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Physlocrates. School of economists in France in 18th century. They considered agriculture as the only truly productive industry, and advocated a single tax laid upon land.

Physiognomy. Determining of qualities of mind by external marks,which in primitive conditions we find attempted as a magical and divinatory, rather than a rational process. Thus in China the physiognomist practices his art in connection with palmistry and other methods of fortune-telling, and the various parts of the countenance are supposed to furnish an index for different years in a man's existence. A knowledge of the origin of the features is the necessary basis for a true physiognomy, which is gradually being developed by the aid of modern evolutionary science.

Physiography. Description of Nature. See Mountain Structure and Orography.

Physiological Chemistry. Chemical principles as concerned in the life and structure of animals and plants.

Physiologus. Greek writing of great popularity in the Middle Ages and probably written at Alexandria in the second century. It described all the animals of creation, real or fabled, and was illustrated by drawings. It was valuable for the moral allegories it contained, and was translated into many languages.

Physiology. Science that investigates the functions of a living organism in a normal condition; if the function is perverted from the normal its investigation belongs to Pathology (q.v.). After the speculative period of the ancient Greeks, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, 450 B.C. was the first to attribute disease to natural causes and not to special visitations of the gods. Aristotle, the father of natural history, 350 B.C. dissected dead animals. Galen, A.D. 150 experimented with living animals, and investigated the blood and the nervous system. Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood 1616. Mailer, the father of the science of physiology, made extensive contributions in the 18th century, and Muller in the first half of the present century broadened out the science. The invention of the microscope was a most important adjunct to progress.

Physiology, Vegetable. This discusses the functions of the organs of plants.

Physoclisti. Group of Teleostean fishes, having no ductus pneumaticus, and with the pelvic fins usually far forward under the breast. Here are included the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Anacanthini, and Acanthopteri. The two last groups, except Fleuronectidoe and Pediciilati, but including also many Physostomes, are known as the Teleocephali. See Teleostei.

Physograda. See Siphonophora.

Physophorldae. Sub-order of the Siphonophores, characterized by a short stem (or long in Agalmidce), having a terminal pneumatophore, beneath which usually are two or more rows of nectocalyces; then follow the polyps (nutritive and generative), and usually also dactylozooids and hydrophylia alternate regularly with them. Each polyp bears a long branched tentacle.

Physopoda, or Thysanoptera. Tribe of Pseudo-neuroptera, characterized by having a small, narrow, flat body, wings covered with hairs, and the mouth parts adapted for sucking. Thrips, frequenting the flowers of the chicory, is an example.

Physostomi (physostomata, Malacopteri, Cycloidei). Sub-order of Teleostean fishes, having soft fins, comb-like gills, and separated jaw-bones. The pelvic fins are abdominal in position when present. The swim-bladder always has a ductus pneumaticus. There are two sub-groups, the APODES and ABDOMINALES (q.v).

Phyto Chemistry. Chemistry of plants. It deals with the active principles of plants, the formation and transformation of their constituent parts.

Phytogeny. Study of the development of plants or their organs from pre-existent forms.

Phy tography. Rules governing the description of plants.

Phytolaccacea?. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising 20 genera and ao. 60 species, widely distributed in the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres; called the Pokeweed family.

Phytolite. Fossil plant.

Phytology. See Botany.

Phytoniastigoda. See Isomastigoda.

Phytomer. Unit of structure; in more highly organized plants an internode, terminated by a node which bears one or more leaves; also termed Phyton.

Phytonomy. Plant physiology.

Phytopathology. Study of plant diseases.

Phytophaga. Tribe of Terebrantia, in which the larvae feed on plants and resemble caterpillars, but with a greater number of abdominal feet. The adult has a sessile abdomen, which carries a short terebra in the Saw-flies, or Leaf-wasps, that deposit their eggs in the epidermis of leaves, and a long terebra in the Wood-wasps, that deposit in holes bored in wood by means of the ovipositor.

Phytophaga. See Edentata.

Phytophthires. Sub-order of Rhynehota. having two pairs of membranous wings (the female is usually apterous). The surface of the skin is often covered by a waxy deposit. The Bark-lice (Coccidoe), Plant-lice (Aphidae), and Leaf-fleas (Psijllidae) are included.

Phytotomy. Plant anatomy.

Piacenza. Old city of n. Italy, on the Po, 43 m. s.e. of Milan; founded 319 as Placentia; taken by Totila 546; sacked by Sforza 1447; joined to Parma 1545. It has some old and notable churches and palaces, and a town library of 120,000 vols. Pop. ab. 37,000.

Piacenza, Duke Op. See Lebrun, C. F.

Pia mater. Innermost of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord. It is a vascular net work lightly held together covering the entire surface. It sends arterial branches into the gray matter of the brain.

Pianoforte. An instrument of music consisting of a system of metal strings stretched over a resonance box. which are sounded by being struck with hammers covered with felt and manipulated by a keyboard. As an apparatus embodying all these principles, its history is compassed by less than two centuries; but the origin of each separate principle is lost in the darkness of antiquity. Immediate precursors of the pianoforte were the instruments used in the middle ages and till 1800, variously called clavecin, clavichord, clavicembalo, clavicymbalum, cembalo, gravicembalo, clavicytherium, virginal, spinet and harpsichord. There were differences of shape, size and efficiency in these instruments, but the principles of tone production were but two: The strings were sounded either by being snapped by bits of elastic material (quills, sole leather, etc.) placed in uprights called jacks and pushed past the strings by pressure on the keys; or by blows against the strings delivered by bits of brass, called tangents, with which the inner end of the keys were armed. The latter principle lies near to that of the pianoforte hammers, but the instruments in which it was employed (clavichord, clavecin) were feeble in tone and not adapted to the concert-room. There being no control of the dynamic intensity of the tones in the other instruments of which the highest type was found in the harpsichord, except by mechanical contrivances, musicians and instrument makers sought a remedy by changing the mode of tone production and hammers controlled by keys were the result. The priority of invention belongs to an Italian, Cristofali or CRISTOFORI (q.v.), who produced an attachment to the harpsichord 1711 by which he could have tones piano e forte, at will. A Frenchman, Marius, and a German, Schrotter, seem to have arrived at similar results 1716-17.

Piarists. R. C. teaching order, founded 1599 by Joseph of Calasanza (1556-1648); confirmed 1617; most prominent in Austria and Poland.

Piassava. Coarse fibrous substance obtained from the Brazilian palm-trees Leopoldinia piassaba and Attalea funifera. It is used in making brushes for street sweeping.

Piast. Polish dynasty ab.850-1370.

Piastre. 1. Spanish "piece of eight" (reals), or silver dollar; worth ab. a TJ. S. silver dollar. 2. Italian scudo, worth

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Piatt, Donn, 1819-1891. American journalist. Men who saved the Union, 1887.

Piatt, John James, b. 1835. Poet and journalist; U. S. Consul at Cork 1883-94.—His wife, Sarah Morgan (bryan), b. 1836, is also a poet.

Piazzi, Giuseppe, 1746-1826. Prof, of higher mathematics at Palermo 1780. where he founded an observatory and formed a valuable catalogue of 7,646 stars. On Jan. 1, 1801, he discovered the first of the Asteroids, Ceres.

Pi-beseth, or Bubastis. Ruined city on the Nile, notable for its remains of the 4th and later Egyptian dynasties.

Pibroeli. Bagpipe music of the Scotch, chiefly of martial character: mainly recent, and all since 1594.

Picard, Alfred, b. 1844. French engineer.

Picard, Jean, 1620-1682. Founder of the Paris Observatory. He executed the first accurate measurement of an arc of a meridian, between Amiens and Malvoisin.

Picard, Louis Benoit, 1769-1828. French actor and manager, author of many comedies. Theatre, 9 vols., 1821-32.

Picardj". Former French province, between the English Channel and Champagne.

Picarise. See Scansores.

Picayune. Spanish hal f-real or sixteenth of a dollar, long circulating in U. S.; so-called by the Caribs and in La.

Plccini, Nicola, 1728-1800. Italian opera composer of many operas, whose rivalry with Gluck caused a musical war in Paris 1778.

Piccolo. Small Flute (q. v.), sounding an octave higher than the common flute.

Piccolomini, Maria, b. 1834. Italian operatic singer, celebrated more for her charms of person than for voice or skill. She visited America 1858. In 1860 she married the Marquis Gaetain and retired.

Piccolomini, Ottavio, 1599-1656. General in the 30 Years' War, and for some years in Spanish service in the Netherlands; field marshal of the Empire 1648.

Pichardo j Tapia, Esteban, 1799-1879. Cuban geographer and poet.

Plchegru, Charles, 1761-1804. French general, conqueror of Holland 1795: pres. Council of 500, 1797; deported for conspiracy. He escaped to England 1798, continued his intrigues, plotted with Cadoudal to murder Bonaparte, was arrested in Paris Feb. 28, 1804, and found dead in prison April 6.

Pichincha. Volcanic peak of the Andes, in Equador, altitude 15,918 ft. Beneath it Sucre defeated a Spanish force 1822.

Plcbler, Caroline (greiner), 1769-1843. Austrian novelist and playwright. Ayathokles 1808; Denkwurdigkeiten, 4 vols., 1844.

Plcbler, Johann, 1734-1791. German engraver, mostly of intaglios; in Rome from 1763.

Picbon, Jerome Frederic, Baron, 1812-1896. French author; pres. Societe des Bibliophiles from 1844.

Picldae (picoideje, Pici. Celeomorphje, Sauroonathje, Wood-peckers). Group of Scansores, having strong, chiselshaped, pointed beaks, without cere. The toes are strongly clawed; the tail is stiff, to assist in climbing. The tongue is long and horny, with hooks at its tip, and can be protruded a considerable distance, owing to the peculiar mechanism of the hyoid bone, whose horns arch up over the skull to the base of the beak. They feed on insects. Here also belong the Toucans and Wry-Necks.

Pick, Arnold, b. 1851. Prof. Prague 1886; writer on Neurology and Psychiatry.

Plcken§, Andrew, 1739-1817. Revolutionary officer, distinguished at Covvpens 1781; M.C. from S. C. 17913-95.—His grandson, Francis Wilkinson, 1805-1869, was M.C. 1834-43, U. S. Minister to Russia 1858-60, and Gov. of S. C. 1861-62.— His cousin, Israel, 1780-1827, was M.C. from N. C. 1811-17, Gov. of Ala. 1821-25, and U. S. Senator 1826.

Pickerel. See Haplomi.

Pickerel-Weed. Showy-flowered marsh plants of the genus Pontederia, natives of America.

Pickering, Edward Charles, b. 1846. Great-grandson of Timothy; prof. Mass. Inst, of Technology 1868-76; director of

the Observatory at Harvard since 1876. Under his management it has reached a high state of efficiency. Besides much other valuable work, he has been conducti ng an extensi ve series of photometric and photographic investigations.

Pickering, Timothy, 1745-1829. Colonel in Revolutionary War; Adjutant-gen. 1777; Quartermaster-gen. 1780-85; U. S. Postmaster-gen. 1791-95; Sec. of War Jan. 1795, and main founder of the Military Academy; Sec. of State 1795-1800; U. S. Senator from Mass. 1803-11, and conspicuous as a Federalist; M.C. 1813-17; active through life in public affairs.—His son, John, LL.D., 1777-1846, City Solicitor of Boston from 1829, was noted as a philologist. Greek Lexicon, 1826; Indian Languages, 1836.—His nephew, Charles, M.D., 1805-1878, was naturalist to the Wilkes Exploring Expedition 1838-42. Races of Man, 1848; Animals and Man, 1854; Distribution of Plants, 1861.

Picketing. Custom of employes, during a strike, of posting certain of their number at the approach to their places of usual employment, to explain to other workmen the circumstances of the case, and try to dissuade them from going to work there.

Pickett, Albert James, 1810-1858. Historian of Alabama 1&51.

Pickett, George Edward, 1825-1875. Major-gen. C.S.A. 1862; famous for his charge at Gettysburg July 3, 1863.

Picking the Plums. Game in which a number of marbles are placed in a line nearly touching each other, and the players shoot at these, each taking those knocked off the line.

Pickles. Vegetable or animal food preserved with vinegar, sometimes with salt or spices.

Pickling. See Preservation Of Food.

Plcknell, William Lamb, b. 1854. American landscape painter.

Pico. One of the Azores Is., belonging to the central group. It is covered with lava; has a volcanic peak 7,613 ft.

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high. The island is well timbered, very fertile, and produces wine in large quantities. Chief towns are Magdalena and Lagos. Area 254 sq. m. Pop. 29,000.

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, Count, 1463-1494. Italian scholar and philosopher, once esteemed a marvel of genius and learning. His proposed discussion of 900 theses at Rome, 1486, was forbidden by the Pope. His Latin writings were collected 1496, and often reprinted.

Plcoline. CSH«N.CH,. Methylpyridine; known in three forms, all of which are liquids of strong odor contained in bone-oil. They are strong bases.

Plcot, Francois Edouard, 1786-1868. French painter.

Picquet, Francois, 1708-1781. French missionary in Canada 1735-59; active against the English, who outlawed him; writer on Canadian history.

Plcrates. Salts of picric acid. Potassium picrate is a violent explosive; when mixed with niter and charcoal and grained it forms Designolle's powder, which has been used for torpedoes and for both cannon and small arms. Ammonium picrate is less sensitive and burns without explosion in air; mixed with nearly equal parts of niter it forms Brugere's powder, which has about twice the strength of ordinary gun

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powder, but is too violent for small arms. Picrates form the bases for certain of the Smokeless Powdebs (q.v.).

Picric Acid. C„H,i (N02)3.OH. Trinitrophenol. Mpt. 122.5° C. Lemon-yellow crystals, soluble in water; prepared by the action of nitric acid upon phenol and many organic compounds, silk, leather, wool, resins, etc.; used as a yellow dyestuff on wool and silk. It forms salts, as CjHjfNOjJsOK, potassium picrate. These salts are very dangerous and powerful explosives, and are prepared by neutralizing the acid with an alkali. The acid forms well crystallized addition products with many hydrocarbons.

Picrotoxin. CS0HSJOls. Very poisonous and very bitter, colorless needles, obtained from Cocculus indicus, the berrylike fruit of Aiiamirtaparticulate!, a shrub of the E. Indies. It acts much like strychnine.

Pletet, Feanqois Jules, 1809-1872. Prof. Geneva; Swiss zoologist who devoted nearly thirty years to the fossils of the Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits of Switzerland. Traite de Paliontologie, 4 vols., 1844-46.—Of his relatives, Adolphe, 1799-1875, prof. Geneva 1836, wrote on the Aryans and Celts: Marcus Auguste, 1752-1825. and Raoul b. 1842. prof. Geneva, were noted physicists and chemists; the latter, 1877, announced the liquefaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, pub. memoir 1878.

Picton, SIR Thomas, 1758-1815. English general, distinguished in Spain 1810-11; killed in leading a charge at Wat erloo.

Picls. Early Celtic inhabitants of s. and e. Scotland; united with the Scots under MacAlpin 844.

Picture Gallery. Room for the exhibition of pictures. The various galleries are described under their respective names.

Picture Writing. See Hieroglyphics.

Pidgin-English. Dialect manufactured to assist the intercommunication of Europeans and Chinese; mostly English, corrupted to meet Chinese capacities, as by adding ee to words, substituting belong for be, my for I, and the like. Also written Pigeon-English.

Piece, Field. In U.S. Service there are two guns, the 3.2 in. and the 3.6 in. calibers, the former for the light and horse batteries and the latter for the heavy field battery; both are breechloading steel rifled guns. The 8.2 in. fires a 13.5 lb. projectile, is 7.31 ft. long, weighs 794 lbs., has muzzle velocity 1,685 f. s., and maximum range for shrapnel 6,613 yds. The 3 6 in. fires a 20 1b. projectile, is 7.79 ft. long, weighs 1,181 lbs., has muzzle velocity 1,550 f. s., and maximum range 7,420 yds. See Field Artillery, Field Battery and Field Carriage.

Piece-work Wages. Wages paid according to the amount of work performed, instead of according to the length of time the employe is on duty.

Piedmont. Region of n.w. Italy: held by House of Savoy from ab.1190. Area 11,340 sq. m.

Piedmont (mt. Crawford). Near Staunton, Va.; scene of a Union victory June 5, 1864.

Pied Piper. Mediaeval European myth, made familiar by Browning's poem. Hameln in Saxony was infested with rats, which were charmed away 1284 by a man attired in a partycolored suit. The townsmen agreed to give him a sum of money to rid the place of the vermin, whereupon he piped, and the rats all followed him to the Weser and there perished. When the authorities refused to pay, the piper, again piping, drew all the town children with him to the mountain, which opened and they disappeared therein.

Pie-Powder Court. Formerly held at fairs in England.

Pier. Masonry column supporting a bridge; when built near shore and supporting only one end of a span, it is called an ABUTMENT (q.v.). The deepest piers in the U. S. are those of the bridge over the Hudson at Poughkeepsie; they were sunk by dredging through cribs to a depth of 130 ft. below the water surface. The deepest pier foundation is that of the Hawksbury bridge in Australia. 170 ft. below water level.— Piece of wall between two openings, or an isolated mass of masonry.

Pierce, Benjamin, 1809-1880. Prof. Harvard from 1833; superintendent U. S. Coast Survey 1867-74; author of textbooks on Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry. Analytical Mechanics. 1857; Linear Associative Algebra, 1870.

Pierce, Franklin. 1804-1869. Fourteenth president of the U. S.; M.C. from N. H. 1833-37; U. S. Senator 1837-42; Pres. 1

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Franklin Pierce.

War. The treaty with Japan, the Ostend MANIFESTO (q.v.), and the settlement of Mexican boundary dispute occurred in his term.

Pierian. Belonging to the Muses, whose birthland was Pieria in Macedonia, at foot of Mt. Olympus.

Plerola, Nicolas De, 1798-1857. Peruvian scientist; director National Museum at Lima from 1845; Sec. Treasury 1852-54.—His son, NICOLAS, b. 1839. was dictator, or Supreme Chief, of Peru 1879-81, during the war with Chili; exiled 1885; Pres. 1895.

Pierpont, John, 1785-1866. American poet and reformer.

Pierre Perdue. Riprap, or random stone, thrown around the base of a pier to protect it from the current; also used in breakwaters.

Plerrepont, Edwards. LL.D., D.C.L., 1817-1892. Judge New York City Superior Court 1857-60; U. S. Attorney-gen. 1875-76; Minister to London 1876-78.

Piers Plowman. See Langland, William.

Pieta. Representations in Italian sculpture or painting of the Madonna holding t he dead Saviour in her arms. The finest

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statuary representation of this subject is that by Michelangelo in St. Peter's. One of the finest paintings of this subject is that by Giovanni Belleni at Milan.

Pietermarltzburg. Capital of Natal. S. Africa. Pop., 1891, 17,500.

Pietism. Movement begun at Frankfort 1670 by P. J. Spener, and carried on at Leipzig, and later at Halle, by A. H. Francke and other earnest men. who laid more stress on religion of the heart and life than on ecclesiastical or doctrinal distinctions; they were Lutherans, and founded no sect. Their influence, great for a time, was opposed by the rationalism of the 18th century.

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Pletra Dura. Florentine mosaic work in which jasper, agate, and other hard stones are inlaid in a slab of marble.

Piezometer. Apparatus devised by Oersted, and used for measuring the compressibility of liquids. It consists of a strong glass cylindrical vessel, fitted at its top with a metallic cylinder of smaller diameter, in which is a tightly fitting piston movable from without by a screw. The vessel containing the liquid to be compressed is acylindrical bulb terminating in a capillary tube dipping under the surface of the mercury. This is placed within the instrument and the latter filled up to the movable piston with water. If the screw be turned down, the pressure applied will be transmitted by means of the mercury to the liquid contained in the inner vessel. The capillary tube is graduated so that, by noting the movement of the mercury surface as it rises in it, the compression of the liquid under examination can be calculated. There is also contained a closed air manometer, which indicates the pressure applied. See, Gauge. Steam.

Piezometric Level. Difference of level of two atmospheric layers as expressed not by elevation (orometric), or by temperature (thermometric), or by density (pyknometric), but by barometric pressure (piezoinetric); so called by Lasne 1888.

Pig. See SuiD^E and Swine.

Pigafetta, Francesco Antonio, 1491-1535. Italian who sailed with Magellan 1518-22, and kept a journal of the memorable voyage. Viaggio intorno al Globo Terracqueo, 1800.

Pigeon-Berry. See Pokeweed.

Pigeon§. 300 species included in 4 families of the order COLUMB^E (q.v.). Their distribution is world-wide, but they are absent from localities inhabited by monkeys. In Oceanicaand s.e. Asia is the genus Ptilopus, containing 80 species that vie with Paradise birds in coloration. In N. America is Ectopistes, the wild or Passenger Pigeon, once present in incalculable numbers; it could fly 100 m. per hour. In Jamaica is a species resembling quails, and in Australia is a species that attains a lb. wt. (see Dodo). Columbu livia, the Rock Dove of the

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Mediterranean region, is the ancestor of our domestic breeds, such as Fantails, Tumblers, Pouters. Doves differ from Pigeons in having smaller heads, more graduated tails and subdued colors. Pigeons have the nostrils situated in a cere; their wings are long and pointed, and tail long and rounded, containing 12 to 20 rectrices. They can drink without raising the head. They are monogamous; both sexes care for the young, which never exceed two, and are born naked and blind. These receive food moistened by a special milky secretion in the crop. See Carrier Pigeons.

Pigeons, Homing. Highest speed record of U. S. in homing pigeons 200 m., speed 1.875 yds. per minute, in 1893; the longest distance is 1.183 m. in 13i days, in 1892; the best record is 614 m., speed 1,349 yds. per minute, in 1896.

Pigeon-Shooting. In U. S. shooting with shot-guns at birds from traps is at a distance of 30 yds. One hundred consecutive birds have been shot by Bogardus 1869 and by Bandle 1888. One hundred and eighty-eight out of 200 were shot by Murphy 1896, five traps being used. Five hundred glass balls out of 514 were broken 1881 by Haskel in 24 min. 2 sec. One hundred out of 105 clay pigeons were broken by Heikes 1896 in 3 min. 7 sec.

Pigeon Weed. TMhospermum arveme. A troublesome biennial weed, especially in wheat. In land once infested, the

only remedies are hand-pulling and a thorough bare summer fallow.

Piglheln,, 1848-1894. German artist. Prof. Munich; chiefly noted for religious subjects.

Pigment. Powdered substance, either animal or vegetable, used as a color. The oldest are those of the paintings of the Egyptians, who confined themselves to red, yellow, green, blue, black, and white. The Greeks owed their knowledge of painting, practiced by them ab.450 B.C., to the Egyptians. See Paints.

Pigmy. See Pygmy.

Pignottl, Lorenzo, 1739-1812. Italian poet and historian.

Pignut. Ricoria glabra. Large forest tree of the Walnut family, native of the e. U. S., known as Broom Hickory.

Pigres, 5th cent. B.C. Greek satiric poet, supposed author of Margites and Battle of Frogs and Mice.

Pigs in Clover. Mechanical puzzle, consisting of a small circular box containing several ring-shaped communicating partitions, one within the other, in which are small free-rolling balls. The object of the puzzle is to bring the balls together in a middle place called the Pen. It was invented 1889 by M. Lyman of Waverly, N. Y. It at once became a popular craze; hundreds of modifications of it appeared, and it was carried to all parts of the world. It is one of the few modern inventions of its kind, if not the only one.

Pigweed. The various species (Amara}itus and Chenopodium, called Goosefoot) are ordinarily more unsightly than otherwise troublesome, and may be kept in check by cutting.

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Sometimes they are troublesome in cultivated crops in very rich land, and then are kept in check dnly by early and frequent stirring of the soil with hoe and cultivator.

Pike. See Perch and Haplomi.

Pike. Spear of varying length, in general use from ancient times till ab.1530; since ab.1700 employed only for irregular warfare. The bayonet now replaces it. See Bayonet.

Pike, Albert, 1809-1891. American poet; Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1862. Hymns to the Gods, 1839-54.

Pike, Warburton. b. 1859. Canadian explorer. Barren Ground, 1892; Subarctic Forest, 1896.

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, U.S.A., 1779-1813. Explorer of the upper Mississippi 1806-7; discoverer of Pike's Peak, Col., 1806; killed in attacking York (Toronto), Canada.

Pike's Peak. Summit of the Colorado range, Col. Altitude 14,147 ft. Here the TJ. S. Signal Service maintained a meteorological station 1842-88.

Pllacreae. Family of Fungi of the sub-class Basidiomycetes, occurring on the Hornbeam and Beech.

Pilaster. Flat and shallow pillar placed against a wall, and corresponding in treatment to the circular and free-standing columns used in the same edifice.

Pilate, Pontius. Roman procurator of Judaea 26-36. He permitted the execution of Jesus, was accused of extortion and cruelty by Samaritans, and is said to have been banished to Gaul.

Pilatus, Mount. In Switzerland, w. of Lake Lucerne. Altitude of its highest peak 7,000 ft. A railway, built 1889, reaches the summit. An old tradition places Pilate's body in a pond near the top.

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Pilau. Oriental dish of rice and onions, sometimes with meat or fowls.

Pilcomayo. Branch of the Paraguay. It flows s.e. across Bolivia from the Andes, and forms part of the n.e. boundary of Argentina. Its upper course is unexplored. Length 1,000 in. or more.

Pile. Column of timber or iron sunk in the earth. Wooden piles are generally round, 9 to 18 in. in diameter at top and ab. (i in. at base; the base is often provided with an iron shoe. Creosoting is used as a protection against sea-worms. Piles should be driven in soft soil until they sink less than 1 in. under a blow of a ram equal in weight to that of the pile. Sheet piles are those driven in close contact to form a wall or inclosure; they are fastened together by iron clamps. See Disk Pile, Screw Pile.

Pileatc. Organs having or resembling a pileus.

Plleated Woodpecker. See Woodpecker.

Pile Bridges. Formed of trestle bents with spans rarely greater than 30 ft. Cajsar's bridge over the Rhine was a trestle structure.

Pile Driver. Apparatus for driving piles, consisting of a ram with the arrangements for raising it and guiding it. The common driver has a ram weighing 1,500 lbs., which falls from


Pile Driving—Process of sinking the piles by water jets.

10 to 20 ft. and makes 5 blows per minute. The steam driver has a ram weighing from 2,000 to 4,000 lbs., which falls only 3 ft. but makes 50 blows per minute. Gunpowder and dynamite have been used to drive piles. See Nasmyth Pile Driver.

Pileolus. Diminutive of pileus.
Plleorhiza. In Botany, root-cap.
Piles. See Hemorrhoids.

Pilous. Cap or spreading portion of mushrooms, toadstools, and other hymenomycetous Fungi.

Pilewort. Ficaria ficaria. Low, yellow-flowered herb of the Buttercup family, native of Europe, sparingly introduced into the U. S.

Pilgrim. See Palmer.

Pilgrimage ofCrace. Uprising of the rural population in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, Eng., in 1536 in opposition to the suppression of minor monasteries; there were about 60,000 rebels, who were quickly dispersed, about 20 being executed in 1537.

PilgrlmagCN. Journeys to sacred places; often undertaken from ab. 325: imposed as a religious discipline in the Middle Ages, and regarded as good works; common among Mohammedans and Hindus.

Pilgrim Fathers. English separatists, who in 1620 founded Plymouth Colony; to be distinguished from the nonseparatist Puritans (q.v.) who in 1628 founded and in 1630 settled Massachusetts Bay.

Pilidlum. Larva of certain nemertine worms. It is helmet-shaped. As with the Echinoderm larva?, the adult is produced through histolytic metamorphosis.

Piliferous Layer. Epidermal portions of young rootlets, bearing an abundance of root-hairs.

Pillar. Vertical shaft or column bearing a load. Its strength varies inversely with the square of its length, when the size is small compared to length.

Pillar. Block of coal, ore, or rock, left standing to support the roof of a mine. Pillars var37 in size from a few feet to several yards in width, according to the nature of the ground to be supported.

Pillar and Stall. Method of coal-mining, in which the working places and excavated portions are long and narrow, usually parallel to each other, and separated by pillars of standing coal.

Pillar-Saints. See Stylites.

Pillars of Hercules. Heights on either side the Straits of Gibraltar; supposed to have been reared by Hercules as memorials of his making an outlet for the Mediterranean.

Pilling, James Constantine, b. 1846. Connected with U. S. surveys 1872-79, and since with Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology; author of bibliographies of sundry Indian languages.

Pillory. Instrument used from remote to recent times, whereby a prisoner's neck and wrists were fastened in holes in

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a board, causing his head and hands to protrude shamefully; abolished in England 1837; used in some Southern States later.

Pillow, Fort. In Tenn.; captured by Union forces June 4. 1862; bv Confederates April 13, 1864, when nearly the whole (colored) garrison was killed.

Pillow, Gideon Johnson, 1806-1878. Brig.-gen. Tenn. Vols. 1846; Major-gen. U.S.A. 1847-48, serving throughout the war with Mexico; Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1861; second in command at Fort Donelson Feb. 1862, whence he escaped.

Pills. Medical preparation formed by mixing the ingredients usually with an excipient to make them cohesive, and then fashioning into spheroidal bodies of the prescribed size. They are frequently covered with a coating, as sugar or gelatin, to prevent tasting the medicine.

Pilon, Germain, d. 1590. French sculptor, ranking next to Goujon. His groups of the Three Graces and Four Cardinal Virtues in the Louvre are important works, designed as tomb monuments and as supports for cinerary urns.

Pilose. In Botany, organs provided with soft, long.^scattered hairs.

Pilot. Person legally authorized to conduct a ship through a specified locality. His appointment, fees, rights, and powers are generally regulated by statutes. In U.S. pilots are licensed under U. S. laws, by a commission or by a State Governor; in Great Britain the Pilotage Authorities have charge of this subject.

Pilot Fish (naucrates Ductor). Acanthopterygian fish of the family Carangida. It lives in the high seas, attains a

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