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Petcliora. River of n. Russia, heading in the Ural Mts., and flowing into the Arctic Ocean. Length 1120 m., drainage area 117,996 sq. m.

Pet Cocks. Small plug cocks, opening into the air from some vessel in which there is a different pressure from that outside; originally cocks put upon the connection to the airchamber of the feed pump on a locomotive, so that the hot water might be expelled through them which leaked into it, and by its vaporization prevented the barrel from filling from the suction. These cocks are still used on locomotives which pump their feed. The use has been extended so that the term now covers any small cock which can be opened to blow out air or water to waste into the atmosphere.

Petechia?. Small punctate extravasations of blood under the epidermis, resulting from various diseases; e.g., scurvy.

Peter, St. One of the Apostles; Galilean fisherman. At first usually the spokesman of the Twelve; less prominent after the rise of James among the Jewish and Paul among the Gentile Christians. Supposed to have been crucified at Rome ab. 67. His first Epistle, 21st N. T. book, was written, probably, after 60, from Babylon (possibly Rome), to the churches of Asia Minor. The second epistle is less certainly authentic. His Gospel aud Revelation are apocryphal: fragments remain.

Peter I., "the Great," 1672-1725. Emperor of Russia 1682; sole ruler from 1689. He studied navigation and shipbuilding, living in Holland and England 1697-98. His reign was marked by extensive reforms, some cruelties, the found


Peter the Great's House at Zaandam. Holland (on the left).

ingof St. Petersburg 1703, and wars with Sweden 1700-21, and Persia 1722, which added several provinces to his dominions. A war with Turkey, 1711, was disastrous. Of his grandsons, Peter II.. 1715-1730, was Czar from 1727, and Peter III., 17281762, was murdered after reigning six months.

Peterborough, Charles Mordaunt, Earl Of, ab. 16581735. Lord of the Treasury and Earl 1689-90; imprisoned January-April 1697; commander in Spain 1705-7, where he won great fame by a brilliant campaign, and by his capture and defense of Barcelona.

Peter de Vllieis, d. 1250. Chancellor of Frederic II.; author of a code of laws proclaimed 1213.

Peterloo Massacre. In St. Peter's Field, Manchester, Aug. 16, 1819, a crowd of laborers assembled to petition Parliament for a redress of grievances. They were dispersed by cavalry; some were killed and many injured. This was the starting point of modern reform agitation.

Petermann, August, 1822-1878. German geographer; in Gt. Britain 1845-54; ed. Mittheiltingen from 1854.

Peter Martyr, d. 1252. Italian Dominican, killed by a mob; patron and model of the Inquisition.

Peter Martyr. See "vermigli.

Peter Martyr Aiitflcrhiv 1459-1525. Spanish priest and writer. De Orbe Novo, 1516.

Peter Out. To grow gradually thinner and thinner, and finally to disappear altogether, especially in relation to mineral veins.

Peters, Christian August Frieduich. 1806-1880. Assistant at Hamburg Observatory 1834-39; connected with that at Pulkowa 1839-49; Prof, of Astronomy at Konigsberg 1849; director of observatory at Altona 1854, and from 1872 at Kiel; ed. Astronomische Nachrichten.

Peters, Christian Henry Fredrick, 1813-1890. Born in Sleswick; graduated at Berlin. Prof. Hamilton Coll. and Director of Litchfield Observatory, Clinton, N. Y., from 1858.

Here he constructed a series of excellent maps of zodiacal stars, observed many thousands of sun spots, and discovered 52 asteroids, besides many comets and variable stars.

Peters, Hugh, 1599-1660. Minister at Salem, Mass., 163641; Chaplain in Parliament's army; executed as a regicide.

Peters, Richard, LL.D., 1744-1828. Sec. to Board of War 1776-81; Delegate to Congress from Pa. 1782-83; U. S. District Judge from 1792. Admiralty Decisions, 1807.—His son, RichArd, 1780-1848, pub. Condensed Reports of V. S., 1830-34; U. S. Digest, 1838-39, and other reports.

Peters, Samuel, 1735-1826. Romancing historian of Conn, and its "blue laws." General History of Conn., 1781; Hist, of Hugh Peters, 1807. See Blue Laws.

Peter's, St. At Rome; largest church in the world; 613 ft. long, 450 ft. wide in the transept, with a facade 368 ft. long and 145 ft. high. The dome is 195i ft. in diameter, and rises 435 ft. from the pavement. It stands on the site of a basilica


St. Peter's Church, with Colonnade built by Bernini lti«7.

built by Constantine on the spot where, according to tradition, St. Peter suffered martyrdom. The replacing of the old basilica was bejrun 1450; the dome, designed by Michelangelo, was finished 1590; the completed church was consecrated 1626.

Petersburg. City of'Dinwiddle co., Va., on the Appomattox River. It is an important railroad center, and has considerable manufactures of tobacco and cotton goods. It was invested by Union forces June 15, 1864, and evacuated by Confederates April 3, 1865, after ruany assaults. A mine was exploded July 30, 1864. Pop., 1890, 22,680.

Petersen, Johann Wilhelm, 1649-1727. Supt. at Liibeck 1677 and Lilmberg 1688; deposed 1692 for indorsing the revelations of an alleged prophetess; voluminous theological writer.

Petersen, Niels Matthias, 1791-1862. Prof. Copenhagen 1845; philological and antiquarian writer. Hist. Danish Literature, 5 vols., 1853-64.

Peter's Pence. Contributions to the papal treasury, exacted in England ab.725-1534; of late, free-will offerings from various countries.

Peter the Hermit, ab.1050-1115. Preacher and leader of 1st crusade 1095.

Peter the Venerable, 1094-1156. Abbot of Cluny 1122. He wrote against Jews, Saracens, and heretics.

Pcterwardcln. Town of Hungarv, on the Danube, 44 m. n.w. of Belgrade; scene of a defeat of"180,000 Turks, Aug. 10, 1716, by Prince Eugene.

Pctigru, James Lewis, 1789-1863. Atty.-gen. of S. C. 182230: leader of Charleston bar; Unionist, opposing nullification 1830 and secession 1860; codifier of S. C. laws.

Pctlolar. Resembling or pertaining to the petiole.

Petiole. Leaf-stalk.

Pctiolule. Petiole of a leaflet in compound leaves.

Petlon, Alexandre, 1770-1818. Pres. Hayti from 1807; at war with Christophe; a wise and efficient ruler. His small coinage is abundant.

Petlon de Villeneuve, Jerome, 1753-1793. French Deputy 1789: Mayor of Paris 1791; first pres. Convention; Girondist, proscribed for opposing Robespierre.

Petis de la Croix, Francois, 1653-1713. French Arabic scholar and court interpreter, who translated many works from the Turkish, Persian, and other languages.

Petit de Jullcville, Louis, b. 1841. Prof. Dijon and Paris; historian of the drama. Les Mysteris, 1880; Tlteatre en France, 1889.



Petite Culture. Custom of cultivating small portions of laud with a relatively large application of labor and capital, especially under a peasant proprietary.

Petition of Right. Concerning divers rights and liberties, being ch. I. of 3 Car. 1: statute of great constitutional importance in Britain. Also, common law proceeding for the recovery of one's private property from the Crown's possession.

Petitlo Prineipit. Argument which proves a point by assuming it.

Petit Mai. Form of epileptic seizure not marked by the violent convulsion (Grand mal) so frequently associated with the disease; the form of the attack is protean.

Petit-Tuonan*. See Dupetit Thouars.

Peto, Sir Samuel Morton, 1809-18H9. English engineer; Baronet 1855; constructor of the Grand Trunk R.R. in Canada; M.P. 1847-54.1859-68. His firm failed heavily 1868. Taxation, 1863.

Pctofl, Sandor, 1823-1849. Hungarian poet, killed in the revolution. Works, 1874.

Petra. Ancient capital of Edom, afterward of the Nabataeans; in a mountain basin, the meeting-place of various caravan routes; in splendor long comparable to Palmyra or Baalbec. Its ruins are almost all built against rocky masses, or hewn into


El Khusna, or Treasury of Pharaoh.

them. Its rock tombs and cave-dwellings, with ornamental facades of late Greco-Roman style, are now beset by Bedouins, and accessible only under exceptional circumstances or with a strong military escort.

Petrarch, Francesco. 1304-1374. Italian poet, celebrated for the exquisite music of his verse in Sonnets and Canzoniere. He marks the transition from mediaeval allegorical poetry to the modern school, and has been called "the first true artist of Italian literature.'' He received the laurel crown in Rome 1341, became Archdeacon of Parma, and was canon of several cathedrals. He vainly sought to secure the removal of the Papal court from Avignon to Rome. His life was tinged by his passion for Laura, in whose praise he wrote 350 sonnets and canzoni.

Petrels (procellariid^). Seventy species exist. They have tubular nostrils, long pointed wings, three webbed toes, turned forward, and a small hind toe. They fly close to the water, and rarely land. Wilson's Petrel, the most common, is black above, dusky below, the upper tail coverts white, and tail not forked. Length ab. 7 in. See Stormy Petrel.

Petri, Laurentius, 1499-1573. First Lutheran Abp. of Upsala 1531.—His brother, Olaus, 1497-1552, was an active reformer.

Petrle, George, LL.D., 1790-1866. Irish painter and antiquarian, pensioned 1849. Rvund Toicers, 1830.

Petrie, William M. Flinders, b. 1853. English Egyptologist and excavator. His Inductive Metrology, 1877. Ston'ehenge, 1880, and Pyramids and Temples of Oizeh, 1883, were pub. before his connection with the Egypt Exploration Fund Society. For this Society he pub. Memoirs on his work at Tanis, Nebesheh. Daphn.e. and Naukratis 1883-87. He has been subsequently engaged in independent researches. In 1886-87 appeared Season in Egypt and Racial Tyjtes from the Egyptian Monuments; later. Historical Scarabs; Hatvara and Arsiuoe: Kahun. Gitrob, and Bawara: Illahun. Kahun. and Gurob; Tell el Hesy (Syria); Median; Tell el Amarna; Koptos. Each of these represents a season's work. Hist. Egypt, 1896. At Koptos P. discovered the first remains of prehistoric Egypt. His great reputation dates from the excavations at Naukratis, which first revealed the whole influence of Egypt on Greek art. In 1892 he became Prof, of Egyptology at University College, London.

Petrifaction. Fossil that retains the perfect form and structure of the organism, but with the original substance replaced by other mineral matter; also, process by which such a change is produced.

Petrified Wood. Wood whose organic matter has been replaced by mineral substances, usually opal or quartz, but whose vegetable structure and origin is more or less distinctly recognizable.

Petrography. Science that describes the rock masses of which the crust of the earth consists, with the view of eliciting the course and the causes of their development. It has respect more to their occurrence in large masses and to their mutual geological relations than to details of texture and mineral composition.

Petrolatum. See Vaseline.

Petroleum. Oil was obtained from the distillation of coal and shale in Great Britain as earlv as 1694, and Selligue in France made 15.000 bbls. of shale oil in 1838-43. In Glasgow from 1850 boghead coal was used. In U. S., Gesner distilled bituminous coal from Prince Edward's I. 1846, and subsequently bituminous coal from Ky. and asphaltum from W. Va. and Nova Scotia were used. In 1860 the product in U. S. reached 200,000 bbls.. chiefly from the boghead coal of Scotland. The oil was called kerosene, and was used for illumination. The development of the petroleum wells of Pa. put an end to this industry in 1860.

Petroleum has been obtained in the East from the time of the building of Babylon, and has been found in various parts of the world. The great development began in 1858, when oil was obtained by ;m artesian well, 71 ft. deep,"on Oil Creek, "Venango CO., Pa. It is now derived chieflv from U.S., in Pa.,W. Va.,N.Y ,Ohio,Ind. and Cal.; in Canada, in Baku. Russia, on the Caspian Sea, and in Austria. The oil is found at various depths, from 400 to 4.500 ft., by drilling wells through the overlying strata, and when reached frequently rushes up with great force, soon diminishing, and finally the flow becomes small. The pebble sand of the Allegany district yields 1,000 bbls. per acre for each foot of depth. The cost of an equipped well is from $5,000 to $15,000. The yield is maintained by constant drilling and the discovery of new productive fields, which will doubtless continue for some years. Ultimately the supply must fail, and the world must fall back on the distillation of Black Shale. Wells Drilling and Purnpinjr.

The oil is transported from the wells to the refineries in wroughtiron pipes. 6in. diameter, with pumpingstationsab. 40m. apart, and storage tanks holding 35,000 bbls. each at convenient distances. These lines extend to Chicago and Baltimore and intermediate markets.

Petroleum is the product of slow and ill-understood changes in the organic matter impregnating the beds of black shale and limestone of various geological ages, from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, the older rocks being the chief repositories in the U. S., and the younger in the Baku fields. It is an oily liquid, yellow, greenish, brown and black in color, sp. gr. from 50° B.

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in Pa. to23°B. in Java. It is a mixture of hydrocaroonB, paraffins of the formula CnH,n-f-, and defines CnH,n, the former predominating' in the American product and the latter in that from Russia. In U. S. the crude oil is distilled by direct heat, in cylindrical stills, holding 600 barrels, the distillate being condensed in tubes, placed in tanks of water, yielding naphtha and illuminating oils; there remains in the stills coke and tar, the former being used as fuel and the latter being distilled in smaller stills, with introduction of steam, for production of paraffin oil. The coke remaining in the still is used for electric fight carbons. The crude paraffin oil is treated successively with sulphuric acid, water and caustic soda, which removes tarry matter, then cooled by a refrigerating apparatus, and the paraffin, which is thus crystallized, is filtered out and refined. The oil is used for lubrication and the paraffin for candles. The illuminating oils are refined by sulphuric acid and caustic soda. The naphthas are distilled with steam yielding gasoline and naphthas of different gravities. The sulphurous Ohio oil is distilled over copper oxide and other metallic oxides which removes the sulphur. The yield varies, Appalachian oils giving naphtha 10-11 per cent, illuminating oil 75-78, paraffin oil 2-6, residuum 3-4. and water and loss 5-8. Russian oil yields about 35 per cent illuminating oil.

The following products have been obtained from petroleum, with bpt. and sp. gr. and use, as given: Cymogen, 32° F., 110° B., ice-machines; Rhigolene. 67° F., 100° B.. local refrigerant; Petroleum-ether, 104° F.-158° F., 80° B.-85° B., solvent for caoutchouc and fatty oils, and for carbureting air in gasmachines; Gasoline, i58° F.-194° F., 75° B.-85" B., extracting seed-oils, gas-machines, lamps, and stoves: Naphtha, 176° F.248° F., 62 B.-76° B., solvent for resins in varnish'making, in making oilcloth, and in stoves; Ligroin, 176° F.-248° F., 62° B.67° B., solvent in pharmacy, and in sponge-lamps: Benzene, 248° F.-302° F., 57° B.-62° B., turpentine substitute in oil-paints; Water-white burning oil. fire test 1.30° F., 48° B.; Export burning oil, fire test 100° F.-110° F., 45° B.; Paraffin oil, fire test 405° F., 23° B., lubricating machinery; Paraffin, nipt. 110° F.-140" F., candles, insulating, chewing-gum; vaseline, roofing pitch, axle grease, coke, electric carbons.

Production of petroleum in 1894, in metric tons, was: U. S. 6.158.119. Russia 4,873,000, Austria 131,930, Canada 116,000, Germany 17,232. Italy 2,853.

Product U. S., 1895, bbls. 42 gals., was: Pa. 18,231.442, N. Y. and W. Va. 12.176,933, 0.16,109.101, Ind. 2,306,530, Col. 845,000, Cal. 975,000, Ky. 1,000, Wy. 2,019, total 50,652.025.

The aggregate yield of petroleum in the U. S. 1859-95 was more than 700,000,000 barrels of 42 gallons each; the yield of Russia in the same period is estimated at ab. one-eighth of that amount.

Pelrolcuses. Female incendiaries of the Parisian Commune 1871. Many were shot for burning public buildings.

Petrology. Division of Geology which treats of the mechanical constitution and composition of rock-masses.

Petromvzon. See Lampreys.

Petronel. Clumsy pistol of ancient times.

Petroniuit Arbiter, 1st cent. Courtier of Nero, supposed author of Ccena Trimalcliionis, portion of a satire depicting the fashionable life of the times. It is partly in prose and partly in verse.

Pettee, William Henry, b. 1838. Mining engineer and mineralogist. Assistant on California geological survey 187071; prof. Univ. of Mich. 1875. He has contributed many scientific papers to the various societies of which he is a member. Contributions to Barometric Hypsometry, 1874.

Pettenkofen, August Von, 1821-1889. Austrian painter, chiefly of military scenes.

Pettenkofer, Max, b. 1818. Prof, of Chemistry at Munich 1847; author of many discoveries and additions to scientific and sanitary knowledge, especially as to cholera and hygiene.

Pettle, John, b. 1839. Scottish painter, R. A. 1873.'

PetGeorge William, ab.1822-1892. American authority on whist.

Petty, Sir William, F.R.S., 1623-1687. Prof, of Anatomy at Oxford 1651: knighted after 1660; noted chiefly as an economist. Political Anatomy of Ireland, 1691; Taxes and Contributions, 1667; Political Arithmetic, 1676.

Peutingerian Tat»le. Roman road-chart, now in Imperial library at Vienna; named from Konrad Peutinger (14651547) of Augsburg, in whose library it was found: probably a 13th century copy of a 3d century document. It gives distances, but is a diagram rather than a map.

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Pews, FresBingfleld Church, Suffolk, Eng.

owned by an individual and descend to his heirs as real estate. In some'States property in pews is declared to be personalty.

Pewter. Alloy of lead and tin. in varying proportions. Copper, antimony, bismuth, and other metals are sometimes added. Three of tin to two of lead is the hardest and toughest alloy.

Peyer's Glands. One of the varieties of glands of the small intestines, found always in patches (agminated glands). These glands are the local seat of the disease in typhoid fever, when they are inflamed and ulcerated, and sometimes the intestine is perforated by the ulceration, a very serious complication to the disease.

Peyron, Vittorio Amadeo, 1785-1870. Prof. Turin; author of a Coptic lexicon and grammar. He pub. sundry Greek texts, and tr. Thucydides.

Peyronnet, Charles Ionace, Comte De. 1778-1854. French Minister of Justice 1821-28, and of the Interior 1830; violent reactionist and tool of tyranny, ennobled 1822; imprisoned 1830-36.

Peyton, Balie, 1803-1878. M.C. from Tenn. 1833-37; U. S. Minister to Chili 1849-53: Unionist.—His cousin. Ephraim GEOFFREY, 1802-1876, was Chief-justice of Miss. 1870-75.

Pezet, Juan Antonio, b. 1806. Pres. of Peru 1863-65.

Pezizoid. Structures resembling Fungi of the genus Peziza.

Peznela, Jacopo De La, 1811-1882. Historian of Cuba 1863-«8.

Pezuela, Joaquin De La, 1761-1830. Vicerov of Peru 181721.—His son. Juan Manuel, b. 1810, Gov. of Cuba 1853-54, tr. Dante, Tasso, Ariosto, and Camoens.

Pftttnan. In Higher Algebra, function derived from zeroaxial skew-determinants, and closely akin to determinants in its properties. Its form is triangular: its symbols are '/! and ff.

PfafT, Johann FRIEPRICH, 1765-1825. Prof. Helmstadt and Halle. Disquisitiones Analytical, 1797: Differential Equations, 1814.

Pfaflers. Village in Switzerland, H m. s. of Ragatz. It is noted for the hot springs discovered ab.1050, and for its Benedictine convent, founded 713.

Pftelz. See Palatinate.

PfelWer, Ida (reyer), 1797-1858. Austrian traveler from 1842. The books describing her journeys were widely read.

Pfenning. German copper coin (originally silver), worth J Kreuzer or -,}„ Mark.

Pflelderer, Otto, D.D., b. 1839. Prof. Jena 1870. Berlin 1875. Paulinism. 1873, tr. 1877; Philosophy of Religion. 1878, tr. 1886-88; Theology since Kant, 1890.—His brother, Edmund, b. 1842, prof. Kiel 1873 and Tubingen 1878, has pub. much in philosophy.

Pflnger, Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm, b. 1829. Prof. Bonn 1859; writer on physiology.

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Phasacians. People described in the Odyssey as living on an island in the farthest west.

Phwdra. Wife of Theseus, to whose son Hippolytus she bore tin' part of Potiphar's wife to Joseph; heroine of several tragedies.

PtiHMlrus, 1st cent. Latin writer of fables, partly from .lEsop; 93 survive, in live books.

Phaenogamla. Division of the vegetable kingdom, including all the flowering plants, those which produce seed containing an embryo. See Spermatophyta and ANTHOPHYTA.

PliaMlogamous. Relating to phamogamia.

Phrenological. Periodic phenomena of plants and animals.

Phsenology. Study of the connection between climate or weather and the growth of plants; term first used by Von Oettingen.

Pliacodaria. Order of siliceous Radiolaria, with the membrane of the central capsule double, and having a chief polar aperture and accessory perforated areas. There is much pigment around the central capsule, and only one nucleus. The skeleton consists of hollow tubes or needles. These are outside the central capsule in the Phceocystida. A fenestrated shell with one or more large openings is present in the Pliceogromida. There is a basket work of hollow spicules in the Phceospfuerida, and valves like those of a mussel, but fenestrated and covered with spines in the Pkceoconchida.

Phspophycere. Sub-class of Algce, including all the darkgreen, olive-green or brown species; also called Melano&permw. Melunosporece, Melanopliyceie, and Phceospermece.

Phieophyll. Pigment contained in red and brown Algce.

Phieosporca*. See Ph^eophyce^:.

Pha£thon. Son of Apollo, who got leave to drive the chariot of the sun, but was unable to check the horses, which came near setting the earth on fire.

Phagocytes (mesamceboids). Sort of white blood corpuscle which feeds on bacteria that develop in the blood or the -issues of an animal.

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Phalangida (daddy-long-leos). Arachnids with four pairs of long slender legs and a segmented abdomen, joined by its whole breadth to the cephalothorax. They breathe by trachea? and have no spinning glands.

Phalanstery. Unit of social organization according to the socialistic plans of Fourier. It should be a district of country with a collection of buildings for habitations and amusement, and for all kinds of agricultural and manufacturing uses, occupied in joint possession by some 300 or 400 families. It would be self-governing, and would hold relations of alliance and exchanges with other similar groups.

Phalanx. Greek body of infantry armed with long spears and shields. The Macedonian was at first 8, afterward 12 to 16 ranks deep. The Romans used this formation before Camillus (d. 365 B.C.). and returned to it in fighting with barbarians in 2d century A.D.

Phalanx. In Botany, group of stamens, more or less united at their bases.

Phalaris. Tyrant of Agrigentum, Sicily, ab.570-564 B.C.; said to have caused the objects of his hatred to be burned alive in a brazen bull, the inventor of which was the first to suffer. The Epistles, pub. 1498, are not his.

Phalloidcse. Family of Fungi, of the order Oasteromyceles, comprising the so-called stink-horns and their allies. They have an extremely offensive odor.

Phallus. Sign of generation, whose worship or observance had place in the systems of the Greeks and other ancient (as of some modern) races. In Italy it survives as a charm against the evil eye.

Phanarlsts. See Fanarists.

Phanerocarpae. See Scyphomedus^e.

Phanero-codonic Gonophore. One which possesses a fully developed umbrella, as in all gonophores that are to be set free.

Phanerogam la. Flowering plants. See Anthophyta and Spermatophyta.

Phancroglossa (froos and Toads). Sub-orderof Avnra, comprising two groups: Proteroglossa. with the tongue free in front, as in Rhinophrynits. a Mexican Toad; and Opisthoglossa, with the tongue fixed in front and free behind, as in ordinary Frogs and Toads. This group is sub-divided into the Oxydactyliu and Discodactylia. See also Arcifera and Firmisternia.

Phanoclcs. Greek elegiac poet of uncertain date, known by fragments.

Phantom Horseman. Legends of the Phantom Horseman, which is universally regarded as a presage of death or misfortune to the person who sees it, are extremely common in various parts of England and throughout Europe. In many of the tales the horse is described as headless. The origin of the story in Europe has been attributed to the horse or horses of Odin.

Phantom Ship. Omen of ill-fortune to sailors, known in the Baltic as Carmilhan.

Pharaoh. Official title of kings of Egypt in O. T. times.

Pharaoh-IIophra. King of Egypt ab.580 B.C.: at first .a conqueror, then a fugitive before Amasis; denounced by Isaiah and Ezekiel.

Pharaoh's Chickens. Egyptian vulture, common in the Mediterranean region; also called White Crow. It was sacred as a scavenger and is figured on monuments.

Pharaoh's Rat. See Ichneumon.

Pharetroncs. See Calcispongm?.

Pharisees. Leading party of later Judaism. It originated under the Maccabees, had immense influence over the people, and was distinguished by great rigor in the observance of the Law, which by the time of Christ had pressed almost all spontaneity and sincerity out of religion. Christ approved their doctrine and reprobated their spirit. The Talmud also is severe upon them.

Pharmacology. Science of the nature and properties of substances used as medicines. See Pharmacy.

Pharmacopeia. Official list of crude drugs and the preparations made from them, used as a standard by the pharmacists of the country issuing it. It secures.uniform composition of certain preparations, which is invaluable either in dispensing medicines or in consulting literature concerning medicine. In the U. S. the Pharmacopeia is revised every ten years by a convention of pharmacists.



Pharmacy. Art including everything- necessary to select and prepare for administration all medicinal articles. Establishment where medicines are prepared or sold. Ancient physicians prepared their own medicines, and a drug- shop has been found in Pompeii. In the Middle Ages pharmacy became more of an art. Now schools of pharmacy exist in many countries. See Pharmacology.

Pharances, d. 47 B.C. Son of Mithradates, made King of the Bosphorus by Pompey 63 B.C.; defeated by Caesar near Zela 47 B.C., after which Caesar sent the famous dispatch, Vent, t'idi, vici.

Pharos. Small i.iland opposite Alexandria. Ptolemy II. erected here 270 B.C. a tower of white marble at a cost of 800 silver talents ($800,000) to serve as a lighthouse. This was esteemed one of the wonders of the world.

Phar§alia. District of Thessaly in which Caasar defeated Pompey 48 B.C. Pharyngeal Sac. Branchial sac of Tunicates. Pharyngobranchil. See Leftocardii.

Pharyngognathl. This sub-group has the lower pharyngeal bones behind the gill arches consolidated into plates. Tilapia simonis of the Jordan system in Palestine has been supposed to be the species of fish out of whose mouth St. Peter obtained tribute money. It is remarkable in that the male, after fertilizing the eggs of the female, gathers them up in his


Pharyngognathi (Labru# mixtua).

mouth, and holds them there during development; even after the young attain a considerable size, they remain in this protected locality, distending the cheeks of the father in a most remarkable way. T. tiberialis. of the Sea of Galilee, goes in great schools, affording remarkable draughts of fishes when caught in a seine. To this group also belong the Labrhxs; or Wrasses (q.v.). See also Acanthopteri.

Pharyngopneu§ta. Group formed by Huxley to include the Tunicates and Balanoglossus.

Pharynx. Organ connecting the nose and mouth with the gullet and windpipe.

Phaseacea*. Order of minute mosses, growing on damp earth, characterized by a persistent protonema.

Phascolarctus. See Carpophaoa.

Phascolomys. See Rhizophaga.

Phase. See Simple Harmonic Motion.

Phases of the moon. Appearances commonly distinguished as crescent, gibbous and full moon, caused by the amount of the illuminated disk turned toward the earth. Venus and Mercury present similar phases when viewed through a telescope, and to some extent Mars.

Phasianidre (fowls). Family of Gallinacei. whose heads are partly bare of feathers and often adorned, especially in the male, with tufts of feathers, or colored fleshy lobes (combs and wattles). The beak is strong, with down-turned point. The male is markedly distinct from the female, being more powerful and more highly ornamented. Here belong Guineafowls, Domestic Fowls, Pheasants, Turkeys, Pea-fowls, and many other species of gorgeous ground birds of Asia, Malaysia, etc.; in all nearly a hundred species are known, originally natives of s e. Asia.

Phasmida*. Gressorial Orthoptera, with long slender bodies and long legs. The wingless forms are the Walkingsticks, so called from their resemblance to dried twigs; the winged forms resemble dried leaves. They live in warm climates.

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dwelling on the heights of the Himalayas, has 4 or 5 spurs on each foot. Some drum like Partridges. Both sexes of the Golden Pheasant crow. Some species of this genus attain a wt. of 3 lbs. PhasianuB colchiciis, the English Pheasant, is introduced and domesticated in Europe.

Phelloderm. Chlorophyll-bearing cells produced on the inner side of the cork meiistem of certain trees.

Phellogen. Growing layer of cork cells in bark of exogenous plants.

Phelps, Almira (hart) Lincoln. 1793-1884. Sister of Emma Willard (q.v.), teacher at Troy. N. Y.,and at Baltimore, 184155; author of text books, chiefly scientific.—Her son. Charles Edward, b. 1833, was Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1864, M. C. 1865-69, and judge Baltimore Superior Court, 1882.

Phelps, Austin. D.D., 1820-1890. Prof. Andover 1848-79. Still Hour, 1859; Tlieory of Preaching, 1881.—His wife, ElizaBeth Stuart, 1815-1852, wrote Sunny Side, 1851, and other pious or juvenile tales.—Their daughter, Elizabeth Stuart, b. 1844, has pub. The Gates Ajar, 1868; Hedged in, 1870; Avis, 1877; Dr. Zay,18S4; A Singular Lt/e,1895; Chapters from a Life, 1896, and other books of marked power and high moral purpose. She became Mrs. Herbert D. Ward, 1888.

Phelps, Edward John, LL.D., b. 1822. Law prof, at Yale 1881; U. S. Minister to England 1885-89.—His father. Samuel Shethar, 1793-1855, was U.S. Senator from Vt. 1838-51 and 1853-55.

Phelps, Samuel, 1804-1878. English actor and manager.

Phelps, William Walter, LL.D., 1839-1894. M. C. from N. J. 1873-75 and 1883-89; U. S. Minister to Austria 1881-82, and to Germany 1889-93.

Phenacetln. CaHs.O.CH^NH.CjHsO. Acetparamidophenetol; white crystalline solid, melting at 132.5° C.; prepared by the action of acetyl chloride upon paramidophenetol; powerful febrifuge.

Phcnacite. Be,Si04. Beryllium silicate; mineral resembling quartz in some respects. It has been found in Siberia, Col., and N. H.. associated with several varieties of gem-minerals, and is itself sometimes used as a gem.

Phenacodus. Extinct mammal from the Wahsatch Eocene of Wyoming, resembling the tapir in its nasal bones, and having a very long tail, hind feet semiplantigrade, and pig-like molar teeth; supposed by Cope to be the ancestor of all hoofed mammalia, monkeys, and man.

Phenakistoscope. Toy devised by Plateau, similar to the Stroboscopic Disk (q.v.)

Phenanthraquinone. C„HsO,. Orange needles, melting at 198° C; prepared by the action of chromic acid upon phenanthrene.

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