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PUBLIC HOUSES—PUGILISM

Public Houses. See Hotel.

Public Lands of U. S. The western boundary of U. S.

was originally the Mississippi River and the southern the 81st

parallel of latitude. There have been added.

1808 Louisiana purchase . . . 1,171.931 sq. m.
1821 Florida purchase .... 59,268""

1845 Texas annexed 375,239""

1848 Mexican cession 545,783""

1853 Gadsden purchase .... 45,535" '■
1867 Alaska purchase .... 577,390""

2,775,146 sq. m.

All these increased the government's land holdings except Texas. The total public lands, including those above, was 2.836,757 sq.ni.; the total area of U. S. is 3,595,600 sq. m. Exclusive of Alaska, and military and Indian reservations, there remain vacant and subject to entry 600,040.671 acres, June 3. 1895. About 900,000.000 acres have been disposed of. See Homestead and Pre-emption. Public Parks. See Park.

Public Revenue. That of the state, whether it comes from voluntary contributions, from public property, or from taxation.

Public Schools. See Schools. Common Schools, and Compulsory Education.

Public Wrongs, In Ethics. Injuries to others, accompanied with such degree of violence, disorder, or bad example that the state must take cognizance of the action as a crime.

Publlllus, or Publius SYRUS, 1st cent. B.C. Syrian slave in Rome, who wrote and acted Mimes or farces. A collection of his Maxims, Sententice, survives.

Puccinotti, Francesco, 1794-1872. Prof, of Medicine at Maceraha and Pisa; professional writer of high rank. Storia della Medicina, 8 vols.

Puccoon. See Gromwell.

Puccoon, Yellow. See Orange-root.

Puck, or Robin Goodfellow. Fairy, prominent in English legends, and in Midsummer Night's Dream.

Piickler-Muskau, Hermann Ludwio Heinrich, Prince Of, 1785-1871. Prussian author. Travels in England, tr. 1832; Tutti Frutti, 5 vols., tr. 1834; Egypt, tr. 1848.

Pud, or Pood. Russian weight of forty pounds.

Pudding Stone. Conglomerate, containing rounded, waterworn pebbles easily distinguishable in the mass of the rock.

Puddle Wall. Made by compacting wet clay in a ditch; often used in reservoir embankments to prevent leakage.

Puddling. Process of converting cast into wrought iron by boiling and stirring in connection with the decarbonizing action of the atmosphere. Invented and patented by Henry Cort 1784. See Iron. Metallurgy Of, and Furnaces."

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related either to the Aztecs or the Moundbuilders. The Moquis belong to the Shoshone group of tribes. The houses are large communistic structures, made of adobe and stone, and built around an inner court toward which the roofs are terraced, corresponding to the stories. Ladders are used instead of stairs. Each room is occupied by a family, and some houses accommodate 3.000 people. Ab. 30* villages are now occupied. See Cuff-dwellers.

Puerperal Fever. Acute, febrile affection, probably due to septic infection following childbirth. It varies in severity in different cases, although always a disease with a high mortality rate. The history of some outbreaks affords strong presumption of its contagiousness.

Puerperal Insanity. Mental alienation occurring after childbirth, usually within 5 or 10 days after the birth of the child. Statistics by different observers vary, but it may be safely stated that many more recover health and reason than die during the attack of mania, when it assumes that form, or than fail to secure their reason.

Puerto Principe. City in the interior of Cuba. Pop. ab. 28,000.

Puerto Rico. See Porto Rico.

Puff Ball. Fungi of the natural order Oasteromyeetes, especially of the genus Lycoperdon, of wide geographical distribution.

Puffcndorf, or Pufendorf, Samuel. Baron Von. 16321694. Prof. Heidelberg 1661, and Lund 1670; Swedish historiographer 1677-88. Elementa Jurisprudential Universalis, 1659. His De Statu Reipublicai Germanicce, 1667, attacked the Holy Roman Empire, and caused much discussion. His De Jure Naturae et Gentium, 1672, is still valued, not so his history of Sweden.

Puffers. See Plectognathi.
PuQln. See Alcid^e.

Pugatcheff, Yemelyan, 1720-1775. Cossack impostor, who personated Peter III. 1773.

Pug-Dog. Variety of the Bull-dog, with a gentle disposition. Its muzzle is very short, the forehead inflated, and eyes large. The Japanese pug has been so changed by domestica

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tion, breeding, and a vegetable diet as to present a peculiar dentition. Sometimes only 16 teeth are present, thus: IjjCjP^Mf. The hair is long and not curly, sense of smell rudimentary, and size that of a small black and tan terrier.

Puget, Pierre, 1622-1694. French builder, painter, and decorator.

Puget Sound. Arm of the Pacific Ocean, extending into Washington. It affords excellent harbors.

Pugh, George Ellis. 1822-1876. U. S. Senator from Ohio 1855-61; defender of C. L. Vallandigham 1863.

Pugh, James Lawrence, b. 1820. M.C. from Ala. 1859-61; U. S. Senator from 1879.

Pugilism. Fighting with the fists has been recognized with more or less respect from the early ages. The classical cestus which with its wicked metal additions gave fatality to the blow of the boxer of old has given place to the modern boxing glove, and the bare-knuckle lights which came in between

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the two are now abandoned. The reason for this, however, is not on the score of humanity, but the fighter finds that his hands need the protection of the glove. The pugilistic encounters that have engrossed attention in the days of modern contests have been the Heenan-Savers international fight 1860, Sullivan-Ryan 1882, Sullivan-Mitchell 1888, Sullivau-Kilruin 1889, Corbett-Sullivan 1892. Corbett-Mitchell 1894, and Fitzsimmons-Corbett 1897. The Heenan-Sayers and SullivanMitchell fights were draws; in the others the first named combatant was the winner.

Pugin, Augustus, 1762-1832. French-English architect, writer on old buildings in England and Normandy.—His son, AUGUSTUS WELBY, 1812-1852, wrought on similar lines, with much regard for the Gothic. Principles of Christian Architecture, 1841.—His son, Edward Welby, 1834-1875, built many R.C. churches.

Pug-ITIill. Mill for grinding and mixing clay for bricks and pottery. It consists of an upright iron cylinder with steel knives projecting toward the center; in this a shaft, carrying similar knives, revolves. The clay is worked to a plastic state with water by the action and flows from an opening at the bottom. See "brick Manufacture.

Pulaski, Casimir, COUNT, 1748-1779. Leader of Polish insurgents, outlawed 1772; in the American service from 1777; active in Pa., N. J., and the South; killed before Savannah. —His father, JOSEPH, 1705-1769, organized the Confederation of Bar 1768, and died, with two other sons, in the struggle for national freedom.

Pulaski, Fort. On an islet in Savannah River; blockaded by Union forces Feb. 22, 1861. and taken April 11.

Pulcl, LuiGI, 1432-1484. Italian poet and satirist. H Morgante Maggiori, 1481-83.—His brothers, Bernardo and Luoa, produced less notable verse.

Pulex (pulicid^e). Sec Aphaniptera.

Pulgar, Fernando Del, d. 1486. Spanish biographer and letter-writer.

Pulitzer, Joseph, b. 1847 in Hungarv. Owner and ed. St. Louis Post-Dispatch 1878, and New York" World since 1883.

Pulkowa. Village near St. Petersburg, 10 m. s. of a famous observatory, erected 1838-39. Its huge telescope dates from 1882. See Observatory.

Pulley. Flat or grooved wheel or drum, used for transmitting power by a flat or round belt. The simplest use of a pulley is merely to change

the direction of application of a force applied to a cord, in which case the pulley is fixed as in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 represents a movable pulley, in which the mechanical advantage is 2; i.e., the weight of P is supported by a tension of only ^P on the cord. Evidently the tension ^P on each side of the pulley just balances the weight of Pdown; but if P were to be raised, twice as much rope will have to be taken in as in Fig. 1, for the product FS or the work done must be the When made of cast iron, the rim is thin, and the

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should be fusiform to cleave the air as they revolve. There are five or more of such arms. There should be metal enough in the hub to enable the pulley to be secured to the shaft by set-screws or kpys. Wooden rim pulleys on an iron hub center give lightness and less centrifugal force at high speeds; pressed paper has also been recently introduced for the same uses. Pulleys are called riggers by many English writers. The term pulley is often used in text-books for that form of Elementary MACHINE(q. v.) in which the lever appears as a wheel to be used with a rope or chain. The wheel or sheave in the block may be called the pulley, but at best the machine should be called a pulley-block.

Pullman Cars. First built 1863; introduced in England 1874; invented by George Mortimer Pullman, b. 1831, who made sleeping-cars 1809, and "founded the town of Pullman, 111., 1880. Standard car is 68 ft. 5 in. long over all, 10 ft. wide, weight 100,000 to 110,000 lbs., with 24 double berths, in all 48 berths, and costs from $15,000 to $20,000.

Pullulating. Phenomena of budding exhibited by the cells of the yeast-plant.

Pulmogastropoda. See Pulmonata.

Pulmograda. See Scyphomedusje and Hydromedus_si.

Pulmonary Consumption. See Phthisis.

Pulmonata (pulmonifera. Pulmogastropoda). Order of Oastropoda, including air-breathing and fresh water snails. The respiratory organ lies in front of the heart; otherwise the internal structure resembles that of Opisthobranchs. The shell is usually right-handed and the respiratory, renal, anal, and generative apertures are then on the right side. The shell may be absent or rudimentary. A true operculum is absent. The radula has a great number of toothed plates on it. Pulmonates are hermaphrodite; a few are viviparous. There are two groups, the Baxonimafophora and the Stylommatophora. These belong to the Inoperculate division. Certain Prosobranchs (the Pnenmochlamyda) are sometimes included here and tnrmed the Operculata.

Pulmonifera. See Pulmonata.

Pulp. In Ore Dressing, mass of crushed ore held in suspension in water, or carried along in a muddy current.

Pulpit. Small raised platform in a church, generally protected by a railing, upon which the preacher stands. In modern use they are commonly of wood, though in the Middle Ages many were built of stone.

Pulque. Popular beverage of Mexico; fermented juice of the maguey and other species of Agave. A liquor, called Tequila, is distilled from this.

Pulse. Unit of impulse. It is equal to the impulse which acting on the mass of one pound will produce the velocity of one foot per second (1 velo). One pulse evidently has the same effect as one poundal acting for one second, hence the pulse might be termed a Poundal-second.

Pulse. Peas, beans, lentils, and other plants of the natural family Leguminosa, which produce edible pods and seeds.

Pulse. Change in shape and size'of the arteries due to the wave of blood sent out by the heart's beat. Observation of the character of the pulse enables one to know the rapidity of the heart's action, the strength of its impulse, the volume of blood forced by each beat, and other facts of a similar nature. These are helpful facts in determining the nature of a disease. The artery usually felt is the radial at the wrist. Rapidity of pulse varies with age; at 2 vrs. 100-115 per minute. 7-14 yrs. 80-90, 14-21 yrs. 75-85. 21-60 yrs. 70-75. In sickness it may reach 200 or fall to 20. Exercise increases it. In the horse'it is 82-38, cow 35-42, sheep 70-77, dog 90-100.

Pulse Glass. Device of B. Franklin. It consists of a glass tube, bent twice at right angles and terminating in a bulb at each end. The vessel is partly filled with some colored liquid and partly with air. If one of the bulbs be held in the warm hand the air in the upper part expands and drives out all the liquid, and then the air begins to bubble up in the other bulb, quite vigorously if the hand be sufficiently warm. Its motions obviously have no connection with the pulse.

Pulsellum. Flagellum which propels a cell by a sort of screw motion, the ceil being pushed in front; e.g., the tail of the spermatozoon; opposite of tractellum.

Pulsomcter. Form of pumping engine in which the steam is made to act directly upon the surface of the water to be displaced for the forcing action, and its condensation by the; water causes a vacuum in the pump chamber, which is filled through the suction pipe, by atmospheric pressure as usual on the lifting part of the cycle. It is the original Savery engine (see Engine. History Of) in principle. Two pear-shaped cast-iron vessels connect to a common rising column pipe for water and a common suction pipe. Steam enters each chamber alternately as controlled by a ball valve which floats against

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valves in the bottom of each chamber, opening and closing by excess of pressure below or above. Such pumps warm the water, and are well adapted for foul and gritty water, as in drainage and wrecking, as there are no moving parts to be abraded.

Piiltizky, Francois Aurele, b. 1814. Hungarian author; outlawed 1852-67. Memoirs, 4 vols., 1879-82.

Pultaceous. Soft, wet pollen of some species of the orchid genus Cypripedium.

Pulteney, William, Earl Of Bath. 1682-1764. M.P. 1705; Sec. of War 1714-17; friend of Walpole till 1728, then his dangerous enemy; Privy Councilor and Earl 1742.

Pultowa, or Poltava. Town of s. Russia, 88 m. w. of Kharkov, where Chiirles XII. of Sweden was totally defeated by Peter the Great June 27, 1709.

Plllu. Soft substance obtained from the stems of certain large ferns, natives of the Sandwich Islands, consisting of their long silky hairs; used to a limited extent for stutling cushions, beds, etc.

PlilvilliiK. Terminal joint of an insect's foot (tarsus), as seen beyond and between the ungues, or claws.

Pulvinus. Organ formed by the thickening of the petiole of a leaf at its point of insertion in the blade or on the stem, which has for its function the movements which leaves thus provided exhibit; e.g., the Sensitive Plants and Sleeping Movements.

Puma (feus CONCOLOR). American Lion, Cougar, Panther, or Catamount. Arboreal cat, reddish brown or gray,

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bear; feeds on pigs, deer, and other herbivores, and is especially fond of peccaries.

Pumice. Vesicular lava, similar to obsidian in composition. It owes its structure to a rapid solidification while still in motion, and to the imprisoning of bubbles of gas in a manner analogous to the formation of froth or scum.

Pumice Foot. In Farriery, a form of laminitis, wherein the sole of the animal's foot becomes convex instead of concave, the horn spongy within and brittle outside.

Pump, Cornish. See Cornish Engine.

Pumpell)', Raphael, b. 1837. American geologist, employed in the exploration of Yezo 1861, and of the coal fields of China 1864; in the survey of the copper regions and Missouri 1870-73; member of U. S. Geological Survey from 1879.

Pumpernickel. Rye bread made of unbolted flour; much used in Westphalia.

Pumping. Oscillation of the mercury in the tube of the barometer that results from sudden movements of the instrument; especially troublesome when the barometer is on a vessel at sea, and apt to damage the instrument.

Pumping Engine. Usually of such size and continuous use as to merit a more distinctive name than pump. For city water-works or for mines it is usually either condensing or compound, and either of the fly-wheel type, of the direct acting duplex, or of the Cornish type. In a very few places it is driven by water power, utilizing turbines as motors. The flywheel condensing engines are of the river-boat type, with beam and poppet valves: the beam compound have the steam cylinders on the same end of the beam, or on opposite ends. The pump cylinders are vertical in the great majority of cases, and in a very few only are the steam cylinders horizontal, acting on a bell-crank beam. There are few fly-wheel designs

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High Duty Pumping Engine.

with horizontal water cylinders, although these few are doing excellent work. There are not many geared engines, the pump pistons reciprocating less often than the steam piston. A Corliss engine with cylinders for steam and water arranged radially all around a central vertical shaft which carries the crank disk and pin to which all the connecting rods converge is a type of pumping engine not amenable to the above classification (see Cornish Engine). Pumping engines are usually rated by their Duty (q.v.). For direct acting pumps of ordinary performance, the duty is from 65 to 80 million footpounds; with compensators and other improvements this rises to 100 or 110 million. For compound fly-wheel engines of best design 122.) million has been obtained.

Pumpkin. Cucurbita maxima. Trailing vine of the natural family Cucurbitacece, native of America; widely cultivated for its large edible fruit, used in pies; almost always raised as a catch or meslin crop in Indian corn. They furnish a succulent food, useful for milch cows and swine.

Pump*, Belt, or Power. Types of machines for displacing water, in which the power from the motor is transmitted to them by a belt. The simplest of these are simply plunger or piston pumps, in which the rotary motion of the belt pulley is reduced in velocity by cog gear, and the reciprocating motion is produced by a crank. For feed pumps, the stroke of the plunger can be made variable for slow or fast pumping, either by having a slotted link drive a slider which carries the crank-pin, or the equivalent device of having the crank-pin adjustable on a diameter of a wrist-plate by a screw. The Centrifugal, Pumps (q.v.) have a rotary disk with vanes, and compel the revolving water to fly outward radially. The

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driving axis may be horizontal or vertical. Rotary pumps have one or more revolving radial pistons which fit the flat heads of their casing endwise, and the cylindrical part of it on the outer edge (see Rotary Pump). Crank pumps are suitable for relatively small volumes at greater pressures; centrifugal pumps to large volumes at low lifts; rotary pumps to conditions which are a mean between the other two.

Pumps, Steam. Those in which the pressure and expansive force of steam is applied directly to displace the water, without intervention of transmissive machinery. The primitive type is represented by the PuLSOMETER (q.v.): there is also a rotary steam pump, in which each of the two revolving shafts of the pump has on its other end the rotating piston of a Rotary Engine (q.v.): but the more usual type is the pistonpump. This appears in two forms, the fly-wheel and the directacting pumps. The fly-wheel pump is an engine with crank, fly-wheel, and a slide-valve driven by an eccentric, the resistance to the engine piston's motion being that due to the water on the pump piston, which is often on the same rod as the steam piston. The fly-wheel makes it possible to work the steam with a degree of expansion, and enables the engine to turn the centers without stopping with the valve over both steam ports in the engine cylinder. Such pumps, however, cannot be worked very slowly, and the regular rotation of the

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crank compels the water in front of the piston to be accelerated and retarded. The crank-shaft is rotated by the usual connecting rod from a cross-head, or else the crank-pin is made to slide in a yoke on the straight rod. In direct-acting pumps there is no fly-wheel, nor any continuous rotation to move the valve to reverse the steam action in the engine-cylinder. Hence the steam piston or rod must inaugurate some motion before it ceases to move, which shall act while it is at rest at the end of its stroke to reverse its valve. This is universally done by means of an auxiliary piston in a cylinder, the rod from the piston being the valve rod for the main engine. To this auxiliary cylinder the main pumping piston admits steam, either by moving a valve or in some other way causing unbalanced pressure on the proper sides of the auxiliary piston. When this auxiliary cylinder is made also to be a pumping or primary cylinder, the duplex pump results. The directacting pump can be run as slow as desired, or as fast as the water column will admit; it will start itself when in good order when pressure is turned on without necessity of being reached by hand, having no dead centers. Pumps may be non-condensing, condensing, or compound; may be horizontal or vertical.

Pun. Play upon words of different meaning, though the same or similar in sound; familiar among Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans; formerly more highly esteemed in England than now; probably carried to the furthest extreme by T. Hood.

Puncll. Drink made from rum or other liquor, with water, lemon-juice, sugar, and sometimes other materials; native in India, where arrack is the chief element.

Punch. Humorous weekly, started in London 1841, and ever since conducted with unrivaled success; contributed to by many eminent writers and illustrators, including Jer

rold, Thackeray, Hood, Doyle, Leech, and eminently Du Maurier.

Punch. Machine for making holes in metal sheets. A bar of steel of the desired size, shape, and hardness is forced to shear its way through the plate, which rests upon a die on an unyielding surface. This die is a steel block with a hole in it enough larger than the punch to allow of the latter entering easily and with clearance, but which upholds the metal at the edges where the punch is forcing its way. The punch cuts either with a flat face, or the face is milled to a helical surface so that the cut is a successive shear all around the periphery of the hole, instead of acting on the whole area at once. Such

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punches take less power. The punch is forced through either by a crank motion (appearing either as an eccentric or a simple crank with a slider in a yoke), by a lever driven by a cam, or by a toggle-joint, or else by hydraulic pressure. The total power necessary to punch a hole in a plate is found by multiplying the circumference of the hole into its depth, both in inches, and this product by the shearing strength of the metal per sq. inch. It is objected to punching as a method of making holes that the process fatigues the metal, especially steel (see Fatigue). This is counteracted either by reaming the hole out all round, or in steer by annealing it. See Flow Of Solids.

Punch and Judy. English puppet show, the origin of which has been the subject of much discussion. Punch has been identified with Pilate, Judy with the Jews and with Judas, the play being referred to an old mystery. A similar character to Punch exists in the puppet dramas of Italy. Esrypt, Syria, Turkey, Persia. Hindustan. Siam. Ava, Cochin China, China, and Japan. He is probably an importation into England from Italy, and his name an abbreviation of the Neapolitan Policinella.

Punctarieae. Family of brown Algae, inhabiting the sea.

Punctate. Leaves or other organs when dotted with minute, translucent areas.

Punctuation. Ab. 350 B.C. it became customary to separate words by points. The modern system was largely the invention of Aldus Manutius, d. 1515, and his son Paulus. Caxton marked the divisions of discourse by oblique lines.

Pundit. Oriental, usually a Brahman, versed in the San, skrit literature and in the philosophy, laws, and religion of the Hindus.

| Punic Wars. Between Rome and Carthage. The first, 265-242 B.C., resulted in the loss of Sicily by Carthage. The second began with the siege of Saguntum 218, and ended with the humiliation of Carthage at Zama 201. The third ended in

! the storming and destruction of Carthage 146, after a three years' siege.

Punishment. That which is inflicted upon an offender because of his breach of the law. The tendency of modern legislation has been to lessen the number of capital crimes, to inflict punishment in private, and to treat the criminal with greater humanity.

Punishment, Future. Commonly held to be eternal; supposed by some to issue in extinction, by others in possible or certain restoration and participation in eternal life.

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Punishments, Military. The punishments to which an officer or soldier of the U. S. Army are liable are embodied in the Articles of War. Some of these are explicit for particular crimes and others are imposed at the discretion of a courtmartial. In the latter cases, in times of peace, they shall not be in excess of a limit which the President of the U. S. may prescribe; at present these limits are set forth in the Manual for Courts-Martial published by authority of the Secretary of War.

Punjab. Province in n.w. India, watered by the Indus and its five great branches; conquered by the British from the

Sikhs 1845-49. Capital, Lahore. Area 106,632 sq. m; pop., 1891, 20,803,000, besides 4,256,670 in the dependent states.

Punkah. Large ventilating fan, swung from the ceiling, used chiefly in India.

Punshon, WilliamMokley, LL.D., b. 1824. Pres. English Wesleyan Conference 1874. Life Tlioughts, 1863.

Punt. Flat-bottomed boat, much used in English inland waters for fishing and shooting.

Punt. Uncertain region on the shores of the Red Sea, anciently in commercial relations with Egypt.

Pupa, OF Cirripeds. Stage in the development of certain Barnacles, intervening between the free Nauplius stage and the fixed adult, in which the larva resembles certain Ostracodes; hence called the Cypris stage.

Pupil, Of Insects. Stage in insect metamorphosis in whicl) the larva becomes quiescent and usually protected by a case or a cocoon, and during which the parts or the adult insect or imago (which often differs much from the larva) are formed. If the last larval skin surrounds the pupa, it is coarctate. If the wings, legs, etc.. of the adult, are free in the pupa, as in Coleoptera, it is a pupa libera; but if cemented close against the pupa skin, as in Lepidoptera, it is a pupa obtecta.

Puplenus Maxiraus, Marcus Clodius, 164-238. Roman emperor with Balbinus 238.

Pupipara. Sub-order of Diptera or Flies, whose members are parasitic, like lice, on Mammals and Birds. They are stout, have the thoracic segments fused, and the abdomen broad and flat. The antenna? are short; the proboscis is formed from the labrum and maxilla?. The wings are rudimentary. They are viviparous, and the young are mature when born.

Purace. Volcano of s.w. Colombia. Height 15,420 ft.

Puranas. Class of old Sanskrit poems, probably composed for the enlightenment of the lower castes. They are theological, and include 800,000 lines in three groups of six each.

Purcell, HENRY, ab.1658-1695. Greatest English musical composer; organist of Westminster Abbey from 1680. He wrote many odes and anthems, and operas. King Arthur. 1691.

Purchas, Samuel. 1577-1626. English author and compiler. His Pilgrimage, 1613-26,' and Pilgrims, 4 vols., 1625, drew from many sources, anil aimed to give "a history of the world, in sea voyages and land travels."

Purdue University. At La Fayette, Ind.; a land-grant college, founded 1862; named from John Purdue, who gave it $150,000 and 100 acres of land. Instruction is given in the various applied sciences and agriculture by 30 professors and 12 assistants to 500 graduate and collegiate students; total number, 635.

Pure Mathematics. See Mathematics.

Pure Tone. Sound in which there are no overtones present. It is emitted by a vibrating body, the motion of which is represented by a simple sine curve. The nearest approach to a pure tone in practice is that emitted by a tuning-fork when carefully bowed across its ends.

Purgatives. See Cathartics.

Purgatory. In R.C. theology, a penal state, for the purification through suffering of imperfect heirs of salvation, by the infliction of such measure of the temporal punishment of their forgiven sins as is still owing, except so far as this may be diminished by the Church's intercession, especially in the sacrifice of the Mass. The doctrine of the Greeks is similar, but less defined.

Purl. Town of the Bay of Bengal. India. It is one of the

most sacred towns, which for 2,000 years has been the holy land of the Hindus. It is a great resort for pilgrims, being the

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seat of the shrine of Juggernaut, and at the time of the festival ab. 100.000 persons assemble. Cholera invariably breaks out, and many pilgrims die upon the journev. Pop. 28,800. ...

Purification of B. V. II. Feast occurring Feb. 2 in R. C, Eastern, and Anglican Churches; introduced at Rome 494.

Purifications. By the Mosaic Law, contact with a dead body, and various physical infirmities and functions, involved a ceremonial defilement, extended by the touch of the unclean person, and to be removed (the cause ceasing) by bathing and washing the clothes. See Meats, Law Of.

Purim. Jewish festival, 14 or 15 of Adar (Feb.-March), in commemoration of the abortive casting of lots by Hainan for the destruction of the Jews.

Puritans. English Protestants who desired a purer church discipline, more thorough instruction, and a less prelatical polity. They gradually became in great measure Presbyterians, then Congregationalists and Baptists.

Purity. Control of the appetites and desires, the lower parts of man's nature, by moral sentiments and reason, the higher parts.

Piirkinjc's Figures. Outlines of the blood-vessels of the retina of the eye made visible to the eye itself. They are obtained by throwing a bright ray of light sidewise through the

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