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Jameson and his companions were confined 1896 after their raid. Pop. ab. 7,000.

Prevalaye, Pierre Dimas. Marquis De, 1745-1816. French naval officer, in America 1778-81; Commander 1783, Admiral 1815; author of several memoirs.

Preventive Checks to Population. Influences which tend to prevent the procreation of children, as the desire to keep up a high standard of living in food, dress, the decencies or luxuries of life.

Previous Question, or Closure. In England and U.S., parliamentary means of closing debate.

Previtale, Andrea, d. 1528. Italian painter.

Prevost, Louis Constant. 1787-1856. French geologist. His researches in volcanic phenomena led to his opposing the theories of Von Buch and Elie de Beaumont on the elevation of mountain chains, ascribing such apparent elevation to grailual contraction of the nucleus.

Prevost d'Exlles, Antoine Francois, 1697-1763. French novelist, originally a monk; author of near 200 vols. Marion Lescant, 1733.

Prevost-Paradol, Lucien Anatole, 1829-1870. Parisian essavist; Minister to the U.S. 1870. Contemporary History. 1862-66; French Moralists. 1864.

Prevost's Theory. See Theory Of Exchanges.

Preycr, Thierry, b. 1841. Prof. Jena 1869; writer on physiology.

Priam. Last king of Troy; too old to be active in the war; father of 50 sons. Priapulida?. See Achjeta.

Priapus. Greek and Roman god of fruitfulness. protector of flocks, vineyards and gardens; son of Bacchus and Venus.

Pribylof Islands. In Bering Sea; important as a resort of seals.

Price. Purchasing power of an article expressed in terms of money, or more exactly,of any one commodity other than itself.

Price, Bartholemew, b. 1818. English mathematician. Prof, of Natural Philosophv at Oxford 1853. Infinitesimal Calculus, 4 vols.. 1848-69.

Price, Bonamy. 1807-1888. Prof, of Political Economy at Oxford from 1868. Currency, 1869; Banking, 1876; Political Economy, 1878.

Price, Richard, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 1723-1791. English philosopher and moralist, of the intellectualist school as opposed to Hedonism and the absolutism of Hobbes, and also to the moral sense doctrine of the aesthetic school. Chief work, Questions in Morals, 1758; Reversionary Payments. 1768; National Debt. 1771; Civil Liberty, 1776. He warmly defended American rights.

Price, Rodman Mccamley, 1816-1894. M.C. 1851-53; Gov. of N.J. 1854-56; active in founding public and normal schools.

Price, Sterling, 1809-1867. M.C. 1845-46; Brig.-gen. 1847, iu the Mexican war; Gov. of Mo. 1853-57; Major-gen. of Mo. troops 1861. and active against the Union; Major-gen. C.S.A. 1862, operating in the West.

Price Current. Table of prices of any special set of commodities at a given time in a certain market.

Prlchard, James Cowles, 1786-1848. English ethnologist. Physical History of Mankind, 1813: Egyptian Mythology, 1819;

I Eastern Origin of Celtic Nations, 1831; Natural History of Man, 1843.

Prickle. In Botany, any sharp-pointed stiff epidermal appendage.

Prickly Ash. See Ash, Prickly.

Prickly Heat. Disease of the skin characterized by suddenly appearing eruptions covering large areas, accompanied by an intolerable prickling or burning and excessive sweating. It is a disease of hot weather. Washing the inflamed parts with a cooling lotion as with vinegar and water, or dusting with a powder containing equal parts of starch and zinc oxide, to which may be added ten per cent of powdered camphor: keeping the patient quiet and cool and the digestive apparatus in a normal condition is all that is needed for treatment in temperate climes.

Pride. Satisfaction in or admiration of one"s self, without requiring the sympathy or help of others.

Pride, Thomas, d. 1658. Officer under Cromwell; instrument of the "purge" which excluded above 100 from the Commons Dec. 1648: regicide.

Prideaux, Humphrey, D.D.. 1648-1724. Dean of Norwich 1702. Life<-of Mahomet. 1697. His Old and New Testament Connected, 1715-17, has been widely used.

Pride of India. Melia azedarach. Showy-flowered tree of the natural family Meliaceo?, native of India, widely planted for ornament in warm countries; known iis Bead-tree, the seeds being made into necklaces by savage tribes.

Prlc-Dlcu. Chair used for kneeling in prayer.

Pricssnitz, Vincent, 1799-1851. Founder of hydropathy and of the first water-cure, at Grafenberg, Austria.

Priest. Minister of religion, duly appointed, especially under Judaism and Christianity. In the R. C, Eastern and Anglican Churches he is ordained by a bishop, and is alone authorized to consecrate the eucharistic elements. The episcopal order or character includes all the powers of the priesthood, with others peculiar to itself.

Priestley, Joseph, LL.D., F.R.S., 1733-1804. English philosopher and divine, discoverer of oxygen 1774, and later of nitrous, carbonic, and sulphurous oxides and other gases; famous for the union of scientific and religious sympathies; Unitarian minister at Birmingham 1780-91; radical in politics; in

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procured the expulsion of Isabella 1868, the election of Amadeus 1870, gave the nominal occasion for the Franco-Prussian war, and was murdered.

Prima Donna. Leading female singer in an opera.

Primaries (primary Remioes). Quill feathers of a bird's wing that grow on the pinion or outer (hand) portion of the wing. They number nine or ten.

Primaries. In the U. S., meetings of voters to nominate candidates for office.

Primary Alcohols. Alcohols which upon oxidation yield an aldehyde and then an acid. They are regarded as derived from methyl alcohol by replacing one hydrogen atom with a hydrocarbon radical. Methyl alcohol, H.CHj.OH; ethyl alcohol, CH,.CH,.OH. See Secondary and Tertiary Alcohols.

Primary Coll. See Inductorium.

Primary Compound*. Compounds conceived to be formed by substitution in a CH, or methvl group. Thus CH,.CHa.CH,.CH,OH is a primary butyl alcohol.

Primary Root. That resulting from the first growth of the vegetable embryo: also the tap-root.

Primary Schools. In U. S., schools forchildren, from 6 to 14 years of age, including primary, intermediate, and grammar schools, and provided usually by the State or towns. See Schools, Common Schools, and Compulsory Education.

Primary Triangulatlon. Largest and most accurate triangulation upon which the location of all other stations is based. Some primary triangles have lines over 100 m. in length. The angles are usually determined with an uncertainty less than half a second.

Primate. Archbishop of the first rank, as of Canterbury and York in England. Dublin and Armagh in Ireland; a shadowy title, and, except in Hungary, a vanishing jurisdiction.

Primates. Highest order of Mammals, characterized by having perfect clavicles that articulate with the top of the sternum. The radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula are complete and distinct, and the limbs admit of pronation and supination. The digits are armed with nails, and the thumb is opposable, forming a true hand. The teeth number 82 or 36. and the molars have broad tubercnlate crowns. The mammae are two and thoracic in position. The placenta is discoidal. Some authors include Lemurs in this order, but the old orders, Quadrumana (Apes and Monkeys) and Bimana (Man), are here alone included as the sub-orders Simiadce and Anthropidxz.

Prlmaticelo, Francesco. 1490-1570. Italian painter, in later life active in France and in decorating the Chateau of Fontainebleau with stucco work and frescoes, the latter now

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sistant in Ohio Geological Survey 1869. and on 2d Pa. Survey 1874; Prof. Girard Coll. 1894.

Prime, Samuel Iren^eus D.D., 1812-1885. Ed. N.Y. Observer from 1840. His Power of Prayer, 1858, was widely circulated. Letters, 1880-86.—His brother. William Cowper, LL.D.. b. 1825. is an author and journalist. Boat Life in Egypt, 1854; I go a-fishing, 1878; Pottery and Porcelain, 1878.

Prime Cost. Expenses which a producer incurs directly and specially, in the production of a given article, apart from the general expenses of his business.

Prime Mover. See Motor.

Prime Number. One exactly divisible by no number save itself and unity; opposed to composite.

Primer. Two copper tubes at right angles to each other, the one containing a charge of fine powder inserted into the vent of a gun, and the other containing a friction composition of antimony sulphide and potassium chlorate within which is imbedded a copper wire flattened and roughened at one end. When this wire is withdrawn quickly by the lanyard the composition is ignited and sets fire to the powder in "the vent tube which communicates fire to the charge in the gun. The electric primer consists of two insulated copper wires joined by a small platinum wire. The junction is imbedded in some dry guncotton and inclosed in a copper tube containing also some smallarms powder. When the circuit is closed ignition occurs. To prevent erosion of the vent an obturating device, which prevents the escape of the powder gas. is now generally added to both primers.

Primero. English 16th century game of cards of the poker family.

Prime Vertical. Vertical circle whose plane is perpendicular to the meridian. It passes through the east and west points.

Prlmine. Outer layer of cells of the ovule which in ripening forms the testa of the seed.

Priming. Foaming or frothing of the water at its surface in a steam boiler, by which the entrainment of water into the cylinder is effected. Dirty or greasy waters are most liable to this difficulty, and it is favored by having insufficient disengagement area for steam from water surface, by defective circulation, by too high water level within the shell, by too small a size and too high velocity of current in the dome, and by heavy driving of a small boiler. Excessive priming of water endangers the cylinder when the entire living force in the flywheel and reciprocating parts is arrested by incompressible water which more than fills the clearances; it is uneconomical to exhaust water which lias been heated but has no expansive energy in the cylinder; and it increases the losses from re-evaporation when the water is evaporated during the fall of pressure due to expansion, and takes heat for this change froni the working steam and from the cylinder walls.

Primitive. First, plutonic and metaniorphic rocks; afterward, any crystalline formation.

Primitive Groove (andstreak). First signs of an axis on the embryonic shield in the developing egg of birds, mammals, etc. The groove is the representative of the blastopore, the streak is the thickened edges of the elongated blastopore. The niedulary folds and groove appear anterior to these structures.

Primogeniture. Common-law rule of descent, by which the eldest son inherits to the exclusion of other children; not adopted in the U. S.

Primordial Cranium. See Cartilaginous Cranium. Primordial Utricle. Exterior portions of protoplasm in plant cells.

Primordial Zone. Barrande's lowest fossiferous strata, now included in the Cambrian.


Showy-flowered herbs of genus Primula, natural family I'rimulacea, natives of the n. temperate zone, much planted for ornament. Except a slight acridity, they are of no economic importance beyond the beauty their blossoms.


Ev-ENINO.Plants Primrose {

of the genus Onagra, natural order Onagraeece, herbs bearing 1225



showy yellow or red flowers, several species of which are night-blooming; natives of N. and S. America.

Primrose League. English conservative political society, founded Nov. 1883. Lord Beaconsfield was fond of flowers, and especially of the primrose. After his death it became the emblem of the principles he represented. The society has ab. 1,000,000 members of both sexes.

Primulaccse. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermee, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Qamopetahe. comprising ab. 25 genera and 315 species, very numerous in the temperate regions of the n. hemisphere; called the Primrose family.

Prtinullnc. Yellow azo dye-stuff, which combines with cotton and then can be acted upon by phenols, producing insoluble colored compounds on the fiber.

Prlmum Mobile. In the Ptolemaic Astronomy, imaginary crystalline sphere revolving from east to west every 24 hours, carrying with it the spheres of the planets and fixed stars.

Prince. English noble ranking above a viscount, but practically princes of the blood are the only ones so designated. On the Continent, there are princes who are not related to the ruling families.

Prince, Thomas. 1687-1758. Pastor at Boston from 1718; reviser of the Bay Psalm Book. 1758. His Chronological History of New England, 1736-55, extends only to 1633.

Prince Edward Island. E. of New Brunswick; discovered 1497; held bv Gt. Britain since 1764; now part of the Dominion of Canada. Area 2,133 sq. m.; pop.. 1891, 109.088.

Prince of Wales Land. Large island of N. America, in the Arctic Ocean.

Prince Patrick Island. N. America; in Arctic Ocean.

Prlnceps. Civil title of the Roman emperors.

Prince Rupert's Drops. Drops of glass which have fallen in a melted state into cold water and have assumed a tadpole-lito shape. When the point of the tail is broken off the whole of it will burst into small pieces with a loud explosion, due to tension from the rapid cooling.

Prince's Feather. Amaranthus caudatus. Crimsonflowered plant of the natural family Amarantacea, und Polygonum orientate, a rose-flowered plant of the Polt/gonacece, both natives of the Old World, but widely cultivated in gardens.

Princes Islands. Group in the e. of the Sea of Marmora, 13 m. s. of Constantinople near the coast of Asia Minor, con

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sisting of 9 islands, the largest being Prinkipo and Khalki. Visited by many for the beauty of their scenery and agreeable climate.

Prince's Pine. See Pipsissewa.

Princeton. Borough of Mercer co., N. J.; seat of a famous college. The British were defeated here bv Washington Jan. 3, 1777. Pop., 1890, 3,422.

Princeton Theological Seminary. Presbyterian, founded 1812, professors 9. students 300, library 47,000.

Princeton University. At Princeton, N. J.: assumed its

f>resent name at the sesquicentennial celebration of the "Colege of New Jersey,'* chartered in 1746. During the Revolutionary war Nassau Hall was occupied by both Colonial and British troops, and the Continental Congress met in it in 1783. Within 20 years the college has received gilts amounting to $4,000,000.' In 1896 there were 82 instructors. 1.045 students, and 185.000 volumes in the various libraries. Number of alumni, 7.493.

Principal, In Ethics. Person who commits an offense or takes snch part as makes him equally guilty with the prepetrator.

Principal Axis of a Conic. That passing through the foci.

| Principal Plane. That of a surface of the second order is one which bisects systems of parallel chords of surface at 'right angles.

Principal Planes. See Cardinal Points.

Principle of Archimedes. See Archimedes. BuoyAncy, Center Of Buoyancy, and Metacenter.

Principle of Least Action. Suppose any dynamical system to move unconstrained from one given position to an

I other, then the actual motion is such that J E<1 t [t refers to

time] is less than if the system were constrained, without violating any geometrical conditions, to move in some other manner from the oue position to the other with the same energy, provided that these other motions be such throughout that E (energy) is the same function of the coordinates and their differential coefficients. This is the principle of least action.

Principle of Least Squares. See Least Squares.

Principle of Moments. One which applies to the equilibrium of any rigid body when acted upon by any system of forces. It may be stated as follows: that a rigid body may have no motion of rotation, it is necessary and sufficient that the algebraic sum of the moments about any three mutually perpendicular axes of all the forces acting upon it shall be separately equal to zero. See Moment.

Principles, In Ethics. Accepted laws of action or rules of conduct, as those of the Stoics.

Principles, Military. Armies arebodiesof men, equipped with wea|K>ns and organized for combat, command and supply. The general rules for combat form the principles of the military art and are laid down in the text-books and taught in the schools: they are derived from experience, and are subject to the modifications which experience and progress suggest. The theory of organization rests upon a system of individual responsibility, discipline and subordination, based on the controlling idea that there is but one sole responsible commander of the forces of the nation, and that he is the Head of the Stale. Under him is a system of subordinate commanders, called the military hierarchy, each of whom has specific duties and powers in his own particular sphere of command.

Principles of Action, In Ethics. Human affections, desires, and dispositions, as they act in a steady and consistent manner in influencing actions.

Prlnglc, Thomas. 1789-1884. Scottish poet and journalist. Ephemerides, 1828; African Sketches, 1834; Works. 1889.

Pringsheim, Natan, 1823-1895. Prof, in Berlin. Untersuchungen ueber den Ban und die Bildung der Pflanzenzelle, 1854; Ueber die Befrurhtung und Keimung der Algen, 1855-57.

Printer's Ink. See Ink.

Printing, Invention Of. The Assyrians and Egyptians applied stamps engraved in relief to plastic clay, but failed to develop and apply the art which had almost revealed itself to them. Practical use was first made of the principle by the Chinese, probably in the 2d century. Printed books were common among them in the 10th century, and the use of wooden blocks for their production may be traced back to the 6th cent

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products were abundant in Germany and Holland ab.1400. Impressions seem to have been taken in the 12th century on cloth and vellum, and on paper ab.1375. In these blocks the letters and illustrations were exhibited in relief as in woodengraving. The only apparatus needed was the blocks, ink, and a rubber to press the paper upon the type. The earliest dated woodcut now in existence is of 1423. Of this style of printing in Germany 20 examples are extant, containing 7 to 50 leaves each, while the Netherlands furnish 10 more. The earliest work done with movable types which has come down to us with authentic date is of 1454. Nov. 15, being copies of letters of indulgence printed, as is believed, at Mainz. Here at this time were two rival printers, one of whom may have been Johan Gutenberg (aided perhaps by the money of Johan Fust), and the other Peter SchoetTer. Albreclit Plister was printing in the same city in Feb. 1461, and is supposed to have produced various books which appeared in 1455, 1457, and after, among them a Bible in 2 vols, folio, which is believed to antedate 1461. The Mazarine Bible was completed before Aug. 15, 1456. Gutenberg was printing 1460, and probably continued till his death in 1468. From Mainz the new art spread to other cities. Printing offices were in operation in Bamberg 1461, Subiaco 1465. Cologne 1466 (1463?). Eltville and Rome 1467. Augsburg, Basel, and Marienthal 1468, Venice 1469, Nuremberg and Paris 1470. Westminster (Caxton) 1477, Edinburgh 1505, Dublin 1551, Mexico 1540, Lima 1584, Cambridge, Mass.. 1638, New York 1693. By 1500 the art was practiced in 220 different towns. As to the place and date of the invention of movable metal types there has been much controversy, some placing it in 1430 and even earlier; but it is generally agreed that Haarlem was the place, and Lourens Janszoon Coster the inventor, probably ab.1445. Gothic type or black letter was first employed; Roman type appeared ab.1464; Venetian, Aldine. or Italic type was introduced by Aldus Manutius of Venice 1500; a rude Greek type first appeared 1465, Hebrew 1475, Anglo-Saxon 1574, music type 1495. Printing for the blind was first used in Paris 1784; in raised characters, in Edinburgh, 1827. See Press, Printing.

Prior And Prioress. Assistant of an abbot or abbess, or head of an inferior monastery, sometimes dependent on an abbey.

Prior, Matthew, 1664-1721. English poet and diplomatist, notable for wit and epigram; M.P. 1701; imprisoned 1715-17. Works, 1709-18-^0.

Prisclan, 6th cent. Latin grammarian, long at Constantinople in the pay of the Greek empire. His Commentariorum and some other works are extant.

Prlsciaiius, Theodorus, 4th cent. Medical writer at Constantinople. His book was pub. 1532.

Priscilllan,d.385. Spanish bishop, irregularly consecrated; excommunicated 381; first victim of a trial for heresy: founder or head of an ascetie Gnostic sect which survived till ab.563. Some writings of his came to light 1885.

Prism. Polyhedron having two parallel and equal polygons as bases, and its other faces parallelograms whose bases are the equal and parallel sides of the equal polygons: right when lateral edges are perpendicular to base: regular when its bases

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glass, and are used to deviate a ray of light and also to disperse composite light into its various colors. See Angle Of DeviaTion and Minimum Deviation.

Prismoidal Formula. Let 1 be the length of a solid. A, and Aj its end areas, and M the area of a section half way between them. Then the cubic contents is

C=il(A1+4M4-A,). This formula applies to solids bounded by plane or warped surfaces or by curved surfaces generated by conic sections. It is extensively used in earthwork computations.

Prison. General term for all the various buildings maintained for the confinement of persons in judicial custody. They have been in use from early times, being mentioned in the Bible. In ancient times prisons were very unhealthy, generally being low and filthy. The prisons of the Inquisition were places of cruel and protracted punishments.

Prison Discipline. There are three systems in operation for the proper care and regulation of prisoners. 1. The Auburn or Congregate Silent System. In this system, which is almost universal in the U. S., the prisoner is separated from the other prisoners by night and in daytime work together in silence. 2. The Philadelphia or Separate Cell System. This is practiced in the Eastern penitentiary at Philadelphia, which is the only State prison using it. Other prisons in Pa. and those of Belgium use it in a modified form. In this the prisoner is always isolated in recreation and work. It has proved unsatisfactory. 3. The System of Progressive Classification. This was originated by Capt. Alexander Maconochie in 1840, while in charge of the British penal colony of Norfolk Island. In this the convict is treated as a laborer, and receives a certain amount for his work, and whatever he saves out of his earnings helps toward reducing his term of imprisonment, and by this means trains the convict to habits of industry and frugality. The men are not sentenced to a term of years, but are fined; the fine has to be paid by what he earns above his keep. The prisoner's fate is in his own hands, and after reaching a certain stage they are promoted and allowed to form partnerships, etc. Idleness and bad conduct thus keep him in a condition of restraint. This system was carried to Ireland by Walter Crofton, and is sometimes called the Irish or Crofton System. Reformatories have been established in nearly all the States using the general principles of this system.

Prisoner's Base. In this game from six to ten players on a side take part. These sides are chosen by two captains. Two inclosed spaces side by side are marked out, large enough to holdall the players: thesearecalled the Home Bases. From 100 to 200 ft. away are marked out two other similar spaces, called Prison Bases. All the players take their places in the Home Bases, each side in its own. Then a leader goes out, and when perhaps half way toward the Prison bases, calls out "Chase!" One of the other side goes after him and attempts to touch him before he can return home. One of the leader's side goes after thesecond man, and so on: the one leaving last cannot be caught by one who has left before him, but may be in turn pursued by a player leaving later. When a man is caught he is taken to the Prison Base. So the game continues until one side has made prisoners of all its opponents. If a home base is left unoccupied, it may be taken possession of by an opponent.

Prisoners of War. Military persons captured by the armed forces of a nation, when engaged in the legitimate exercise of their profession. They are deprived of their liberty and subjected to such treatment as is provided for by fhe laws of war, until they are duly exchanged or otherwise regain their liberty.

Privateering. Waging hostilities by means of private ships. Modern international law discountenances the practice, and most European states have expressly consented to its abolition.

Private War. Right of each individual in primitive societies to obtain justice for and punish injury to himself by force of arms, instead of appealing to a government which acts as the guardian of justice.

Private Wrongs. Injuries inflicted upon another person, not violently but under the guise of law and good order.

Privet. Liyustrum vulgare. Shrub of the natural family Oleaceae, native of Europe, planted for hedges, and introduced into N. America; also called Prim.

Privileges. 1. Of legislators, secured by modern constitutions. 2. Of citizens.

Privy Council. In England, formerly a portion of the king's council, selected by and attendant on the sovereign; at present a body of ab. 200, some of whom exercise judicial functions, others, with the crown, possess legislative powers, and still others, organized in committees, exercise only administrative functions.

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Great Seal of William the Conqueror, seal; used on state papers; kept by a cabinet minister, who at one time was called the Keeper and now the Lord Privy-seal.

Prize. Vessel seized at seaand condemned in an admiralty or other court. Prize-money conies from the sale of such a ship, and is divided between the officers and men who took it.

Proa. Malay vessel of canoe shape, with one large sail; formerly dreaded from their piratical character.

Proamonin. That part of the amniotic fold which surrounds the head in mammalian embryos. It consists of epiblast and hypoblast, but no mesoblast.

Probabilities. Term applied by Prof. Cleveland Abbe to his daily weather predictions 1869. in Cincinnati; adopted 1871 by Gen. Myer. for the official predictions as made at Washington; also by Prof. Abbe for the Signal Office. It had been similarly used by Le Verrier in Paris since 1859. and was supposed to suggest that the so-called predictions were really but a statement of probabilities as to the coming weather.

Probability. Likelihood; amount of expectation below certitude; possessed of infinite degrees.

Probability, Mathematical. Ratio of the chances in favor of the happening of a certain event, to the number of chances both for and against it. The theory of probabilities treats at length the determination of this probability under various conditions.

Probable Error. In a physical experiment the arithmetical mean of the results of a series of observations is in general the most probable value of the quantity to be determined; and the most probable error of a single observation, as well as that of the result, can be found by the following rule. Let <5 denote a difference between the mean and a single"observation; fi will in general have n values if there are n different observations: then

mean error of a single observation — v S|^f_,

* ii—l

"the result

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probable error of a single observation — 4J5.6745 A ^**',

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Probang. Rod of whalebone or other flexible material used in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the pharvnx and esophagus. It is sometimes tipped with a ball varying in size to dilate strictures, or it may have a sponge on the extremity for the purpose of applying medicine topically.

Probate Courts. Court having general probate jurisdiction; that is, to take proof of wills, to issue letters testamentary, letters of guardianship, of administration, and cognate matters.

Probation, Future. Doctrine that for some souls, especially such as have not known Christ here, the opportunity of regeneration may be given hereafter. See Punishment, Future.

Probity. General uprightness, especially in the sense of respect for the rights of property.

Problem Of The Three Bodies. To find the paths described by three bodies (as the earth, sun, and moon), acted upon only by their mutual attractions; famous in the history of celestial mechanics. No strictly general solution has ever been found.

Proboscidla (chelophora). Order of Subungulates, including the Elephants. The skin is thick and sparsely haired, the nose is prolonged into a long proboscis, with the nostrils opening at end. The feet are five-toed, some of which carry hoofs. There is a pad-like sole, and the legs are stout, with vertical femur. In livina: elephants there are no lower incisors, and the two upper incisors grow from permanent pulps and constitute the tusks. There are no canines and only a few

large, transversely ridged, and tuberculate molars. Clavicles are absent; there is no scrotum; the two mammas are pectoral, and the placenta is deciduate and zonary. The brain cavity is small; the huge skull is principally made up of vast air sinuses in the bones. The tusks are preceded by "milk-tusks." The molars cut the gum from before backward, so that only two or three are in use at one time; when a new one is added behind, the front one is lost. The period of gestation is more than twenty months. Elephants are monogamous, gregarious, and strictly phytophagous. The Miocene period furnishes fossil forms known asthe Deinotherium: the Pliocene furnishes the Mastodon, and in Quaternary and recent times flourished the Mammoth. See Elephant.

Probus, Marcus Aurelius. 232-282. Roman emperor 276, with Florian for rival at first; victorious over Germans, Sarmatians, and Persians. Eminent as general, ruler, and patriot. Bred to the sword, he dreamed of restoring the ancient liberties, and checking the dangerous power of the army. His conquests finished, he set the soldiers to work on roads and other public improvements, and was slain in a momentary tumult. His coinage is the most varied and beautiful of the later empire.

Probus, Marcus Valerius, 1st cent. Syrian editor of Latin classics at Rome.

Procamblum. Young cells of flora-vascular bundles in plants, before they are differentiated into phloem and xylem. Procamclus. See Poebrotherium.

Procarp. Female organ of certain Algae, before fertilization by the pollinoids.

Procedure. Body of legal rules regulating the pleadings and proceedings in litigated cases.

Procelarilda; (petrels). Family of longipennate Natatores, with three toed, webbed feet, and the upper mandible of the beak strongly hooked. They resemble Gulls. The plumage is somber, the nests are on rocks, the male and female take turns at incubating the single egg. The smaller petrels are known to sailors as Mother Carey's Chickens. They fly at dusk or at night. The Albatross is a gigantic member of this family, some having a spread of wings equal to 15 ft.

Proceplialic Lobes. Two eminences at the front end of the ventral plate, from which the eyes and cerebral ganglia develop in Arthropods.

Process. Instrumentality by which a court enforces its will.

Procession of the Spirit. The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 derived the Holy Ghost "from the Father." The Latin Ch., following the teachings of St. Augustine, in 589 added filioque, "and from the Son." To this the Greeks would not agree: much controversy ensued, and the schism remains.

Processus Falciform is. Vascular process of the choroid into the eyeball in fishes and reptiles. It corresponds to the pecten of birds.

Procliein Ami. Next friend. Person by whom an infant or a married woman may bring suit or do other acts on behalf of an infant, such as are authorized by law-.

Proclamation of Emancipation. See EmancipaTion, Proclamation Of.

Proclus, 411^485. Greek philosopher of the Neo-Platonic school at Athens. He held devoutly to a multitude of deities, and was once banished for his attacks on Christianity. His surviving works are numerous: some were edited in 6 vols. 1820-27, and some were tr. 1788 and later.

Procne. Wife of Tereus. See Itys.

Procu'lia (existing Crocodilia). They have proccelous vertebras, a compressed tail, effective for swimming, and bearing in front a double crest of plates, but single behind; the front feet have five, the hinder have four, webbed toes. They live in the mouths of rivers of tropical parts of both hemispheres, lay eggs with hard shells in the sand on the shore, leaving them to be self-incubated, though the female keeps watch from a distance. They hunt their prey at nifjht, which consists of animals living in or near the water. Three families are included. See Gavials, Crocodiles, and Alligators.

Procujlous. Vertebra? having the anterior faces hollow and the posterior convex, to fit into the concavity of the next succeeding vertebra, as in Frogs.

Proconsul. Roman officer governing a province.

Procopius, d. ab.565. Byzantine historian and secretary of Belisarius, whom he accompanied through his Italian campaigns; made senator and prefect of Constantinople by Justinian. His histories of the wars with Persians. Vandals, and Goths, in 8 books, tr. 1653, is highly valued. Anekdota, tr. 1674.

Procopius,Andrew, 1380-1434. Hussite(Taborite)general, succeeding Ziska 1424; victor in many battles; leader in the vengeful and destructive attacks on countries around Bohemia,

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