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limestone and granite. Its cost is variously est imated at from 150 to 600 million dollars. It has passages and interior chambers, the chief of which are called the King's Chamber and the Queen's Chamber; the masonry work of these is of the most perfect kind.

Pyramid Lake. In Nevada; drained by Truckee River. Area 203 sq. m.

Pyramid§, Battles Of. In these Bonaparte defeated the Mamelukes and made himself master of Lower Esypt, July 13 and 21, 1798.

Pyramus and Thisfoe. Hero and heroine of a story told in Ovid's Metamorphoses, and parodied in Midsummer Night's Dream.

Pyrargyrile. 3Ag,S4-Sl)jS3. Silver ore dark red in color and very brittle, found in Mexico, Nevada, and Idaho.

Pyrena. In Botany, seed-like endocarps of certain small drupes of several cells which ripen into a berry-like fruit, as in the Huckleberries.

Pyrene. C,«Hn>. Hydrocarbon contained in coal tar and obtained from the portion boiling above 360° C; solid, crystallizing in white plates.

Pyrenees. Range of high mountains traversing from e. to w. the isthmus connecting the Iberian peninsula with the mainland of Europe, and serving as a boundary between France and Spain. It is a comparatively narrow continuous range, having but two passes available for carriage roads. The core

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Pyrenocarps, or Perithecia. Sporocarps of the Pyreno

mycetes.

Pyrenolds. Minute, rounded bodies found in the chromatophores of certain Alga".

Pyrenomycetes. Order of Fungi belonging to the subclass Ascomycetes. having flask-shaped sporocarps open only at the neck. Most of the numerous species are parasites.

Pyrlicliometer. Instrument devised 1876 by Pouillet for measuring the intensity of the sun's radiation. It consists of a shallow circular box of thin copper or silver, blackened and filled with water, in which is immersed the bulb of a thermometer, the stem being partially inclosed in the tube which supports the box. At the lower end of this tube is a disk, equal

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Ericsson's Pyrheliometer.

and parallel to the bottom of the cylindrical box. This is for receiving the shadow of the box, and enables the face of the latter to be directed accurately toward the sun. By noting the effect of the sun's rays on the temperature of the water during a given time, a measure of the power of the sun's heat is obtained. Herschel's actinometer was designed for the same purpose and is similar in construction.

Pyridine. C.HSN. Bpt. 117° C. Liquid, with a very disagreeable odor, present in bone-oil and obtained from it. It is a strong base. Hydrogen changes it to piperidine. Its constitution is

CH

"I >

HVH

and from it numerous derivatives are formed by replacing the hydrogen atoms by groups. It is made by treating nicotinic acid with lime.

Pyriform. In Botany and Zoology, pear-shaped organs or organisms.

Pyriphlegothon. River of the lower world.

Pyrite. FeS,. Iron pyrites; a very common mineral, containing sulphur and iron, 53.4 per cent of sulphur, and 46.6 per cent of iron. It occurs in many different forms and diverse conditions. When crystallized the form is usually a cube or a pentagonal dodecahedron. It is a common accessory and harmful ingredient in mineral coal, in slate, and in sandstone. In mineral veins it is abundant as a gangue. and is frequently sufficiently auriferous to be treated as a gold ore. It has no value for the iron it contains, but is largely and increasingly utilized in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. The larjrest commercial producers of pyrite are Spain. Germany, and Mass. and Va., where it occurs in mass deposits of great extent and often carries enough copper to be of value as a source of that metal: 210,000 tons were imported into U. S 1892.

Pyrites. In the plural, a considerable number of metallic sulphides, allied in some of their properties to pyrite (iron pyrites), though differing widely in others. The most of these sulphides have value for the metal they contain, as copper, nickel, and cobalt.

Pyro Void*. If from two molecules of the ortho acid one molecule of water be abstracted, a pvro acid is formed; e.g., 2H,P04—H,,0=H,P,0,> pyrophosphor'ic acid.

Pyrocatechin. C,H,(OH),. Mpt. 104° C, bpt. 245° C. 1247 1249

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Orthodihydroxybenzene. White crystals with a plienol odor, present in raw beet sugar, and prepared by the fusion of many resins with potash; commonly made by the decomposition of its methyl ether, GUAIACOL (q.v.).

Pyro-Electriclty. Electrification produced by heat. Certain minerals, when heated or cooled, become electrically polarized, or exhibit opposite electric properties in different parts. Tourmaline is a substance of this kind.

Pyrogallol, or Pyrogallic Acid. C„H3(OH):. White plates, melting; at 115° C; prepared by heating gallic acid and splitting out carbonic acid from it. It has a powerful affinity for oxygen, and is hence used as a reducing agent. It takes oxygen from silver salts, depositing the metal. It is used in photography.

Pyrolitriicous Acid. Impure Acetic Acid (q.v.), formed by the destructive distillation of wood.

Pyrolusite. MnO,. Manganese dioxide; one of the most important ores of manganese; worked extensively in manyparts of Europe and of the U. S.

Pyromagnctic Generator. Apparatus devised by Edison for utilizing the change of magnetism in a magnetic metal by heat for the purpose of generating an electric current. The metal to be heated is in the form of a thin sheet rolled up and surrounded by a coil of wire. The thin sheet he called an interstitial armature, since it connects the poles of a powerful electromagnet. When this armature is heated by the passage through it of a current of hot air it loses its magnetism, and when a current of cold air is sent through it, it gains it, this magnetization and demagnetization being used to generate a current in the coil.

Pyromancy. Divination (q.v.) by Are or the forms appearing in fire.

Pyrometer. Apparatus for measuring high temperatures above the limits of ordinary thermometers; used for furnaces, flues, chimneys, and hot blast ducts. There are three types. The first uses two bars of metals which expand unequally by heat, fastened together, and their free end so connected to a needle that the amount of curve given to the compound strip by a given heat shall move the needle through so many graduations. Objection to this type is that prolonged action of heat gives the bars a permanent change in length, which vitiates the readings. The second type depends on the different electrical conductivity of platinum wire at different temperatures. A battery cell and a galvanometer are required, and the cell which produces a given deflection of the needle when the conducting wire is cold deflects the needle a less amount when the wire is heated in the gas or flame to be measured. Heats are determined by fusion of metals or alloys of known character, or by

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other methods, and a table of deflections worked out for the particular instrument in question. The third type uses a ball or lump of some material of known weight and specific heat, which is placed in the material whose temperature is sought, and kept there till it reaches the same heat. It is quickly removed and dropped into a known weight of water, and it is observed by how many degrees the water is warmed. Then, if W = weight of water, w = weight of ball, T = original temperature of water, t = final temperature of water and ball. x = unknown temperature of heated ball, and c its specific heat, and radiation and evaporation be prevented, we have W X 1 X t — T = w X c X (x — t). in which x is the only unknown quantity. This is an exact method if a material is used whose specific heat has been determined exactly for the range of temperatures in question. For temperatures within the

yielding point of glass, the Air THERMOMETER (q.v.) can be

successfully used as a pyrometer.

Pyrope. Bright red garnet, much used in cheap jewelry; Bohemian garnet.

Pyroplione. Instrument devised by arranging a set of tubes of different lengths, which are made to sound by SinoIno Flames (q.v.).

Pyrophorous. Said of any substances which take fire from the rapidity with which they oxidize. If tartrate of lead is heated in a tube until the organic matter is charred and then poured into the air, it will take fire.

Pyrophosphate*. Derivatives of pyrophosphoric acid.

PyrophONphoric Acid. H,PaO,. Made by heating phosphoric acid to 200°-300° C. The pyrophosphates are formed by heating secondary phosphates.

Pyrosis. Abnormal condition of the stomach where there is a burning sensation accompanied by belchings of an acid or bitter fluid. It is a form of dyspepsia and may be relieved by moderate doses of some alkaline substance (baking soda, magnesia), but the cure depends upon removing the causes leading to the condition. See Heartburn.

Pyrosoma. See Ascidians.

PyroNulphurlc Acid. See Disulphuric Acid.

Pyrotechny. Art of preparing combustible compositions which give a pleasing effect when set on fire; of unknown antiquity, practiced by the Chinese from early times. These compositions are solid mixtures of combustible and oxidizing agents, to which some substances to modify the rate of burning and some to give color effects are added. The principal ingredient of pyrotechnic composition is mealed gunpowder, which burns slowly when well tamped, and evolves large volumes of gas. The decorations placed in paper shells, Roman candles and rockets are principally stars, serpents, niarrons. gold rain, and rain of fire; these are formed from niter, sulphur, mealed powder, charcoal, metallic filings and the salts of various metals for color effects, such as sodium for yellow, calcium for red, strontium for crimson, barium for green, and copper for green or blue: iron and steel filings give sparks. Formerly the construction of fire-balls, carcasses, rockets, port-fires, slow and quick match, and other military pyrotechnics was a branch of military instruction, but having recently lost much of their importance, due to the introduction of electricity, they are now for the greater part practically obsolete.

Pyroxene. Mineral closely allied to amphibole in almost all respects. The name includes several varieties of aluminous and nou-aluminous anhydrous silicates of calcium, magnesium, and iron. Among these varieties the most important are diallage and augite. which are common ingredients in crystalline rocks.

Pyroxylin. Usually, the explosive hexa-nitrate. See Nitrocellulose and Gun Cotton. Pyrrha. Wife of Deucalion, the Noah of Greek legend. Pyrrhic Dance. Native in Crete; performed by Spartans

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PYRK1IO-QUADRATIC EQUATION

drown the cries of the infant Zeus. It was a mimic fight, intended to show the art of attack and defense.

Pyrrho, Of Elis, ab.360-ab.270 B.C. Greek philosopher of the Skeptical school, who denied all knowledge of the nature of things.

Pyrrhonism. Absolute skepticism, named from Pyrrho, who maintained that we cannot know that we know anything; uncertainty attaches to every proposition the human mind can frame.

Pyrrhotite. FenSn+,. Magnetic pyrites; compound of iron and sulphur, in which the value of n ranges from 5 to 16. It often contains enough nickel to be of value as a nickel-ore.

Pyrrhus, 318-272 B.C. King of Epirus 307, expelled 302, restored 295; in Italv, as ally of Tarentum, warring with Rome 280-278, and in Sicily, with Carthage, 278-276; defeated by Dentatus near Beneventura 275; conqueror of most of Macedonia 274; at war with Sparta 272; killed at Argos by a tile thrown by a woman.

Pyrrol. C4H4NH. Basic liquid, bpt. 126° C; present in coal tar, but usually prepared from bone-oil. It has an odor like that of chloroform. It is thus constituted,

«V

and the ring C,N is called the pyrrol ting.

Pyruvic Acid. CH,.CO.COOH. Bpt. 165° C. Ketone and acid; liquid, strong acid, produced by heating tartaric and similar organic acids.

Pythagoras, 582-504 B.C. Greek philosopher, founder of the Pythagorean school and of a republic at Crotona, Italy, which treated its citizens as brothers and equals. He applied mathematical conceptions of numbers to metaphysics, was one of the (irst to maintain the immortality of the soul in the form of metempsychosis, and was ascetic in the theory and practice of morals. He is supposed to have discovered the

famous proposition that "the square on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equivalent to the sum of the squares on the other two sides."

Pythia. See Pythoness.

Pythian Games. Festival in honor of Apollo and Artemis, celebrated originally at Delphi once in 8 years, later in a plain near by every 4 years, alternating with the festiv;#l at Olympia; so "called" from 581 B.C., when gymnastic contests were added to the musical; managed by the Amphictyons after 346 B.C. Musical anil artistic contests were always the most prominent feature; the prizes were a chaplet of laurel, a symbolic palm-branch, and a statue in the plain where the contests were held. They lasted till 400.

Pythias. See Damon.

Python. Serpent which sprang from the mud left by the deluge of Deucalion, lived in the caves of Mt. Parnassus, and was slain by Apollo, who founded the Pythian games to commemorate his victory.

Python. See Peropoda and Aqlyphodonta. Pythoness. Priestess of Apollo at Delphi, through whom the oracle gave responses.

Pythonomorpha (sea Serpents). Group of Saurians of the Cretaceous period, represented by fossils from N. J., Aln., Kansas, etc. The body was serpentine in shape, the limbs small, the teeth and jaws adapted for swallowing large prey whole. They lived in the warm seas that covered the e. plains of the Appalachian and Rocky Mt. systems. Members of the genus ClidaxteH ranged from 12 to 40 ft. in length, those of Mosasaurus reached a length of 80 ft., and of Liodon even more, perhaps 100 ft.

Pyx. 1. In the R.C. Church, name given to the box in which the host is kept. 2. Box in which coins are kept of each successive coinage, these coins to be examined by experts as to their accuracy in weight and Oneness. The examination thereof is called the trial of the pyx, and takes place at the Philadelphia mint the second Wednesday of February, annually.

Pyxis (pyxidium). Capsular dry fruit which opens by the top falling away as a lid, the dehiscence being circumscissile, as in the Henbane and Plantain.

Q. S. Abbreviation for quantum suflftcit (as much as needed), used in writing medical prescriptions.

Quaekenbos, George Payn, LL.D., 1826-1881. American author of text-books, as is his sou, John Duncan, b. 1848, prof. Columbia 1884.

Quaekenbush, Stephen Platt, U.S.N., 1823-1890. Lieut. 1855, Lieut.-commander 1862; distinguished on the Atlantic coast in the war; Commodore 1880, Rear-admiral 1885.

Quack Grass. Agropyron repens. One of the worst weeds of cultivated grounds. It spreads by seed, but more rapidly by its vigorous underground stems, and is eradicated only by the most vigorous and thorough culture. In grass fields it is not so troublesome, as it is nutritious and cattle are fond of it. It is also known as couch, switch, and quitch grass.

Quadragesima. First Sunday in Lent; name now little used.

Having four angles. A complete quad

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Quadrangle of Arundel Castle, England.

rangle is one each of whose sides intersects the other three.— an open space or courtyard having four sides and quite

Public buildings, such 3 usually planned in this

or nearly surrounded by buildings.

as castles, colleges, city nails, etc., ai way.

Quadrant. Arc of 90°; one-fourth of a circle. In trigonometry the circle of reference is divided by horizontal and vertical diameters into four quadrants: the first is that above the horizontal and to the right of the vertical diameter; the others are numbered to the left, second, third, fourth.

Quadrant. The dimensions of inductance being simply a length, the unit in the C.G.S. system is a centimeter. In practice a unit 1,000,000,000 times as large is chosen and called a quadrant, this being the number of centimeters in a quadrant of the earth.

Quadrant. See Octant.

Quadrantal Deviation. Deviation from its normal

position produced upon a magnetic needle by horizontal masses of iron or steel magnetized inductively by the earth. The phenomenon occurs on shipboard in the case of the compass needle. In swinging the ship round there are four positions in which the influence would be a maximum, and four in which it would be a minimum: hence the name.

Quadrantal Pendulum. Body moving about an axis according to the same law with reference to a quadrant on each side of its position of equilibrium, as a common pendulum with reference to a half circle on each side.

Quadrantal Triangle. In Spherical Trigonometry, triangle having one side a quadrant. Such triangles are solved by their polar right triangles. If each side be a quadrant, the triangle is called triquadrantal.

Quadrate. Bone to which the lower jaw is articulated in vertebrates below mammals. In the latter this bone has become the incus, or middle bone of the three auditory ossicles, and the jaw articulates directly with the skull.

Quadratic Equation. One involving the second power of the unknown quantity and none higher. A quantic may be quadratic in respect to one variable and not so for another. A complete quadratic has both first and second powers of the unknown.

QUADRATIC EXPRESSION—QUAGOA

1248

Quadratic Expression. Product of two binomial facto rs of the first degree, eacli containing the variable associated with a constant which with changed sign is one of the roots ■ of the equation formed by equating the quadratic expression with zero.

xa—5x + 6 = (x—3) (x—2) If Xs—5x + 6 = 0. x = 3 or 2.

Quadratic Reciprocity. Law established byLegendre and called by Gauss the gem of arithmetic, connecting any two odd primes.

Quadratojugal. Bone in the upper jaw, between the quadrate and jugal, in Vertebrates below Mammals.

Quadrature. Obtaining the measure of any surface in terms of the unit applied to rectilinear plane surfaces.

Quadrature. Position of the moon when 90° from the sun, and therefore in first and last quarter; also of a planet when 90" from the sun.

Quadratus. Christian apologist 125. A fragment is preserved by Eusebius.

Quadribasic Acids. See Acid.

Quadric. Algebraic expression of the second degree between two or more variables, as

ax4 + bxy + y« + c. Quadrifoliolate. Compound leaves with four leaflets.

Quadriga. Greek or Roman chariot drawn by four horses, as a biga by two. The two center ones were only yoked while

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the two outside ones were attached by ropes. It was the common racing chariot of the circus and in processions.

Quadrigarius, 1st cent. B.C. Historian of Rome from the invasion of the Gauls to Sulla. Of his 23 books only fragments remain.

Quadrigemininal Undies. Optic lobes of the midbrain in the higher Vertebrates; on each side divided by a transverse groove into an anterior natis and posterior testis.

Quadrijiigate. Pinnately compound leaves with four pairs of leaflets.

Quadrilatcra. See Crabs.

Quadrilateral. Surface bounded by four lines. A complete quadrilateral is one each of whose sides intersect the other three. By placing conditions upon the relations of the sides, specific forms of the quadrilateral are ob.tained.

Quadrilateral. Four strong fortresses in n. Italy, Verona and Legnago on the Adige, Mantua and Peschiera on the Mincio; surrendered by Austria to the Italians Oct. 16, 1866. The

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autonomy of Bulgaria. Novogeorgievsk, Warsaw. I vangorod and Brest Litovsk constitute another in Russian Poland.

Quadrille. 1. French dance of four or more couples, popular in England since 1808. 2. Card game, resembling l'hombre, which was a three hand game and preceded it; much played ab.1670-1740.

Quadrilocular. Four-celled anthers in the flowers of certain plants. Quadrivium. See Seven Liberal Arts. Quadroon. Person with one-fourth negro blood. Quadrumana. See Simiad.i-:.

Quadrupeds. Broadly, all four-footed vertebrated animals; but usually and popularly, mammals that walk on all four feet.

Quadruple Alliance. Between England, France and the German emperor. July 22, 1718; joined by Holland Feb. 8, 1719. It guaranteed the succession to the reigning houses of England and France.

Quadruples (telegraphy). System of multiple transmission in telegraphy, by which two messages in each direction may be transmitted over the same wire at the same time. Suggestions of the possibility of such a system were made 1855 by Dr. Stark of Vienna, but the first practical instruments were brought out by Edison in New York in 1874.

Quadruplicate Ratio. Ratio of the fourth powers of quantities.

Quaestor. Roman annual magistrate, who assisted the higTier officials. He had the supervision of the treasury, of the streets of the city, and of certain courts. From 421 B.C., military quaestors accompanied the commander to his province and had charge of the finances and commissariat.

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QUAHAUG-QUARTER SESSIONS

on the wild plains, but is rare near civilized communities. See Zebra.

Quahaug. See Isomya.

Quails. Gallinaceous partridge-like birds, including the Old World genera Coturnix, Turnix, Perdicula, etc., and the New World Colinus (Ortyx), Lophortyx, Oreortyx, etc. C. communis, the European .quail, can cross the Mediterranean In its migrations. C. virginianus, the quail of e. U. S., or Bob White, known as partridge in the South, resembles grouse but is smaller. Length 9 in. Its head is not crested, the plumage is chestnut red, and greatly barred and streaked. They nest in May. L. californicus, of the Pacific coast, has a black crest, blue breast, plumage chestnut, each feather edged with black. 0. pictus, the Mountain quail of the same region, is also crested, ami a large, handsomely marked bird. See Partridges.

Quain, Jones, 1796-1865. Prof, at London Univ. 1833-61. His Anatomy, 1828, was much used.—His brother, Richard, F.R.S., 1800-1887, prominent .as practitioner and writer, was pies. Royal Coll. of Surgeons 1868. Anatomy of Arteries, 1845. —A half-brother, Sir John Richard, 1817-1876. became a jiutee of Queen's Bench 1872.—Their cousin, SIR RICHARD, LL.D., b. 1810, a leading physician and medical writer, was made Baronet 1891.

Quaker Bridge Dam. See Dams.

Quaker Guns. False guns made of logs and placed in embrasures to deceive the enemy.

Quaker Hill. In R. I.; scene of a battle between British anil Americans, Aug. 29, 1778, the latter holding the field.

Quakers. Name given to FRIENDS (q. v.) in derision, and largely though unollicially used.

Quaking Grans. Grass.es of the genus Briza, mainly natives of the Old World, sparingly introduced as weeds into N. America.

Quality. 1. Property of anything, determining its kind. 2. That characteristic of sound which depends upon the waveform, or of radiation, which depends on the state of polarization.

Quamasli. See CAmass.

Quantlc. General term covering all algebraic functions of two or more variables. The number of variables is indicated by an adjective ending in "ary," binary, ternary, quatenary, "n"-ary, designating quantities having two, three, four, or "u" variables respectively.

Quantin, Albert Marie Jerome, b. 1850. Parisian printer. Oritjines de I'Impriinerie, 1877.

Quantitative Hedonism. That form of judging moral actions by their felicilic character, in which it is recognized that all pleasures and pains have definite degrees of desirability or its opposite, in addition to their pleasurable or painful quality. See Hedonism.

Quantity. In a limited sense, anything capable of measurement, increase, or decrease. In wider mathematical use, anything subject to mathematical processes and investigation.

Quantity. Relative length of a syllable, not to be confounded with its force or accent. It is of grammatical as well as prosodical importance, particularly in Latin.

Quantlvalencc. See Valence.

Quaquaversal. Rocks dipping in all directions from a common point.

Quarantine. Methods involving the isolation of the sick having communicable diseases. The word was applied in the Middle Ages to the 40 days' detention of vessels in the Mediterranean ports when they had sailed from countries infected with plague. Out of this has grown the modern system of maritime quarantine, which includes inspection of incoming vessels, isolation of the sick with certain communicable diseases, more especially cholera and yellow fever, detention and observation of the well of the vessels where cases of communicable diseases are found, or are suspected, and disinfection. The word has been applied to inland quarantine, when non-intercourse with a district where communicable diseases are epidemic is enforced; and to domiciliary quarantine, when the inmates of a house are isolated because of the presence of a communicable disease. Regulations against the plague were tirst established at Venice, then the foremost port on the Mediterranean, ab. 1448. A century earlier the household property of such as had died was destroyed to prevent infection. In the U. S. quarantine laws were passed by the colonies, and afterward by the several States. A national act was passed April 29, 1878. The rules now in force were promulgated April 26,1894.

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Granite Quarries, Monson, Mass.

in ore at the earth's surface; also sometimes underground excavations in non-metalliferous formation, as in gypsum.

Quarry Bed. Stone is said to be laid on its quarry bed when so placed that its strata have the same position as they had in the quarry. This position is conducive to durability.

Quarrying. Stone is quarried by hand tools, by explosives, and by Channeling Machines (q.v.). the last being extensively used since 1880. By the use of explosives large blocks are detached which are afterward split by hand, but by channeling machines blocks can be cut to dimension size on five of the six sides.

Quart. Fourth part of a gallon, capacity of U. S. 57.75 cu. in., English quart 69.318 cu. in. The ordinary "quart bottle" contains ab. the sixth part of a gallon in U. S.

Quartan Fever. Intermittent Fever (q.v.), the paroxysms of which occur every fourth day.

Quarter Crack. Separation of the horn fibers in a horse's hoof, caused by bad shoes and bad shoeing. Weakness of the fiber is generally found in hoofs subject to inflammation.

Quarter Days. Four days in the year upon which, by law or custom, moneys payable in quarter-yearly installments are collectable. They differ in different jurisdictions. In N. Y. City, as between landlord and tenant, they are the first days of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.

Quarter Deck. Uppermost deck of a ship between the main and mizzen masts, when there is a poop; otherwise from the mainmast to the stern. It is the place of honor, and on ships of war this forms the parade.

Quarter Evil. Form of malignant vesicle frequently fatal to the lower order of animals.

Quarterly Review. Founded in London by John Murray 1809: edited by W. GifTord till 1824, and by J. G. Lockhart 1826-53. Scott, Southey, and Croker were among the chief contributors.

Quartermaster. Officer having charge of supplies and transportation in a regiment. For the whole army these are controlled by a quartermaster-general.

Quartermaster's Department, U.S.A. This is under the Quartermaster-general (Brigadier-general), and is charged with the duty of providing means of transportation of every character, either under contract or in kind, which may be needed in the movement of troops and material of war. It furnishes all public animals employed in the service of the army, the forage consumed by them, wagons and all articles necessary for their use, except the equipment of cavalry and artillery. It furnishes clothing, camp and garrison equipage, barracks, store-houses, and other buildings; constructs and repairs roads, railways, bridges; builds and charters ships, boats, docks, and wharfs needed for military purposes, and attends to all matters connected with military operations which are not expressly assigned to some other bureau of the War Department.

Quarter Sessions. Courts of general sessions of the

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