector to produce any line is called the tensor, and is a coefficient of the unit vector. A vector operating to turn another at right angles to itself is a versor. A unit vector as an operator turns a perpendicular vector through a quadrant at each operation, and is a quad

rantal versor. The —1 is an indeterminate unit vector.

Tensor and versor are operators. A quaternion is the quotient of two vectors: it is shown to be the product of a tensor and a versor, and also the sum of two parts, one a scalar and the other a vector at right angles to the plane of the two vectors involved.

Quatre-Bras. Hamlet of Belgium; scene of conflict June 16, 1815, two days before Waterloo, between the French under Ney and the Allies. The Duke of Brunswick was slain: Ney withdrew, having lost over 4,000 men.

Quatrefnges, Jean Louis Armand De, 1810-1892. Prof. Paris 1850; naturalist and anthropologist. Souvenirs, 1854, tr. 1857; History of Man, 1869, tr. 1875; Les Pygmies, 1887.

Quatrcfoil. In Gothic Architecture, a four-leaved perforation.

Quatremere, Etienne Marc, 1783-1857. Prof. Rouen 1809, Paris 1819. Language and Literature of Egypt. 1808; The Nabatheans, 1835. He tr. histories of the Mongols of Persia, 1836, and the Mameluke Sultans, 1837-40.

Quatremere de Qulncy, Antodje Chrysostome, 17551849. Prof. Paris 1818. Jupiter, 1814; Fine Arts, 1823; Raphael, 1824; Historic Diet, of Architecture, 2 vols., 1838; Canova, 1834; Michelangelo, 1835.

Quay, Matthew Stanley, b. 1833. U. S. Senator from Pa. since 1887; chairman Republican National Committee 1888-91; manager of the State machine.

Quebec. Province of Canada. Its area is 228.960 sq. m. The surface is undulating and hilly, consisting of a gentle southward slope from the summit, which divides the waters of the St. Lawrence, the chief river, from those flowing into Hudson's Bay. It has an extensive commerce, fisheries, a large lumber business, furnished by the forests which cover it, and some agriculture. The capital is Q. The province was formerly Lower Canada. It was entered 1534 by Cartier. who took possession for France. The first permanent settlement was at Q. 1608: in 1759 the city was taken by Gen. Wolfe. The entile French possessions were surrendered to England 1760. The provinces of Upper and Lower Canada were formed 1791,

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Montcalm 1759, which marked the end of the French rule in N. America. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the Americans under Montgomery 1775. and suffered greatlv bv fires 1815, 1845 twice, 1866, 1870, 1876, 1881. Pop.. 1891, 63,090.

Quebracho. Aspidosjierma quebracho. Tree of the natural family Apocynacece, native of S. America, where its bark is used as a febrifuge. It contains the alkaloid Aspidosperniine.

Queen Anne's Farthings. Farthings struck for the improvement of the coinage in 1713-14.

Queen Anne Style. See Renaissance.

Queen Anne's War. War of the Spanish Succession, 1702-14, so far as it concerned the American colonies. It included the massacre at Deerfield. Mass., 1704. the destruction of several Spanish settlements in Fla. 1704-5, an attack of the French on Charleston 1706, and three attempts by New England troops to capture Acadia, of which the last, 1710, was successful.

Queen Charlotte Islands. In the Pacific, off British Columbia; area ab. 5.000 sq. m. They have some mineral resources, and a small Indian population.

Queen of Heaven. Oriental goddess Astarte, the Moon; sometimes the planet Venus. Her worship was exceedingly licentious.

Qucenpost. One of two principals of a trussed roof. Queen Post Truss. Bridge truss having only two vertical members, the top of each being connected to the abutment


Queen Post Truss.

bv an inclined strut; used only for highway bridges of less span than 50 feet.

Queensberry, John Sholto Douglas, Marquis Of, b. 1844, Marques3 1858. He drew up rules for glove fights which fixed the time of rounds to three minutes, the time between rounds to one minute, and the time allowance for a fallen man to rise to ten seconds. Wrestling and hugging were forbidden.

Queen's College and University. At Kingston, Canada: incorporated 1841. It has 64 instructors, organized in five faculties: Arts, Theology, Medicine. Law, and Practical Science. The last includes the various branches of engineering, with chemistry, biology, architecture and navigation.

Queen's (or Kino's) Counsel. Barristers and sergeants appointed by letters patent, and who may not. except by license from the crown, take a brief against the crown; they also renounce written pleadings.

Queen's (or Kino's) Evidence. When an accused person turns queen's evidence, he confesses his guilt and offers himself as a witness against his accomplices. Unless his testimony- is corroborated, the prisoners are acquitted notwithstanding. See State's Evidence.

Queensland. British colony in n.e. Australia. The sur

face is mainly made up of semi-arid plains. Nearly parallel to the e. coast is a range of low mountains. Area, 668,224 sq. m.; capital. Brisbane; pop., 1891, 422.776.

Queen's Metal. Alloy, consisting of 75 per cent tin, 8.5 antimony, 8 bismuth, and 8.5 lead, used for table ware.

Quecnstown. Irish seaport, in Cork harbor; stoppingplace of transatlantic steamers, to land and take on mails. Pop., 1891, 9,123.

Quecnstown Heights. In Ontario. Canada. Here nb. 1,000 Americans attacked Oct. 13, 1812. but had to surrender to the British, most of their forces refusing to cross the river.

Queiros, Pedro Fernandes De, 1560-1614. Portuguese seaman in Spanish service; explorer of the Pacific 1605-6; discoverer of the Hebrides and other islands.

Quenstedt, Friedrich August, 1809-1889. German paleontologist and mineralogist. Oruudriss der bestimmenden Kn/slallographie, 1873; Handbuch der Mineralogie, 1853 to 1877.

Qucrard, Louis Francois, 1706-1749. San Domingan poet.

Querela, Jacopo Della, 15th cent. Italian sculptor.

Querclte. C0H,(OH)S. Mpt. 235° C. Hard prisms of sweet taste, soluble in eight parts water; found in acorns. It does not produce alcohol by fermentation.

Quercitin. C^H^O,,-)-3H,0. Lemon-yellow crystals, produced by the decomposition of quercitrin by sulphuric acid; yellow dye-stuff and a constituent of commercial flavine prepared from oak bark.

Quercitrin. C,0H3eGn>. Substance crystallizing in yellow needles, present in the quercitron oak bark and probably in bark liquor. Dilute acids charge it to quercitin.

Quercitron. Quercus tinctoria. Black Oak of e. N. America.

Qucrctaro. Capital of the State of Q., Mexico, 153 m. n.w. of the city of Mexico. It has large manufactures of cigars. Pop. ab. 36.000.

uern. Rude mill for grinding corn by hand, still used in s of Ireland and elsewhere. The most usual form consists

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of two flat circular stones. The grain is dropped in the central opening, while the upper stone is revolved by a handle inserted near the outer edge.

Qnerouaille, Louise De. See Portsmouth, Duchess Of.

Quesada, Gonzalo Ximenez De, 1498-ab.l596. Explorer of Colombia 1536; conqueror of Bogota, and founder of the Spanish city 1537-38. His claims to be governor were disowned by Charles V.

Quesada, Manuel De, ab.1830-1886. Leader of the Cuban insurrection 1868-70.

Quesada, Vicente Gaspar, b. 1820. Argentine author and journalist.

Qucsnay, Francois. 1694-1774. French economist, founder I of the school of the Physiocrates; physician and adviser of I Louis XV.: encyclopedist. Tableau Economique, 1758; PhysioI cratic, 1768.

Quesnel, Pasquier, 1634-1719. French Oratorian and 1 Jansenist, in exile from 1685. He edited the works of Leo I., 1675. His Moral Reflections on N.T., 8 vols., 1663-99, tr. 171925 and 1790, were condemned by the papal bull Unigenitus, 1713.

Quetclct, Lambert Adolphe Jacques. 1796-1874. Director Brussel's Observatory from 1828; writer on meteorology, physics, and statistics. Sur VHomme, 1835; Dii Systime Social, 1848.

QllCtelet's Law. Law connecting the phenomena of pluenology and of the weather, or general principle that a given stage of growth requires given definite preceding climatic conditions.


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Quetzaltenango. Second city of Guatemala, 95 m. n.w. of Guatemala City. It is the center of the trade in native cloth. Its port is Champerico on the Pacific. Pop. ab.20,000, mostly Indians.

Quevedo, Jose Heriberto Garcia De, 1819-1871. Spanish poet, b. in Venezuela.

Quevedo Villegas, Francisco Gomez De, 1580-1645. Spanish poet and prose satirist; Sicilian Finance Minister 1611-19;imprisoned 1639-43. Gran Tocaiio,W26; Politico deDios, 1626; Visions, 1627; Hell Reformed, 1628. He wrote also many serious works, much fugitive verse, and some dramatic pieces.

Quezalcoatl. "Feathered Serpent," god of the wind; a Toltec divinity, averse to human sacrifices, whom the Aztecs worshiped but dreaded, and for whose return as their deliverer the Toltecs longed. The identification of Cortez with Q. paralyzed the resistance of Montezuma until too late.

Quiberon Bay. In w. France; scene of engagements between French and English, Nov. 20, 1759, and June, 1795. In the last Hoche defeated 4,000 Chouans and other royalists, supported by a British fleet.

Qulchua. Chief Indian tribe of Peru, and modern representatives of the Incas; now reduced from 30,000,000 to 2,000.000. They are of an olive complexion, beardless, with well-developed bodies, large chests, and short legs. A special "Wormian" bone known as the Inca bone is present in the skull. They are distrustful of the whites, obstinate, and lazy, but kind to their families and domestic animals. The latter


Quichua Indians.

are rarely killed, even for food, and kept in the house, which is a circular hut of unhewn stone. They live principally on corn, potatoes, and barley, chew coco, and drink chicka liquor to excess. Many are peons. Little or no clothing is worn, even in cold weather. The language is guttural, but rich in words of sentiment and poetr\\ Erotic songs, some of which date from the time of the ancient Incas, are sung. The people are pious, nominally Catholic, but very superstitious.

Quick, Robert Hebert. 1832-1891. Anglican divine and teacher. Educational Reformers, 1868.

Quick Elme. Produced by burning limestone. It slakes when water is applied to it. See Mortar.

Quick-return Motions. Mechanical movements in a machine tool operating by reciprocation, by which the return traverse is made more rapidly when the tool is not cutting than the acting traverse when the tool is at work. The driving work is equalized also, as the slow stroke gives greater power to oppose the greater resistance. When the motion conies from a crank-pin, as in shapers and slotters, the Wnitworth quick-return is the most usual. The driving disk revolves uniformly upon an axis of large diameter, and carries a crank-pin. This fits a slot in the crank-arm which drives the tool, the center of this last arm not coinciding with the axis of the first shaft, but eccentric to it. While the lever-arm R of the power is constant, the lever-arm of the tool-crank varies between (R-|-e) and (R—e). e being the eccentricity or distance between centers of the two cranks. The tool moves quickest when R is driving (R—e). For tools driven by rack and pinion movements, the quick return may be effected by one belt in connection with two trains of gear, or by two belts and one train of gear. The latter simpler plan has open and crossed belts, which are shifted by the adjustable dogs, the driving pulleys being of different diameters for the forward and the back strokes and the followers of the same diameter, or else the difference is made on both shafts. The fast pulleys on the tool are on the same shafts, and the same reducing train is driven slowly forward and fast back. With one belt and two different trains of gear, the forward motion from one belt pulley has an odd number of wheels in it with greater reduction of velocity, and the return belt pulley drives a train of

gears with an even number of wheels and less reduction of speed, both trains connecting at the driving arbor of the tool. This same method has been applied, using an outside gear of small diameter and an inside gear of large size on the same shaft, so that one pulley drove the large gear forward and the other drove the smaller gear for the return. Or, again, two concentric bevel wheels were driven by wheels on opposite sides of their common center. The driving wheels of the same or different sizes drove the concentric wheels opposite ways and at different speeds. The quick-return is usually 2 to 1 or 3 to 2. See Planer, Shaper, and Slotter.

Quicksand. Bed of sand in its place in the earth, in which the cohesion of the grains is so much reduced by the pressure of water that the whole mass has a tendency to move like a liquid, when opposing resistances are removed.

Quicksilver. See Mercury.

Quietism. Mystical movement started ab.1675 by MOLINOS (q.v.). Its congeners were Jansenism and Pietism: its chief exponent was Mme. Guyon.

Qulller-Couch, Arthur T. ("Q."), b. 1863. English novelist and essavist. Dead Man's Rock, 1887; Splendid Spur, 1889; Adventures in Criticism, 1896; Wandering Heath, 1896.

Quin, James, 1693-1766. English comedian; prominent

1716-51, and considered the chief immediate predecessor of

Garrick, who appeared 1741. His best parts were Falstaff and Captain Macheath.

Qulnaldlne. C,„H,N. Methylquinoline. Liquid, bpt. 138° C, of peculiar odor, present in coal tar; isomer of lepidine.

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Low tree of the Apple family,

Quince. Cydonia vulgaris native of temperate Europe and Asia, widely cultivated for its edible fruit. The Japan Quince, Cydo7iia japonica, is a well-known red-flowered shrub, much planted for ornament.

Quincuncial. In Botany, imbricated aestivation of certain five-parted flowers.

Quincy. Capital of Adams co., 111., on the Mississippi, 160 m. n.w. of St. Louis; founded 1822, chartered 1839. It is entered by 5 railroads, and has a good trade and extensive manufactures. It is supplied with water by pumping. Pop., 1890, 31,494.

Quincy. City of Norfolk co., Mass.. 8 m. s. of Boston; founded 1625; part of Braintree till 1792: chartered 1888; noted as the birthplace of John Hancock. John and J. Q. Adams, for its granite, and for its public schools. Pop., 1890, 16,723.

Quincy, Josiah. 1744-1775. Boston patriot and orator of high degren. in England 1774. His character resembled that of Joseph Warren; his early death was a public loss.—His son, Josiah, LL.D., 1772-1864. was M.C. 1805-13, and in 1811 advocated disunion in a famous speech denouncing the Southwest. He is memorable as Mayor of Boston 1823-28, and Pres. of Harvard 1820-45. Hist. Harvard Univ., 1840: Speeches, 1>-74. His Life, 1867, was written by his son, Edmund, 1808-1877. Wensley, 1854.

Quincy, Quatremere De. See Quatremere De Quincy.

QuindccHKOli. Polygon of fifteen sides.

Quinet, Edgar. 1803-1875. Prof. Lyons 1839. Paris 184246; in exile 1852-70; author of three epics, Ahasuerus, 1833; Napoleon, 1836; Prometheus, 1838; and of many prose works, especially Genius of Religions, 1842; Merlin, "i860; and Tlie Revolution, 1865.

Quincttc dc Roclicmont, Emile Theodore, b. 1848. French civil engineer and professional writer.


Japan Quince, a, ripe fruit; b, section of same.

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