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1158

PERMAXENT RANK-PERPETVA

Permanent Rank. The rank held by an officer in the permanent military establishment, as distinguished from that which the same person may hold temporarily in the volunteer army, or by assignment temporarily in the regular army, such as aides-de-camp, acting judge-advocates of departments, etc.

Permanent State. See Conduction.

Permanent Way. Roadbed of a railroad, with its culverts, bridges, and track. The cost of construction for steam railroads has averaged ab. $30,000 per mile of single track. For electric railways the cost is about one-half as great, on account of the smaller amount of excavation and embankment.

Permanent White. See Barium Sulphate.

Permanganates. Derivatives of permanganic acid.

Permanganic Aei<l. HMnO,. Compound resembling perchloric acid: obtained in water solution by the decomposition of its salts when acted upon by sulphuric acid: good oxidizing agent; principal salt is Potassium PermangaNate (q.v.).

Permian. Highest of the Palaeozoic rocks; by some included in the Carboniferous. See COLUMN.

Permutation. Arrangement of elements in different orders. The number of possible permutations of n elements equals the product of the natural numbers from 1 to n (called factorial n), and is represented by placing n in a right angle n . or by placing the exclamation mark after it, n!

Pernambueo. City and seaport of n.e. Brazil. It consists of three sections: Recife, founded by Spaniards ab.1580, and

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Street View in Pernambueo.

San Antonio and Boa Vista, settled by the Dutch 1639 and taken by Portuguese 1654. It has an extensive commerce in sugar, cotton, and hides. Pop. ab. 140,000.

Peromednnae. Order of Scyphomedusce, having four interradial sensory tentacles, four pairs of band-like reproductive glands fixed to the wall of the sub-umbrella and projecting into a wide ring-canal, and the wide perradial stomach pouches. See Pekiphyllid^e.

Peromela. See Gymnophiona.

Peronosporacear). Order of minute Fungi (mildews), of the sub-class Phycomycetes, existing parasitically on living green plants. The well-known .and destructive potato-rot is of this order.

Peropoda. The Old World Pythoiiidce and New World Boidue (Boas and Anacondas) are included. The Pythons have a long oval head, two rows of oubcaudal plates and pitted labial plates. They live near water, hanging from limbs by the prehensile tail, and feed on small mammals; none larger than a goat can be swallowed by the largest Python. The bones are first crushed; the deglutition lasts a long while. Large animals are sometimes killed in the coils of these monsters, whose lengt h ranges from 10 to 25 ft., although fabulous stories are told of Pythons more than 40 ft. long. The female Python incubates its eggs Tor three months, the temperature within the coils rising to 96° F. The Boidte have broader fron

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Python (Python natalensis).

of Brazil has one row of large oval pale spots on the back, while the Anaconda has a double series of dark spots on the back. See Aglyphodonta.

Perowne, John James Stewart, D.D., b. 1823 in India. Prof. Cambridge 1875, Dean of Peterborough 1878, Bp. of Worcester 1891; O. T. reviser. Psalms, 1864-68.

Peroxide of Hydrogen. See Hydrogen Dioxide.

Perpendieular Fortification. Devised by Montalembert ab.1776; succession of salient and reentrants, the sides of the latter being perpendicular to each other. Covering these were low counterguards and ravelins, and within were brick towers; seen in German defensive works, which now are of lessened importance.

Perpendicular Gothic. Term applied to the latest phase of mediaeval architecture in England. It is derived from the fact that the windows at this period were subdivided by numerous upright mullions, and especially that the tracery of the window-heads, which in previous periods had been composed of flowing and curved lines, consisted also of their mullions and of the lancets they inclosed. A like series of panels was in many cases applied to the buttresses and other exterior features, and to some part of the walls next to the vaults, for ornament, while pointed doorways were inclosed in square frames, and the spandrils were richly decorated. This declining phase of the style prevailed from the middle of the 14th century to the end of Henry the Eighth's reign in 1547, the succeeding architecture, in which classic forms began to appear, being known as Elizabethan. Jacobean, etc. English collegiate Gothic is for the most part perpendicular. New College. Merton College, the Divinity School at Oxford. Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminster, the College chapel at Cambridge, and interior of Winchester Cathedral are familiar examples of the style.

Perpendicularity. Two straight lines given by their equations are perpendicular when the product of their slopes equals minus one. y — mx 4- b and y = m'x -)- b1 are perpendicular when m.m1 ■= —1. Two planes given by their equation are mutually perpendicular when the sum of the products of their corresponding direction vectors equals zero. Lx -(- My Nz + P-0 and L'x + M'v -f- N'z + P1 =0 are perpendicular if LL1 + MM1 + NN1 — 0.'

Perpendicular Linex. Lines are mutually perpendicular when their difference of direction is ninety degrees. A straight line is perpendicular to a plane when it is perpendicular to all lines of the plane through its foot.

Perpendicular Planes. Two planes are mutually perpendicular when their angle of intersection is a right dihedral,

Perpeilt Stone. Stone reaching through a wall so as to appear on both sides of it. The name Bond-stone is used in rough walling.

Perpetiia, St. Martyr at Carthage 203, See Feucitas.

PERPETUAL, MOTIOX—PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE

1159

Perpetual Motion. Motion of any machine which, in

"^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ problem^ fail. In Bishop Wilkins's third apparatus, shown in the cut, the water-wheels turn the Archimedean Bcrew, which elevates the water to the tank above.

Perpetuity. Settlement of an interest in property which shall go in the succession prescribed, without any power of alienation; generally prohibited beyond a life or lives in being at the time of its creation and 21 years afterward.

Perpigwnn. Old town of s. France, near the Mediterranean and the Pyrenees; held bv Aragon 1172-1475, and by Spain 1493-1642. Pop., 1890, 27.613.

Perradial. See Radial Symmetry.

Perrault, Charles, 1628-1703. French author, famous by his fairy tales 1697. Parallel of Ancients and Moderns, 1688-96.

Perron. Flight of exterior steps leading to a platform, but employed only with reference to structures of considerable magnitude and pretension.

Perronc, Giovanni, 1794-1876. Jesuit theologian, prof, at Rome 1823-53. His Preelections Theol., 9 vols., 1835, is widely used.

Perronet, Edward, 1721-1792. English hymnist; author of All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name, 1780.

Perrot, Georges, b. 1832. Explorer in Asia Minor 1861; prof. Paris 1863; historian (with C. Chipiez) of ancient art, 1881-89.

Perr3'. Drink resemblingcider, but made from pears; much used in England; it contains from 5 to 9 percent of alcohol.

Perry, Arthur Latham, D.D.. LL.D.. b. 1830. Prof. Williams Coll. since 1873. Political Economy, 1865-77.

Perry, Nora, 1841-1896. New England poet.

Perry, Oliver Hazard, U.S.N., 1785-1819. Lieut. 1807; commanding on Lake Erie 1813; famous for his defeat and capture of six British vessels near Put in Bay, Ohio, Sept. 10, and for his laconic dispatch, "We have met the enemy and they are ours."—His brother, Matthew Calbraith, U.'S.N., 17941858. Commodore 1841, commanded an expedition to Japan 1853, and there negotiated or compelled a treaty March 1S54. Report, 3 vols., 1856.

Perry, Thomas Sergeant, b. 1845. American author. Francis Lieber, 1882; Opitz to Lessing, 1885.

Perry, William Stevens. D.D., LL.D.. D.C.L., b. 1832. Bp. of Iowa 1876. Hist. American Episcopal Ch., 1885.

Perryville. Village of Boyle co., Ky.: scene of an indecisive battle Oct. 8, 1862, between Unionists under Buell and Confederates under Bragg. Each lost nearly 5,000.

Persecutions, Ten. Somewhat arbitrarily defined as under Nero 64, Domitian 95, Trajan 107, Hadrian 125. M. Aurelius 165, Sept. Severus 202. Maximin 235, Decius 249, Valerian 257, and Diocletian 303. The last was by far the most severe and continuous; yet in amount of blood shed and misery inflicted, all these pagan harryings of the Church were probably far inferior to the Christian persecutions which raged 1200-1600, especially the Albigensian crusade, the Spanish Inquisition, and the efforts of Charles V. and Philip II. to suppress heresy in the Netherlands.

Perscids. Meteoric showers having the radient in the constellation Perseus. They appear ab. Aug. 1.

Persephone. Greek name of Proserpine (q.v.).

Persepolis. Capital of ancient Persia, ab. 35 m. n.e. of the modern Shiraz. Enormous masses of ruins, especially of palaces, still mark the spot. Chief among these were the Great Hall of Xerxes, his palace, and that of Darius. Their reliefs and other sculptures show a generallv Assyrian quality and influence, but the forms of many buildings are distinctly

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quest: its original name is unknown. The palace, if not the city, is said to have been burned by Alexander 331 B.C.

Perseus. Argive hero, son of Zeus and Danse; slayer of Medusa; liberator of Andromeda (q.v.); King of Thessaly: widely honored; depicted like Hermes.

Perseus, ab.212-ab.163 B.C. Son of Philip V. of Macedon; King 179: at war with Rome 172. and successful against Crassus; defeated by ^milius at Pydua 168. His kingdom was annexed, and he died a captive.

Perseus. Constellation of the northern heavens. Mean right ascension, 8h. 20m.; mean declination, 45°.

Perseverance of Saints. Doctrine that the elect cannot fall from grace and must finally be saved. It is an essentia] point in the theology of Augustine and Calvin.

Persia. Country of w. Asia, consisting for the most part of a desert table land, 3,090 to 4,000 ft. high, crowned bv mountain ranges. Area ab. 636.000 sq. m.. pop. ab. 9,000,000, onefourth wandering tribes. The products are wheat, barley, rice, opium, tobacco, hides, wool, silk and carpets. The government is a despotic monarchy. See Persian Empire.

Persian Architecture. Architecture of ancient Persia took on monumental proportions and pretensions after the

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1160

PERSIA* ART—PERSONAL EQUATION

Egypt and Assyria, and the monuments follow in their general arrangement the plans of these, while the details in some cases are with difficulty distinguished from those of the Assyrians. The principal remains of Persian architecture are at Persepolis and Susa. The Palace of Xerxes at the former place is the most important. This was built early in the 5th century B.C., and its dimensions were 300 by 350 ft., making it larger than any Egyptian, Greek, or Roman temple, and than any European cathedral except St. Peter's in Rome. It was built of masonry, as were the other principal Persian buildings, of which a striking feature was the extensive and massive flights of stairs that served as approaches. The interior columns were lofty and slender, and the forms of their capitals indicated wooden originals. Their interest is upon the whole rather archaeological than artistic. In addition to the palace there are extant ruins of small temples and rock-cut tombs.

Persian Art. Best illustrated, for antiquity, by the re" mains at Persepolis and Susa (q.v.). The earliest known ruins will not antedate 500 B.C. At this time the Persian art may be considered as a continuation of the earlier Chaldean and Assyrian with some national modifications. Egyptian influences are also very apparent, and are due to the political connection of Egypt with Persia. A later period of Persian art is known as Sassanian, from the dynasty founded 218. This art is a bastard classic, and represents influences which had been ascendant ever since the time of Alexander's conquest of the Persian empire. After the Mohammedan conquest, 7th century, such traits of the Arab style and art as had been elsewhere developed came into play here also: but the Sassanian or bastard Greek quality still survives in modern Persian designs, especially in repousse metals. This quality does not, however, appear in the textiles, which are a most important and splendidly developed industrial art. handed down to modern times in direct continuation from a very early antiquity, when Babylonia was a famous neighboring center for textiles. The Arabian influence was most apparent in ceramics and in tiles. Here again the older Persian traditions in the art of glazing had great importance. The finest surviving instance of ancient tile decoration is that in the Louvre, from Susa.

Permian Berries. Dried unripe fruit of different varieties of Reltamnita. used as a dye in calico printing. They are also called French berries, Arigum, and Yellow berries. They dye yellow and green.

Persian Empire. This dates from Cyrus' revolt against and conquest of the Medes 558 B.C. Babylonia and Assyria were soon added. Asia Minor was Conquered ab.547. Cambyses, 529-522, subjugated Egypt and n. Africa. For 200 years Persia was the chief power of the world. The expeditions against Greece under Darius 490, and Xerxes 480, resulted disastrously. Cyrus the younger died in an attempt to dethrone his brother Artaxerxes 401. The empire ended with Alexander's victory at Gaugamela 331. Persia was subjugated by Parthians 248 B.C. The Sassanian empire began 212; under Sapor II., 310-379, and Ciiosroes II., 590-628, it became a formidable power and threatened Constantinople. It was conquered by Saracens 641; by Seljuks in 12th century, by Mongols in 13th, by Tamerlane in 14th.

Persian Clllf. Land-locked sea between Persia and Arabia, connected with the Indian Ocean by the Strait and Sea of Ormuz. Length 650 m., width ab. 250.

Persian Inscriptions. See Cuneiform Writing.

Persian Language. One of the oldest Aryan families of speech, with inscriptions dating back to 500 B.C., anil a literature headed by the Avesta, the sacred books of the religion of Zarathustra. The Parsees of India spoke another dialect of the same. Modern Persian has many words borrowed from the Arabic. See Iranian Language.

Persian Literature. It began ab. 5th century. Under the Mohammedan caliphs and princes it flourished at Khorasan and elsewhere. Abbas at Merv is said to have written the first poem 809. Arabic literature hindered the growth of the Persian, but a succession of writers handed down the literary spirit. Firdausi in 1011 completed the Shcih Nameh, Which Sir William Jones compared to Homer. Around this "Book of the Kings" cluster a series of epics. Romantic fiction also was developed. Nizami of Ganjah (1141-1203) being its most brilliant exponent. Of the poets, Omar Kharyam was noted. Innumerable writers have composed works in various departments, and Persian has found many champions and devotees in India, at the courts of the Mogul sovereigns. The principal authors have been mentioned individually elsewhere.

Persian Powder. See Pyrethrum.

Persians. The Tajiks are the descendants of the true ancient Persians who were Caucasians: they number ab. 1,000,000. They are mostly Mohammedan. The Turcomans, Kurds, and

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one part of the revolution and when higher up are emptied. It is used for irrigation in Oriental countries, being turned by bullocks.

Persieo, Ignazio, 1823-1895. Italian Capuchin 1846; missionary in Asia 1852. and in S. C. 1867; Bp. of Savannah 1870-73; Prefect of the Congregation of Indulgences; Cardinal 1893.

Pcrsigny, Jean Gilbert Victor Fiaun, 1808-1872. Bonapartist, accomplice of Louis Napoleon in the attempts at Strasburg and Boulogne; imprisoned 1840-48 for the latter; Deputy 1849; Minister of the Interior 1852-54 and 1860-63; Ambassador to London 1855-60; Duke 1863. Memoires, 1896.

Persimmon. Trees of the genus Diosjiyros, of the ebony family (Ebenaeete), bearing pulpy edible fruits, natives of America and Asia. The e. N. American species is JJ. virginiana. known as Date Plum.

Persistent. Leaves which remaiu on a plant during two seasons, or until the appearance of new ones, as in Evergreens; also portions of the perianth of flowers which remain after an thesis.

Persius, or Aulus Persius Flaccus. 34-62. Third in the series of Latin satirists, though more nearly allied to his successor, Juvenal, than to Horace. But 650 lines, in six satires, remain, which show his high views and earnest purposes. He affected obscurity of style, but lashed the vices of the times severely.

Person. 1. Totality of the human organism and the states connected with it. coextensive with body and mind. 2. Subject or ego, conceived as possibly other than the body. In common parlance, synonym for individual.

Personal Capital. Personal Wealth (q.v.) as capable of reproductive use.

Personal Equation. That constant which, in any series of time observations made by one person, must be added to each term of the series in order that their mean shall agree with the mean of a similar series of observations made by another. Used first and principally in astronomy, where, e.g., if two observers are watching the same series of events, as the passing of a series of stars over the same line marked in the telescope, it is almost invariably found that one observer has a tendency to note the timesof passage later than the other, and that with approximate constancy, so that to combine the observations of the two it is necessary to determine the mean of the differences in the one observer and add this mean to the observations of the second, in order to make those of the first what they would have been if observed by the second, or approximately so. The term has now come to be used to designate any constant tendency to error which is peculiar to the observer or worker, and for which allowance can be made. Most noticeable in transit observations, and, although gener1161

PERSONAL, EQEATIOSf MAC1IIXE—PERU

ally small, may in extreme cases be as large as half a second. In "case of the "noted astronomers, Bessel and Struve, the relative personal equation, i.e., the difference between the times of transit of the same star observed by each, was a whole second. See PSYCHOMETRY.

Personal Equation Machine. Various forms of apparatus have been devised for determining the personal equation. They generally consist of an artificial star passing across a field like that of the transit instrument, recording its time of transit automatically by electric appliances. The difference between this time and that noted by the observer is his personal equation. Any constant error in the automatic record may be eliminated by causing the star to move back and forth across the field.

Personality. Distinguishing individuality of a person. Its most distinctive element is the conscious realization of identity. All one's mental life goes to make up his personality, the traces of past experiences associated and remembered, his interests, etc. So long as this consciousness of personal identity remains undisturbed, the personality is normal; but it has been shown by many cases of mental disorder that this consciousness may be pathologically deranged, and we have as a result the so-called alterations of personality, or dual or multiple personality. These conditions are best seen in certain hypnotized hysterics, in whom it is found that certain symptoms and sets of ideas exist for but one consciousness, if we may use that term, while the subject may pass into another condition or state, where he has quite another world of ideas and experiences, those of this second state being non-existent for the first: and similarly if there be a third personality, it will include the experiences of the first and second, plus a series of its own. and the fust and second states will know nothing of the third. In non-hypnotic cases the second personality may appear, last for a time, and then give way to the original or normal condition, though this may be of inferior physical and intellectual type to the abnormal state. The physical basis of these disturbances of personality is not understood. Alternating action of the two hemispheres of the brain has been suggested, but will not satisfy the facts of triple and quadruple personalities, and no other satisfactory theory is at hand.

Personal Property. That which is not of a freehold nature nor descendible to heirs at law.

Personal Risks, In Economics. Business risks which a man working with borrowed capital has to bear, and pay for in the form of a higher rate of interest, in addition to the ordinary trade risks borne also by the mau working with his own capital.

Personal Wealth. All those energies, faculties, and habits which directly contribute to making a person industrially efficient, together with his business connections and associations of every kind.

Personate. Corollas of certain plants of the natural family Scrophnlariacete and some others, which are nearly closed by the palate of the lower lip.

Person, Rights Of The. Rights of safety, security and free agency, requisite for the peace of society and the free action of individuals; in all civilized countries guaranteed by the laws.

Persoon, Christian Hendrik, 175.5-1837. Dutch botanist. Synovitis methodica fnngorum, 1801; Synopsis plantarum, 1805; Traite sur les champignons comestibles, 1818; Mycologia Europcea, 1823-28.

Perspiration. The secretion of the perspiratory glands, a clear, watery liquid having an acid reaction and a salty taste. It contains 0.5 to 1.25 per cent non-volatile constituents, consisting mostly of sodium chloride, with lactates, butyrates, and acetates of ammonium and sodium, and traces of calcium phosphate and ferric oxide. It removes waste material from the system, and, by the evaporation of the water, cools the body, maintaining the normal temperature. The amount of water exhaled from the skin of an adult in 24 hours is ab. 2 lbs., twice the amount passing off from the lungs; the maximum is 3.4 lbs., the minimum 0.7 lbs.

Perspiratory Glands. Apparatus to secrete the PerSpiration (q.v.). A minute tube coiled into a ball in the deep part of the skin and continued in the perspiratory duct to the surface of the skin.

Persulphocyanogen. CSN3S3H. Yellow powder, formed by oxidizing potassium sulphoeyanide with nitric acid or chlorine: insoluble in water. Used as a yellow pigment in calico printing.

Persnlphurie Aeid. Normal sulphuric acid, S(OH)„ or H^so,-i-2hjo; formed by the action of water on sulphuric acid.

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won a victory 1644. P. is noted for its bleach-fields, 4 m. outside of the city. Pop., 1891, 30,525.

Perth. Capital of Western Australia; on the Swan, 12 m, from the w. coast; incorporated 1856. Pop., 1892, 10,040.

Perth Amboy. City of Middlesex co., N. J., on Raritan Bay; chartered 1784. It has terra-cotta works and other industries. Pop., 1890, 9,512.

Perthes, Boucher De. See Boucher De Crevecceur De Perthes. Jacques.

Perthes, Friedrich Christoph, 1772-1843. Publisher at Hamburg 1796, and Gotha from 1821. —His uncle. JOHANN Georg Justus, 1749-1816, founded another important publishing house at Gotha.

Perth, Five Articles Of. In the Episcopal interest; urged by James VI. 1618; condemned bv General Assembly 1638.

Pcrticari, Giulio. Count, 1779-1822. Italian critic.

Pertinax, Publius Helyius. 126-193. Roman general of high character; Emperor Dec. 192; murdered by Praetorians after a reign of 87 days.

Perturbations Of Planets And Comets. Disturbances in their motions caused by the attraction of bodies other than the sun or central body, about which they revolve.

Pertse, GEORG HEINRICH, 1795-1876. Keeper of archives at Hanover from 1823; biographer of Stein, 1849-54. Monwnenta Gennanice Historica.

Peru. Country of w. S. America. The surface consists of a narrow desert strip along the Pacific, a high tableland, 7.000 to 12,000 ft. above sea, inclosed between two ranges of the Andes, and a low, densely forested country on the east, upon the headwaters of the Amazon. The second of these areas contains most of the settled portion. Its area is ab. 400,000 sq. m. Its mineral wealth is very great. The government is a republic. The capital is Lima. For centuries before the Spanish conquest P. was occupied by the Incas, who had reached a stage in many respects in advance of its Spanish conquerors. They had an elaborate religious ritual, a well-developed system of colonization and land tenure, postal facilities, a written history, and a drama. Their architecture was of an elaborate order: their skill in stonecutting and joining is said to be unsurpassed. The Spanish conqueror, Pizarro, came 1527 in search of gold. After obtaining the title of Governor he returned 1529. Taking advantage of a civil conflict between two sons of the Inca, who had just died, he, by allying himself with one of them, established himself in the empire, marched to the capital and proclaimed the sovereignty of Spain. P. thus became one of the four principal Spanish dependencies in the New World. In the attempt of the S. American countries to throw off the Spanish yoke P. was the last to join. She declared her independence 1821. Bolivar was Dictator till 1827. when Bolivia was detached from P. P. has been involved in several civil wars, and twice. 1837 and 1879, in wars with Chili, the last of which proved disastrous to the political and commercial prosperity of P. Her navy was destroyed, her capital pillaged, and her territory much curtailed. Its products are sugar, wool, cotton, cinchona bark, silver and copper. The guano deposits of its islands are exhausted. Pop. ab. 3,000,000.

PERUGIA—PETAVIUS

Perugia. Ancient Etruscan city, on the Tiber, 127 m. n. of Rome; taken by Romans 310 B.C.. and by Goths 549. Its university, founded 1307, has 21 instructors and ab. 180 students. The city has many fine buildings, pictures and antiquities; 11 m. w. is Lake Trasimeno (now P.) where Hannibal overthrew a Roman army 217 B.C. Pop., 1893, 54,500.

Perilgino (PlETRO Vannucci), 1446-1524. Italian painter of the Umbrian school. Long reputed the teacher of Raphael. Although Giovanni Morelli has vindicated the claims of Timoteo della Vite to this distinction, the affinities between the early art of Raphael and that of P. are still obvious. His works

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Decoration ol the Cambio, Perugia, by Perugino.

are mainly altar-pieces; an important fresco is in the Sistine Chapel at Rome. His color is warm, his composition somewhat formal, as was common in his earlier time. Pcrules. In Botany, bud-scales.

Peruvian Balsam. Fragrant oleo-resin obtained from Myroxylum pereirue of San Salvador; used in medicine in respiratory affections and as a stimulating ointment. It is also used in the manufacture of perfumery and soaps

Peruvian Bark. Bark of numerous species of the genus Cinchona (q. v.), natural family Rubiacete, natives of the Andes; extensively cultivated, yielding quinine, cinchonine, and a variety of other alkaloids. C. ealisaya and C. suecirubra contains 2-5 per cent of quinine; C. ledyeriana has 11 percent. It was made known in Europe, 1639, by the Countess of Cinchon, wife of a gov. of Peru; used in England 1658; called also Jesuits' Bark, as the Jesuits introduced it in Italy. See Quinine.

Peruvians. For ancient Peruvians, see Incas. Their modern descendants are the Quichua (q. v.). The Aymara number ab. 750,000; two-thirds live in Bolivia. They inhabit the mountain fastnesses; it is supposed that their ancestors were civilized earlier than the Incas, the ruins in Lake Titicaca being their work. They are more closely related to the Quichua than to the other mountain tribes. Among the latter is a group of tribes known as the Jivaro, among whom the couvade is practiced, and cannibalism is reported to exist. The Campo is the largest tribe, but, like the others, are degenerated from ancient condition. They bury their dead under water. The Mojo were largely Christianized, but have relapsed since the Jesuits were driven out. The tribes on the east slope of the Andes belong to the Tupi-guarani (q.v.) group of Indians.

Peruzzi, Baldassare, 1481-1536. Italian architect and painter of the great period. He designed the Farnesian Villa and the Palace Massimi at Rome, and had charge of the work on St. Peter's 1520-27.

Peruzzi, Ubalpino, 1822-1891. Deputy and Syndic of Florence; Cabinet Minister 1861 and 1804.

Pervigilium Veneris. Anonymous Latin poem in honor of Venus.

Pes. Human foot, or hind foot of lower animals.

Pesado, Jose Joaquin De, 1801-1861. Mexican poet; Minister of State 1838 and 1846; prof. Univ. Mexico 1854.

Peseadores Islands. Group of 21 islands besides uninhabited rocks in Formosa Channel, of basaltic origin. 109 m. s.e. of Amov; dangerous to navigators; ceded by China to Japan 1895."

Pcseliiera. Fortified town of Italy, at the foot of Lake Garda. 14 m. w. of Verona. Before 1860 it formed the n.w. angle of the Quadrilateral (q.v.). Pop. 2,000.

Pescllino, Francesco. 1422-1457. Florentine painter.

Peshawar. City of the Punjab, British India, near the river Kabul and the Khyber Pass, among high mountains; important military station. Pop.. 1891, 84,181.

Pcsllito. Syriac version of O. T. and most of N. T.; dating from ab.200.

Pessard, Hector. 1836-1895. French journalist, vehement against Napoleon III.

Pessimism. Theory that the nature and tendencies of things are only evil; opposed to Optimism. Its most eminent expounders are Schopenhauer and Hartmann. In practical ethics, tendency to look on the dark side of life, exaggerating its evils and neglecting its goods.

Pegsinus. City of w. Galatia, on the Sangarius: noted for a temple and statue of Cybele, whose worship for a time made the town rich and prominent.

PessulllS. Vertical partition between the two bronchial openings in the syrinx.

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich. 1745-1827. Swiss teacher and theorizer. head of a school at Yverdun 1805-25; an impractical philanthropist, whose ideas have revolutionized modern educational methods. Hours of a Hermit, 1780: Leonard and Gertrude, 4 vols., 1781; How Gertrude Teaehes. 1801.

Pcslli. Capital of Hungary, situated on the left bank of the Danube, opposite Buda. The site is level, and the city is

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Buda-Pesth, from the Gellertliegy.

regularly laid out, with many fine buildings. It has large manufactures and trade. Pop., with Buda (q.v.), with which it was united 1873, 452,907 in 1889.

Petal. Division of the corolla of a flower.

Petalite. LiAlSi,O10. Lithium aluminium silicate: mineral in which lithium was first discovered.

Petalode. Organs resembling petals.

Petalody. Metamorphosis of other floral organs into petals.

Petalold. Resembling petals: colored upper leaves or bracts of certain plants, and sepals or stamens of others, when these are so modified as to simulate petals in appearance, as in Poinsettia and the Dogwood.

Petalold Ambulacra (circumscript Zones). Ambulacra! lunules, when present near one pole only, as in irregular sea-urchins. In a typical orregular sea-urchin the Ambulacra extend from pole to pole.

Pctalosticlia. See Spatanooidea.

Petard. Case of gun-metal, often bell-shaped, containing 10 to 20 lbs. of gunpowder, used for destroving drawbridges, gates, etc., as by Henry IV. at siege of Cahors, 1580; now obsolete, its place being taken by powder-bags, dynamite cartridges, etc.

Petau, Denis. See Petavius.

Petavlus, Dionysius (denis Petau), 1583-1652. Jesuit theologian, prof. Paris 1621-46; voluminous writer. De Doctriua Tempornm, 1627; Tabuhz Clironologicm, 1628; De Theologicis Dogmatilnis, 5 vols.. 1644-50. He edited Synesius and Epiphanius, and wrote against Grotius.

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