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Pheitanthrene. C14H10. Solid hydrocarbon, crystallizing in plates and melting at 100° C.; found in coal tar. It is present in anthracene oils, and may be separated by the oxidation of the anthracene, leaving the phenanthrene. It is used in making printers' blacks.
Phcnetol. C„HsOCaHs. Phenylethyl ether; bpt. 172° O.J liquid of very agreeable odor, prepared from diazobenzene nitrate and ethyl alcohol.
Phenetol Red. Sodium salt of the product of the action of iliazophenetol upon a naphtholdisulphonic acid.
Phenol. C„H5OH. Carbolic acid; colorless crystalline mass of strong odor, melting at 41" C. It is prepared from coal tar. The oils, distilling from 150°-225° C, are treated with caustic soda solution, the clear solution then acidified by sulphuric acid, in which the phenol is insoluble, and which causes its separation as an oil. It is then rectified. It is slightly soluble in water. It is used largely as an antiseptic and for the preparation of other products, as salicylic acid and picric acid. It is poisonous and should be used with care about extensive wounds. It is very easily acted upon by chemical agents. It forms unstable salts, as the sodium salt C0H5ONa (called a phenylate or phenate), which is decomposed by water. The name phenol is applied to the class of compounds obtained by replacing the benzene hydrogen of aromatic hydrocarbons with hydroxy].
Phenol Alcohols. Substances which are at once alcohols and phenols, as HO.C0H4.CH.jOH, hydroxybenzyl alcohol. See Alcohols and Phenols.
Phenol Brown. See Phenyl Brown.
Phenol Colors. Artificial coal-tar colors, prepared from phenols, or having the constitution of a phenol; e.g. eosin.
Phciiolphthalcin. Ca0H,,O4. Phthalein of phenol, produced by heating phenol with phthalic anhydride and sulphuric acid; yellow mass, insoluble in water. Used as an indicator, it gives a deep red with alkalies, and is colorless with acids, in dilute solution. It is the first member of the class of phthaleins.
Phenols. Compounds in which hydroxyl (OH) is attached to a carbon atom which is a member of a closed ring. So phenol is Benzene (q.v.), in which hydrogen has been replaced by hydroxyl. The compounds present certain similarities to the alcohols, but have a more acid character. See Phenol. By oxidation they are usually broken up and do not furnish acids or ketones. Examples: Phenol, cresol. naphthol.
Phenol Sulphonlc Acid. HO.C„H4.HSO,. Known in three forms: ortho, meta, and para. They are all white crystalline bodies. The ortho and para phenol sulphonic acids are formed by the action of sulphuric acid upon phenol. The ortho acid is used as an antiseptic.
Phenomenology. Science of phenomena or of the laws of events, including their classification and the order of their dependence and conditions; contrasted with Ontology.
Phenomenon. 1. Any event which occurs in time and conditioned by some cause, whether the event be related to consciousness or not. 2. Appearance essentially related to mind and expressed in terms of consciousness, or a relation to knowledge.—In science, any event, whatever its character or circumstances.
Phenyl. C,H,. Group or radical derived from benzene by the removal of one atom of hydrogen from it. 0,11,—H = C,H,—. Constituent of numerous aromatic compounds. It does not exist in the free condition.
Phenyl Acetate. CHj.COO.C.H,. Bpt. 193° C. Liquid of agreeable odor, prepared by the action of acetamide upon phenol.
Phenyl Alcohol. See Phenol.
Phenyl Amine. See Aniline.
Phenylftmine Blue. See Diphenylamine Blue.
Phenyl Brown. Yellow powder, somewhat explosive; produced by the action of nitric acid upon crude phenol.
Phenyl Cyanide. See Benzonitrile.
Phenylene. C6H4:. Group or radical derived from benzene bv the removal of two atoms of hydrogen. C,H„—2H = C,H4:." Three forms of the group, ortho-, meta-, and paraphenylene, are recognized. Derivatives are called phenylene compounds.
Phenylene Blue. Blue dyestuff prepared by the action of aniline and oxygen upon paraphenylenediamine.
Phenylene Brown. See Bismarck Brown.
Phcnylencdiamine. C0H4: (NH„) . Diamidobenzene; known in three forms, corresponding to the three phenylene groups; easily oxidizable white solids, prepared by the action
of hydrogen upon the corresponding nitranilines and dinitro compounds; bases, forming permanent salts with hydrochloric acid. The meta compound is used as a test for nitrous acid, the minutest amount of the acid giving a yellow coloration with the compound.
Phenyl Ether. (CBHs)2:0. Long needles, prepared from phenol by treating it with zinc or aluminium chloride.
Phenylhydrnzine. C,HL.NH.NH,. Colorless crystals, easily uniting with hydrochloric acid to form a chloride." This salt is best prepared by the action of hydrogen on diazobenzene chloride. It is a common reagent for the detection of aldehydes, ketones and glucoses, with which characteristic compounds are formed.
Phenyl Salicylate. See Salol.
Phenyl Sulphone. (CjH^SO,,. White crystalline body, repared by the action of sulphuric anhydride upon benzene, ee SULPHENES.
Phenyl Sulphurous Aeid. See Benzene Sulphonic Acid.
Phenyl Violet. C„HajNs04. Acetate of orthotolylpara rosaniliue; made from the residues of the fuchsine manufactured by the arsenic acid method; green powder, dyeing wool red-violet.
Pherai. City of Thessaly, near Mt. Pelion; capital of Jason and Alexander, 378-357 B.C.
Pherecrates, 5th cent. B.C. Athenian dramatist. Fragments survive.
Pherecydes. 1. Greek philosopher of Syros, 6th cent. B.C. 2. Athenian writer on mythology and history, 5th cent. B.C. Both are known by fragments.
Phi Beta Kappa. College fraternity founded 1776 at William and Mary Coll., Va.
Phidias, ab. 500-ab. 432 B.C. Greatest sculptor of ancient Greece. Art director of Athens during the ascendency of Pericles. The Parthenon and Propylsea were thus among his works. He is best known through the sculptured decorations of the Parthenon, now mainly in London. Although it is not certain that he personally worked on any of these figures, it is possible, and they represent his original models. As a sculptor he was most actively employed on the colossal gold and ivory temple statues, like the Zeus at Olympia and Athena in the Parthenon. Among other colossal bronze figures he executed the Athena Promachus for the Acropolis. The later Greek types of Athena and Zeus were his creation. The bust known as the Otricoli Jupiter in the Vatican is the best Roman copy of the later type. The. characteristics of this sculptor were simplicity, sublimity and grandeur.
Phigalia. Ancient town of s. w. Arcadia, noted for a temple of Apollo, described 1765. Its fine frieze, showing fights between Centaurs and Lapithae. and Greeks and Amazons, was taken to the British Museum 1812.
Philadelphia. Largest city of Pa., on the Delaware, at the mouth of the Schuylkill. It has extensive railroad com
sq. m., the city and county being coextensive. It has ab. 1,300 ra. of streets, of whichab. 350 are paved. Water is supplied by pumping, mainly from the Schuylkill, with a small proportion from the Delaware. The principal park is Fairmount, on both banks of the Schuylkill, in the outskirts of the settled area. It comprises 2.740 acres, or ab. 4 sq. m. There are numerous other parks and open squares. The city is thoroughly sewered, drainage being had into the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It has extensive manufactures, consisting largely of iron and steel, cotton and woolen goods, carpets, drugs, chemicals, sugar, and molasses. It is the site of Univ. Pa , Jefferson Medical Coll., Girard Coll., and other educational institutions. Swedish colonists located here 1636. The city was founded by Penn 1682, and from the commencement had a steady growth. It was the place of meeting of the Continental Congress from 1774 till 1783, excepting the year of its occupation by the English troops, in Carpenters' Hall 1774, subsequently in the State House, Independence Hall. Here the Declaration of Independence was adopted and the U. S. Constitution w;is framed. It was the capital of Pa. till 1799, and of the U. S. 1790-1800. Pop., 1890, 1,046,964.
Plliladclpllianx. Mystical sect, founded 1652 in London by Dr. John Pordage (1608-1698), and other disciples of Jakob Boehme (1652-1710), theosophist and mystic. Mrs. Leade was its prophetess. It died ab. 1710.
Philae. Island in the Nile, near Assouan, and just above the First Cataract; site of some picturesque ruins of the Ptole
maic period. It was celebrated in Egyptian Mythology as the burial-place of Isis and Osiris, and thus became a resort for pious pilgrims.
Philaret, 1782-1867. Abp. of Tver 1819; Metropolitan of Moscow 1821; eminent for piety, learning, eloquence, administrative ability, and knowledge of Western thought.
Philaftter. Bp. of Brescia in 4th century; writer on heresies.
Philately. Study and gathering of postage-stamps; begun ab.1850, and since carried to great lengths by many persons in all civilized lands. It is now far more popular (at least in the U. S.), though far less instructive, than numismatics; for stamps suggest only geography, while coins cover almost the whole ground of known history. Numerous journals are devoted to philately, as well as organized societies of stamp collectors. The sale of stamps is a well recognized industry. The word was coined by a French collector (Herpin) 1865.
Phllbrick, John Dudley, LL.D., D.C.L., 1818-1886. Supt. of Boston schools 1857-74 and 1876-78. City School Systems, 1885.
Philelpho, or Filelfo, Francesco, 1398-1481. Italian I teacher; Sec. to Venetian Embassy at Constantinople 1126-27. After acquiring a knowledge of the Greek language and literature, then almost wholly unknown in the West, he returned to Italy and played an important part in the Revival of Learning then in progress, lecturing at Bologna, Florence, Milan, and Rome.
Philemon, ab.365-262 B.C. Attic writer of the New Comedy, imitated by Plautus. Fragments survive.
Philemon And Baucis. Phrygian entertainers of Zeus and Hermes; celebrated in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Philemon, Epistle To. Eighteenth N. T. book, written by St. Paul to a Colossian, interceding for a fugitive slave, Onesimus.
Philharmonic Society. 1. Of New York; organization of professional musicians whose purpose it is to give concerts of high-class music on the communal plan; organized April 5, 1842; incorporated Feb. 17. 1853. It has given annual concerts since 1842. Carl Bergmann was conductor 1865-76. His successors have been Dr. L. Damrosch, T. Thomas, A. Neuendorff and Anton Seidl. 2. Of London; founded 1813 for the encouragement of orchestral and instrumental music. Some of the greatest masterpieces were written for it, among them the Choral Symphony of Beethoven. 3. Of Vienna; an orchestral body with organization and purpose similar to those of the New York Society; organized 1842 by Otto Nicolai.
Phlletag, Of Cos, 3d cent. B.C. Poet and critic at Alexandria; tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphia.
Phllidor, Francois Andre (danioan), 1726-1795. French chess player, composer of 22 operas, besides intermezzi and church music. Jeu des Echecs, 1777.
Philip. One of the Apostles; in later life active, it is said, in Asia Minor.
Philip. Evangelist: one of the 7 deacons. Acts vi., viii.
Philip II., Of Macedon, 382-336 B.C. King 359; conqueror of Thessaly, and at Cha-ronea 338 of all Greece; father of Alexander, who carried out his plan of invading Persia.
Philip V., 237-179 B.C. King of Macedon 220; at war with Rome 210-205 and 200-197; defeated at Cynoscephalas 197.
Philip I., Of France, 1052-1108. King 1060; twice excommunicated.
Philip II. (auoustcs), 1165-1223. Son of Louis VII.; King 1180. He took part in the 3d crusade 1190, warred with England and other neighbors, greatly enlarged his domains, quarreled with the Pope, gained a memorable victory at Bouvines 1214, and did much for Paris and its university.
Philip III., 1245-1285. Son of Louis IX.; King 1270; a wise and pacific ruler.—His son, Philip IV. ("le Bel"'), 12681314, King 1285, taxed the clergy, delied the Pope, and later won infamy by persecuting and destroying the Templars 1310-14.— His 2d son, PHILIP V., reigned 1316-22.
Philip VI., 1293-1350. King 1328; founder of the House of Valois; at war with England from 1337; worthless , as man and ruler. He was defeated at Cressy and lost Caiais 1346-47.
Philip II., Of Spain, 1527-1598. Son of Charles V.; King 1555; most powerful monarch in Europe, holding Spain, vast dominions in America. Africa, and E. Indies, the two Sicilies, Milan. Burgundy, the Low Countries, and. from 1581, Portugal. He exhausted his dominions in attempts to subjugate the Netherlands, and in wars with England and France. The elaborate preparations of the Armada 1588 ended in humiliating
Philip V., 1683-1746. Grandson of Louis XIV.; King 1700; first of the Spanish Bourbons; feeble and incapable. The War of Succession, 1700-13, stripped Spain of the Netherlands, Italy, and Gibraltar.
Philip. German emperor 1198-1208; son of Frederic I.
Philip, or Metacomet, d. 1676. Indian chief who carried on a devastating war against the Mass. colonists 1675.
Philip THE Bold. 1342-1404. Son of John of France; Duke of Burgundy 1363.—His grandson, Philip The Good. 1396-1467, was in alliance with England 1419-35, and inherited most of the Netherlands ab.1430, making his realm the strongest in Europe.
Philiphaugh. In s. Scotland, near Selkirk; scene of defeat of Montrose Sept. 13, 1645.
Phillppl. City of Macedonia, famous for the victory won by Octavianus and Antony over Brutus and Cassius 42 B.C.; seat of a church addressed by St. Paul ab.62 from his Roman prison, in an epistle which is the 11th N. T. book.
Philippics. Three great orations of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon. The Olynthiac orations are sometimes so styled, as also Cicero's orations against Antony.
Philippine Islands. Large group in w. Pacific, n.e. of Borneo, the principal being Luzon and Mindanao; discovered 1521. They belong to Spain and are very fertile. Area ab. 115,000 sq. m. The natives rose in rebellion 1896. Pop. ab.
Philippine Islanders. The original inhabitants, NeGritos (q.v.) or ^Etas, now number ab. 25,000 in population. The chief inhabitants are Malays, of whom the Tagals (q.v.) and Visayas are the most important tribes and number ab. 3,300,000.
Pllilippopolis. Ancient city of E. Rumelia, on the Maritza; taken by Turks 1363, and by Russians 1878. Pop. ab. 33,500.
Philippoteaux, Henri Emmanuel Felix, 1815-1884. French painter of battle-scenes and panoramas.—His son, Paul, b. 1846, exhibited 77ie Battle of Gettysburg, a cyclorama, in the U. S. 1883.
Philippus, Marcus Julius, 204-249. Arabian; Emperor 244, by murder of Gordian; defeated and slain by Decius, after celebrating the millennium of Rome 248.
Philips, Ambrose, 1671-1749. English poet and dramatist; ed. Freethinker 1718.
Philips, Edward. 1630-ab.l695. English author, nephew of Milton.—His brother, John, 1631-ab.l707, pub. satires and translations.
Philips, John, 1676-1708. English poet. Splendid Shilling, 1701; Cider, 1708; Blenheim, 1705.
Philips, Katherine (" Orinda" ), 1631-1664. English poet.
Philistines. Warlike tribe, occupying the s. coast of Palestine; gradually subdued by the Israelites, and broken up by Assyrians and Egyptians: commonly regarded as of Aryan descent. The name was applied by M. Arnold to dull or prejudiced Conservatives, opponents of light and progress.
Philistlis, ab.435-ab.361 B.C. Greek historian of Sicily.
Phillimon, John George, LL.D., 1809-1865. London lawyer, M.P. 1852. Private Law among the Romans, 1863.—His brother. Sir Robert Joseph, D.C.L., 1810-1885, was Judge of the Arches Court 1867-75, and of Admiralty 1867-83. International Law, 4 vols., 1854-61.
Phillip, John, 1817-1867. Scottish painter, chiefly of Spanish scenes; R.A. 1859.
Phillipps, Adelaide, 1833-1882. American singer.
Phillips, Georg. 1804-1872. German writer on history and canon law. Das Kirchenrecht, 7 vols., 1845-72.
Phillips, John. 1719-1795. Founder of Phillips Exeter Academy, N. H., 1781.
Phillips, John, 1800-1874. Prof, of Geology in London, Dublin, and Oxford. Geology, 1837-38; Pakeozoic Fossils, 1841.
Phillips, John Arthur, 1822-1887. English geologist and metallurgist. Mining and Metallurgy of Gold and Silver, 1867; Ore Deposits, 1884.
Phillips, Philip, b. 1834. American singing evangelist.
Philoctetes and Ulysses.
pile on Mt. Oeta, where Hercules burned himself. Partaker in the siege of Troy; slayer of Paris; subject of a drama by Sophocles.
Phllodemus, 1st cent. B.C. Greek epicurean. Fragments of his writings exist.
Philo-Judrens, d. after 40. Jewish philosopher, Alexandrian Neo-Platonist, who developed the Zogos doctrine which introduced Greek philosophy into Palestine; chief representative of the effort to fuse Jewish faith with Hellenic culture. He probably had no little influence on early Christian doctrine.
Philolaus, b. ab. 480 B.C. Pythagorean philosopher, first to propound the earth's motion.
Philology. This has the twofold task of classifying the languages of the world, co-ordinating and studying them, and of stating and solving all problems of speech in itself. It touches history and philosophy on one side, and physiology on the other, it is not quite the same thing as the science of language. The latter defines itself; the former, with language as its basis, takes up questions of law, culture, art and religion, whatever is expressed by the word humanities. Its narrowest Held is the study of words, and this study goes hand in hand with phonetics. A word is a sound or combination of sounds, and this, not the letters, which merely serve as symbol, is the starting point of the philologist. Words, singly and in combination, make language; the dividing line between the signs, calls, and other means of communication used by brutes, and human speech, is admitted to be the conventional, communal and progressive character of the latter. The former are emotional signs, stable, and directly joined with physical causes. Human beings use speech as an art, and constantly improve it. Human speech, moreover, is articulate, and therefore subject to analysis into the sounds which compose it; whence our alphabet, an inadequate symbolicregister of the chief sounds in a given language. Language being progressive, the earliest forms of speech must have been as rude and general as possible, expressing the most obvious physical facts in the most obvious way. The earliest form of the word is the root, which holds the crude or general meaning which is afterward modified by many changes of form to signify, (1) particular changes of the general meaning, and (2) changes of application, as in the inflections. See Comparative Philology.
Philomela. Sister of Procne, wife of Tereus, King of Thrace. Dishonored by him, she was metamorphosed into a nightingale.
Philopcna. German game; an almond with two kernels is divided between two persons, and the one who first receives anything from the other must give a present.
Philosophy. Reflection upon the totality of things with a view to ascertaining their unity, relation and ultimate explanation. It comprehends both antology and phenomenology, though sometimes identified with the former, and sometimes with certain functions of the latter. It differs from any special science in the comprehensiveness of its subject matter, in that it embraces that of all the sciences, and from all the sciences in the extent to which it employs reflection, deductive method, and analysis, and excludes experiment. Philosophy is thus an instrument or method for determining the organic unity and meaning of all knowledge, with special reference to the ultimate nature of being and the laws of phenomena.
Philosophy. Natural. See Physics.
Philostratus, ab.180-ab.250. Greek sophist at Rome, whose Lives of the Sophists and of Apollonius of Tyana are extant, with poems and epistles. Two namesakes of his, somewhat later, and one in 1st cent., left writings.
Philoxenus, 435-380 B.C. Greek dithyrambic poet of Syracuse, Italy, Corinth and Asia. Fragments remain.
Philters. Concoctions of herbs and other materials, often used in ancient and mediaeval times, and still by the superstitious, to induce love in him who drank them. One of them is said to have maddened the poet Lucretius. They are still common in the East.
Philydracese. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 3 genera and ab. 3 species, natives of Australia, Malaysia, e. Asia, and the Pacific Islands.
Phlnehas. 1. Son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron, high priest of Israel. 2. Son of Eli, slain with his brother Hophni, in battle with the Philistines, when the Ark Of The Covenant (q.v.) was captured.
Phips, or Phlpps, Sir William. 1651-1695. Boston merchant, knighted 1687 for recovering Spanish treasure lost near the Bahamas; sheriff of New England 1688; Gov. of Mass. 1692-94. He took Port Royal. N. S., 1690, attacked Quebec 1691, and stopped the witchcraft trials 1692.
Phlebenterata. See Kolid.-e.
Phlebitis. Inflammation of the veins; apt to produce blood-poisoning or to form a clot (see Thrombosis), which, if separated from the walls of the vein and carried along in the circulation, may plug up a blood-vessel, forming an embolism.
Phlebotomy. Extraction of blood from a vein as a remedial measure. The vein known as the median cephalic on the front of the arm at the elbow is usualty selected for the operation.
In Greek Mythology, river of flames in the
Phlegmasia Dolens, or Phlegmasia Alba Dolens. Painful swelling of the leg, usually of septic origin, consequent upon child-birth; popularly known as Milk-leg.
Phlegmon. Inflammation attended with the formation of pus which is not confined to the part inflamed, but spreads within the tissues.
Phlegon, 2d cent. Greek writer, of whose work on Marvels, his Olym}riads, and his treatise on Long-lived Persons, portions are extant.
Phloem. Part of a fibro-vascular bundle composed of cribrose-cells.
Phloem-Sheath. See Pericambium.
Phlogiston. See Chemistry.
Phlogopite. Variety of mica in which is relatively a larger amount of magnesium and a smaller amount of iron than in the biotite variety. Its color is usually some shade of yellow, brown, or copper red.
Phloroglucln. C,H, : (OH),. Trihydroxybenzene; white solid, melting at 218° C.; formed by the fusion of certain resins, and also resorcin, with potash or soda; isomer of pyrogallic acid.
Phlox. Genus of showy-flowered plants of the natural family I'olenioniacece, natives of N. America; much planted for ornament.
Phloxlne. Cl0H4Cl,Br4O,K,. Potassium salt of dichlortetrabromfluorescein; made by the action of bromine on dichlorfluorescein; yellow powder, soluble in water, and dyeing wool red; also, the corresponding tetrachlor compound.
Phocxa, Ionian city of w. Asia Minor, whose people were active and hardy mariners. Attacked by Persians ab.500 B.C., they migrated westward; some of them founded Marseilles.
Phocas I., d. 610. Byzantine emperor 602; deposed as a tyrant, and executed.—II. Emperor 963; conqueror in several wars; murdered by Zimisces, his successor.
Phocidae. Family of Pinnipedia, comprising the true Seals, numerous in species, abounding in all seas, but especially in the colder regions. They are unable to use their hind feet when on land, as these are directed backward and included with the tail in a sort of rudder or propeller. They have incisors in both jaws and moderate-sized canines.
Phoclon, 402-317 B.C. Athenian statesman and general, who, after fighting the Macedonians with success, foresaw Philip's triumph and advocated submission, opposing Demosthenes. A pure patriot of high character, he was condemned to the hemlock; but his memory was honored after death.
Phocls. District of Greece w. of Boeotia, containing Mt. Parnassus and the Temple of Delphi. The Sacred War, 355346 B.C., ended in the defeat and punishment of the Phocians by Philip.
Phooj lidos, 6th cent. B.C. Greek elegiac poet.
Phoenicians. Semitic race occupying a strip of coast land in Syria. Tyre, Sidon, Berytus, and Tripolis were some of their
Phlox paniculata (rar.).
cities; among their colonies, Carthage, Hippo, Utica, Gades. They were the most eminent navigators and traders of antiquity, visiting the vv. coast of Africa and even the British isles. The invention of letters, arithmetic, astronomy, navigation, manufacture of glass, and coinage have been ascribed to them. Phoenicia was conquered by Cyrus 537 B.C., by Alexander 332, by the Romans 47 B.C.
Phoenlcopteridae (flamingoes). Family of African and S. American Lamellirostral birds, resembling the Anseridce in the structure of the feet and bill, and the Herons in the length of the legs. The bill is suddenly curved downward at the middle.
Phoenix. Mythical bird of ancient Egypt, supposed to rise from flames.
Phoenix Column. Hollow wrought-iron column, formed by riveting' together several segmental shapes with flanges; so called because made by the Phoenix Bridge Company.
Pholadida? (boring Mussels). Family of Lamellibranchs, including forms having the valves of the shell gaping and with accessory pieces on the hinge (or on the siphons, in Teredo). The mantle has only a small opening for the foot, but there are very long siphons. They bury deeply in sand, wood, or stone, and protrude the siphons. The Ship-worm, Teredo, does much damage by its perforations of the hulls of ships and the piles of docks and wharfs.
Plionaulograph. Instrument contrived by Leon Scott 1858. It consists of a hollow paraboloid, closed at its narrow end by an elastic membrane having a stylus attached at its middle point. The stylus is just in contact with the surface of a smoked revolving cylinder, in such a position that a uniform
line is traced upon the cylinder if the membrane be at rest. If, however, it be thrown into vibration by waves of sound entering the paraboloid, the stylus describes an undulating line which varies in its form according to the frequency, amplitude, and complexity of the sound wave.
Phonetics. Science which investigates the sounds of the human voice, and is thus allied with both physiology and physics. It is among the latest developments in philology, and is not yet fixed in its principles and methods; notably, it has not yet produced a system of symbols which all scholars are willing to accept, though various schemes, such as the "visible speech," have been suggested. The importance of phonetics lies in the help it affords to the study of sound-changes, and hence of all development and differentiation of speech. The simplest elements of speech, usually known by the name of their symbols, as the alphabet, or letters, are divided into vowels and consonants; in reality, not only is the hard and fast dividing-line impossible (sounds such as r or n may be vowel or consonant), but there is no limit to the variety of these sounds, according to the position of the vocal organs. A consonant may be defined as the closer "less continuable" sound, which, combined with a vowel, the open "continuable" sound, makes up the syllable. The symbols b, d, g; p, t, k, are the "explosives" or mutes: the "forcatives," rubbing or lingering consonants, are th (thy), th' (thigh), f, v, s, z; the nasals m, n; and the liquids r, I. These, again, are divided into lipsounds, b, p, v, f, To; tongue'(or teeth) sounds, d, t, th, th'; and palatals, or gutturals, q, k. Still another division is made; consonants formed with a distinct effort of the larynx are called sonant, b, d, y, v, z, as compared with the "surds," p, t, k, f, s. The English-speaking student must pronounce the vowels after the Italian fashion. With this caution a simple table, arranged according to the various positions of the vocal organs, may indicate the vowels:
i, ie, e1, e, ea, ae, a, a°, oa, o, ou, u°, u.
Here ae is our sound of a in hat, while a is the sound in father. Diphthongs are combinations of vowels like tin write, which is really made up of two sounds, though often miscalled a vowel.
Phonograph. Invention of Edison, somewhat analogous to the phonautograph of Scott. It consists of a horizontal cylinder carrying a screw thread, which rotates with a uniform lateral motion. The cylinder is covered with tin foil: upon this a stylus fixed to the under side of a vibrating plate is made
tions will be reproduced and transferred to the diaphragm, which in turn will send out corresponding sound-waves into the air. The recently improved instrument of Edison uses peculiarly prepared cylinders of wax in place of tin foil.
Phonography. See Shorthand.
Phonollte. See Clinkstone.
Phonomotor. Apparatus devised by Edison for changing the energy of sound into that of a rotating mass. A stretched elastic membrane has attached at its center a pawl, the end of which rests on the serrated rim of a ratchet wheel, the teeth so sloped that the pawl will slide over them easily in one direction, but will catch if moving in the opposite direction. In this way a continuous vibration of the membrane, caused by the impact of sound waves, is able to produce rotation of the wheel, the rim of the ratchet passing under the pawl away from the membrane.
Phonoplcx. System of telegraphy devised by Edison, by which the capacity of an ordinary telegraph line can be increased. The principle upon which the system is operated is induction. The receiving instruments or phones respond only to induced currents of high tension, thrown upon the line by suitable transmitting devices. These currents interfere in no way with the Morse instruments on the same circuit, being1 made to pass round them through condensers. This system can be operated upon circuits not exceeding ab. 100 miles.
Phoranthlum. See Cllnanthium.
Phormion, 5th cent. B.C. Athenian general, prominent at Potidea, Naupactus, and in other battles.
Phormis, 5th cent. B.C. One of the originators of Doric comedy. Phoronoiny. See Zoology.
Phosgene. COC1,. Carbonyl chloride; yellowish gas, formed by the union of carbon monoxide with chlorine in the sunlight; used in the preparation of certain organic compounds; often sold in solution in benzene. Treated with ammonia it yields urea.
Phosphate Rock. Rock containing calcium phosphatein such quantity and in such chemical combination as to be available for use in the manufacture of fertilizers. In different localities the deposits differ widely in physical and in chemical properties, and only a small part of the rock mined is of use to the agriculturist, with previous chemical treatment. Some phosphates are clearly of mineral origin, as rock containing apatite; but the larger deposits, those from which the commercial demand is met, owe their existence, directly or indirectly, to accumulations of animal remains. In recent years a great part of the world's supply has been drawn from S. C. and Fla. In 1895, 831,498 tons, value $2,577,643, were produced in U.S.
Phosphates. Derivatives of phosphoric acid.
Pbosphatic Diathesis. Habit of a body which favors the deposition of the phosphates from the urine.
Phosphides. Compounds formed by the union of phosphorus and some other element: e.g., zinc phosphide, Zn,Pr