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The Fenn Mansion, Philadelphia later writers.—Two of his grandsons, John, 1729-1795, and Richard, 1735-1811, were lieut.-governors of Pa.

Pen n He. Contour feathers; they have stiff shafts and a firm vexillum or vane.

Pennant, Thomas, LL.D., F.R.S., 1726-1798. "Welsh traveler, antiquarian, and scientist. British Zoology, 4 vols., 176577; Tours in Scotland, 3 vols., 1771-75; Tours in Wales, 1778-81; Arctic Zoology. 1785-87; Literary Life, 1793.

Pennatulldae. Sea-feathers or Sea-pens. Family of alcyonarian Polyps, aggregated in colonies, supported on a common stem, and having a horny, flexible skeleton. Renilla belongs here; it, however, has no axis. It is a pinkish, heartshaped disk with a short fleshy stem; the upper surface is covered by the white polyps, among which a certain amount of differentiation of structure and function obtains.

Penncll, Mrs. Elizabeth Robins, b. 1855. American author and traveler. With her husband. Joskph Pennel, the artist, she has written much descriptive matter. Pennine Alps. See Alps. Penninerved. Pinnately veined leaves. Pennington, "william Sanford, 1757-1826. Justice N. J. Supreme Court 1804; Gov. of N. J. 1813-15; U. S. District Judge from 1815. N. J. Supreme Court Reports, 1803-16.—His son, "william, 1796-1862, was Gov. of N. J. 1837-43, M.C. 1859-61, and Speaker 1860.

Pennsylvania. One of the e. States; rudely rectangular in form. Its area is 45,215 sq. m.; its surface is very broken. The s.e. part is a rolling plain: the middle portion is made up of narrow parallel ridges running n.e. and s.w., being the continuation n.e. of the great Appalachian valley. This is succeeded on the n.w. by the Allegany plateau, which from an abrupt escarpment slopes gently n.w. toward lower country. This plateau has been so eroded by streams as to present the appearance of a rugged mountain region. The State is well watered, but the only navigable streams are the Delaware, on the e. boundary, as far as Trenton; the Ohio, in the w. part, to Pittsburg, and its n. fork, the Allegany, for a long distance above Pittsburg, while the Monongahela has been rendered navigable by means of slackwater navigation to the boundary of "W. Va. The surface geology of the State is almost as varied as its topography. The Allegany plateau is almost entirely composed of the Carboniferous formation, and this appears in several localities in the valley country s.e., interspersed with outcrops of Devonian and Silurian. The lower and more rolling country is largely Triassic, with occasional outcrops of older rocks. The industries of P., while very varied, are char

acterized by the extensive mining of coal, both anthracite and bituminous, and of iron, and by the extensive manufacture of iron and steel. Practically all the anthracite coal of the U. S. is found in this State, in a few small localities toward its n.e. part. Bituminous coal is mined very widely over the Allegany plateau and in many localities in the valley section. The State has a very extensive railroad system, which had in 1895 a mileage of 9,661. The population in 1890 was 5,258.014, of which ab. i were of foreign birth. Of its total population, 2,152,051 may be classed as urban, living in cities of 8,000 inhabitants or more. The principal cities are Philadelphia, on the Delaware, at the mouth of the Schuylkill; Pittsburg, at the junction of the Allegany and Monongahela, and its suburb. Allegany. P. was a part of the territory of which the Dutch took possession 1623. In 1681 a charter was granted to William Penn. and P. was governed as a proprietary colony by Penn and his family until the Revolution. A dispute between Md. and P. as to the boundary between the two provinces was settled by Mason and Dixon's establishment of the line which bears their name. P. was one of the foremost colonies in the Revolution in resisting the British, and some of the most important battles were fought on her soil. During the Civil "War it was the only northern State invaded: one of the most decisive battles was fought at Gettysburg 1863. In 1890 there were 18,364,370 acres in farms; the value of farm products in 1889 was $121,328,348. The mineral production in 1895 was: bituminous coal, 51.813,112 tons; anthracite coal, 58,126.345 tons; coke. 6.355,813 tons; iron ore. 697,985 long tons; pig iron, 4,701,163 long tons; steel. 3,883.280 tons; cement, 400,998 bbls. (300 lbs.); roofing slate, 376,068 squares (100 sq. ft.); other slate, 2,942,999 sq. ft.; petroleum, 18,231,442 bbls. of 42 gals.; natural gas, value $5,852,000.

Pennsylvania, University Of. At "West Philadelphia; chartered 1779; united 1791 with the College and Academy of Philadelphia, chartered 1755, which had been developed from a charity school started 1740. Its medical department, the oldest in America, dates from 1765; it has offered a 4-years' course since 1893. The law school was founded 1789. In the college departments (1896) are 106 instructors, in all 251: with 871 collegiate students, 172 in philosophy. 313 in law, 873 in medicine, and 2,632 in all. 450 courses are offered. The libraries contain 135.000 vols. "Women are admitted to graduate courses. The work is organized in 13 departments, the college being one (subdivided in 10 courses), and occupies 23 buildings. It was removed to its present location 1872.

Pennsylvania College. Established 1832 at Gettysburg, Pa.; under Lutheran control. It has 15 instructors and ab. 250 students, including the preparatory department.

Pennsylvania Dutch. Dialect developed among immigrants to Pa., on a s. German basis. It has a limited literature, including poems by H. Harbaugh and C. C. Ziegler.

Pennsylvania State College. At State College, Pa.; began as Farmers'High School 1859: named Agricultural College 1862, and State Coll. 1874. It is organized in 7 schools, and offers 12 full and 8 short courses, mainly in the applied sciences. There are 52 instructors. General library, 10,500 vols., with special libraries in the departments.

Penny. English silver coin, first struck ab.700. Its value declined till ab, 1560, and has since been Tv shilling. Copper


Penny of William I. half pence and farthings have been minted from 1672, pennies since 1797. The Scotch coinage was of much lower value.

Penny, Virginia, b. 1826. American writer on employments of women, 1863-68.

Pennycress. Thlaspi arvense. Herb of the Mustard family, native of Europe, introduced as a weed into America: known as Mithridate Mustard. Penny Postage. See Post-office. Pennyroyal. Mentha pulegium. Herb of the Mint family, native of Europe, cultivated for its pungent volatile oil.

Pennyroyal, American. Low odorous herbs of the genus Hedeoma, of the Mint family, natives of America. The common e. species is H. pulegioides, and has nearly the taste and odor of the true Pennyroyal. Mentha canadensis has similar I properties and is also called Pennyroyal. These are used as a | domestic medicine.

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Penny Weddings. Seventeenth century practice in Scotland. The invited guests contributed a small amount of money, seldom more than a shilling, to pay the general expenses of the wedding. It was denounced 1(545 by an Act of the General Assembly.

Pennyweight. In Troy weight, 24 grains. See Weights and Measures.

Pennywort, Water. Low marsh herbs of the genus Hydrocotyle, natural family Umbelliferce, of wide geographical distribution.

Peiiobiieot. Chief river of Me. It heads in the w. part of the State, Bowse, and s.e.. and then s. to P. Bay. It is navigable to Bangor. Length ab. 300 m., drainage area 8,934 sq. m., discharge 2,438 cu. ft. per second.

Penology. See Prison Discipline.

Penry, John (ap Henry), 1559-1593. Welsh Puritan, unjustly executed.

Pensacola. City of Escambia CO., Fla., on P. Bay. It has a good harbor and considerable commerce. It was an old Spanish settlement, held for a time by the British, taken by Jackson 1814, and annexed with Fla. 1819. The Navy-yard near bv was seized by Confederates Jan. 1861, but regained 1862. Pop., i890, 11,750.

Penshurst. Town in Kent, England, at the confluence of the Eden and the Tun, 4i m. w.s.w. of Tunbridge. It is noted

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for its old homes. P. Palace is the birthplace of Sir Philip Sydney 1554. Pop. 2,000.

Pension. Sum paid from time to time by government, or a former employer, in consideration of past services. June 30, 1890, there were 970.678 names on the pension rolls of U. S.: War of 1812. 7 survivors, 3.287 widows; Mexican War, survivors 11,800, widows 8.017; Indian Wars, survivors 2,718, widows 4,237; War for the Union. 1861-65. invalids 749,530, widows, etc., 191,082. The total disbursements for the year ending June 30, 1896, were f 139.280,075; from 1861-96, $1,997,515,154.72. The amount paid for pensions by Great Britain annually for army, navy and civil lists is ab. £7,500,000.

Pensionary, Grand. Sec. of Holland till 1795. His duties were largely financial and diplomatic. Barneveldt made the post eminent.

Pentacarpcllary. Ovary of five carpels.

Pentaele. Five-pointed figure used as a symbol of mystery, perfection, or of the universe by Gnostics, Neoplatonists, and Pythagoreans. In the Middle Ages it was used to keep off evil spirits and witches.

Pentacrtnltes. Group of Crinoids with pentangular stems.

Pentacrinus. Most common of living species of Crinoids (q.v.); stone-lilies.

Pentaetine. Sponge spicule, produced from a hexactine by suppression of one ray.

PentadelphouM. Flowers whose stamens are united into five sets, as in the Basswood.

Pentads. In Chemistry, elements having a valence of V.

Pentagon. Polygon of five sides.

Pcntngynia. Order of plants which have five pistils.

Pciitagynons. Flowers with five pistils.

Pentamera. Coleoptera, with five-jointed tarsus. Here are included most of the Beetles, such as the Spring-beetles

(Elateridiv), LameUicornia, Palpicm-nia, Swimming-beetles (Dytiseidte). Tiger-beetles (Cincindelickr), and the great family of Running-beetles (Carabidve). See these terms.

Pcntaineron. Fifty Neapolitan stories by G. Basile 1637. Thirty-one of them were tr. 1848.

Pcntanierous. Having five similar parts; e.g.. arms of a Starfish, and joints in the tarsus of certain beetles.—In Botany, flowers constructed on the plan of five members of each circle of parts, or the quinary plan.

Pentameter. Verse of five feet; abridged hexameter, common in Greek, Latin, and modern poetry.

Pentaniethyl Pararosaniline. See Methyl Violet.

Pentandria. Linna?an class of plants, comprising all those which have five separate stamens, as in Forget-me-not, Potato, Cowslip, Violet, and Flax.

Pentandrous. Flowers with five stamens.

Pentane. C6H1V Amy] hydride; known in three forms; which are liquids boiling 9°-37° C.; present in crude petroleum, and a considerable constituent of petroleum ether; used in standard burners to furnish a standard of light.

Pentapetalous. Corolla of five petals.

Pcntaphyllous. Calyx or corolla composed of five leaves (sepals or petals).

Pentasepalous. Calyx composed of five sepals, as in the Apple.

Pcntnstichoug. Five-ranked, as the arrangement of the alternate leaves in the Apple, the scales of a Larch cone, and numerous other plants.

Pentastomida. See Linqcatulida.

Pentateuch. "Five books of Moses," first of O. T.

Pcntathionlc Acid. H^tOs. Made by the action of hydrogen sulphide upon a solution of sulphur dioxide in water.

Pentathlon. Five exercises of running, leaping, wrestling, throwing the discus, and throwing the spear, popular in ancient Greece.

Pentecost. In Israel, second of the three great feasts, celebrated fifty days after the Passover, commemorating the harvest.—In the Christian Church, day of the Descent of the Spirit.

Penthesilea. Queen of Amazons; ally of Priam; slain by Achilles.

Penthcns. King of Thebes; driven mad by Bacchus and torn in pieces by his mother and aunts in a Bacchic frenzy.

Pentland Firth. Between Scotland and the Orkneys, connecting North Sea and Atlantic.

Pentland Hills. S.w. of Edinburgh: 16 m. long. Greatest altitude 1,898 ft. Here a body of Covenanters was defeated Nov. 28, 1666.

Pentonville. District of London, containing a model prison, erected 1840-42.

Pcntremltes. See Blastoidea.

Pcntyl Alcohols. CjH,,OH. Seven compounds of this formula are known. Only two are of importance, the AlTYL Alcohols (q.v.).

Penumbra. One of the results of the rectilinear propagation of radiation is the production of shadows cast by opaque objects. If, e.g., a disk be held opposite a candle flame, and straight lines be drawn from the flame tangent to the edge of the disk, the conical space behind the disk which receives no

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In case of an eclipse of the sun, those parts of the earth between a, b and c, d respectively would be within the penumbra, and the eclipse is partial.

the moon's umbra or true shadow, the eclipse would be total; where the penumbra or partial shadow falls, the eclipse would be partial. The greatest breadth of the former is 180 m. and of the latter 4,900 ra.

Peons. Mexican and S. American serfs, under Spanish laws for debt.

Peony. Pceonia officinalis. Large perennial herb of the natural family Ranunculacece, native of central Europe, widely cultivated for ornament. There are numerous other species, two indigenous in California.

People's Palace. Institution at Mile End Road, inaugurated by the Queen 1887 and intended for the recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the East End of London. It comprises technical schools, art galleries, concert halls, gymnasium, etc.

Peoria. City of P. co.. 111., on the Illinois; founded 1779. It is entered by 11 railroads, is regularly laid out and has extensive manufactures. Pop., 1890, 41.034.

Pepe, Guglielmo, 1873-1855. Italian officer in Spain; leader of a revolt in Naples 1820; in exile 1821-48, when he held Venice for the patriots; historian of the events in which he bore part.

Peperino. Variety of tuff found near Rome.

Pepin, Lake. Extension of the Mississippi River between "Wis. and Minn., 1 m. below the junction of the St. Croix River. Length 24 m., width 2-4 m.

Pepin, or Pippin, "the Short," 714-768. Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne; became sole Duke of Franks 74"; first king 752; at war with Bavarians, Saracens, Lombards, Saxons, and the Duke of Aquitania. He gave Ravenna, Pentapolis, and the duchy of Rome to the Holy See, and so laid foundation of temporal power.

Pepin of Heriftal, d.714. Founder of Carlovingian line of Frankish kings; Mayor of the Palace under several Merovingian kings; conquered Burgundy and Neustria 687; father of Charles Martel.

Pepo. Fleshy fruit, with a firm rind, composed of the thickened adnate calyx and ovary, as in the Pumpkin, Cucumber, and Melons.

Pepper. Piper nigrum. Herb of the natural family Piper

acece. native of India, yielding from its berries the well known condiments black and white pepper. Red Pepper is derived from the fruit of a species of Capsicum, natural family Solanacece. Other plants produce a similar substance.

Pepper, William, M.D., LL.D., b. 1843. Prof. Univ. Pa. since 1876, and its provost 1881-94.—His father, William, M.D., 1810-1864, was prof. Univ. Pa. 1860-64.

Pepperbusli. Shrubs of the genus Clethra, natural family Clethracece. natives of N. and S. America, bearing odorous white flowers. The two species of the U. S. are known as White Alder.

Peppercorn Rent. Acknowledgment of tenancy when lands are let virtually free of rent; one peppercorn a year to be paid on demand.

Pepperell, Sir William, 1696-1759. Merchant at Kittery, Me.; Chief-justice of Mass. Common Pleas from 1730; leader of an expedition, the most famous of colonial times, which took


Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

Louisburg June 1745; Baronet 1746; acting Gov. of Mass. 175658; Lieut.-gen. 1759.

Pcppcrgrass. Herbs of the genus Lepidium, natural family Cruciferm, of wide geographical distribution; also called Peppervvort.

Pcppcridge. Nyssa sylvatica. Large tree of the natural family Cornacea;, native of swampy ground in the e. U.S., furnishing a valuable timber; called also Tupelo, and Black Gum or Sour Gum.

Peppermint. Mentha piperita. Odorous herb of the Mint family, native of Europe; cultivated and introduced into wet places in America, in Mich, and N. Y. See Mint.

Peppermint, Oil Of. Oil of Mentha piperita. The oil is used;in confectionery and in medicine. Its essential constituent is Menthol (q.v.).

Pepper-Pot. Mixed dish of meat or fish with okra and red peppers, originating in W. Indies. In Pa. tripe with dough balls and red peppers are used.

Pepper-Root. Certain species of the genus Cardamine, herbs of the natural family Crucifera;, natives of N. America; known as Toothwort.

Pepsin. Digestive ferment of the gastric juice. As found in the market it is usually prepared from the stomach of the hog, and is employed to aid weak digestion, acting on nitrogenous food only. It changes albuminoids into peptones. It is used in tablets.

Peptones. Bodies containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen, produced by the action of pepsin upon albuminoids, and by the action of other similar ferments; easily soluble in water and not as readily coagulated as albumens.

Peptonized Food. Any article of food artificially digested by means of some preparation of the pancreas. Peptonized foods are used to afford nourishment when, from any cause, the power of digestion is impaired; e.g., during the weakness consequent upon a low fever or where there is a chronic disease of the stomach. See Pancreatin.

Pepys, Samuel. 1633-1703. Sec. to the Admiralty 1685-88; Pres. Royal Soc. 1684-86. His famous Diary, 1660-69, was first pub. 1825.

Peqnigny. Town of France, on the Somme, near Amiens; notable for a treaty, signed Aug. 28, 1475, which arranged for a 7 years' truce between Frame and England. The English king engaged to quit France on receipt of 75,000 crowns, and to release Queen Margaret for a ransom of 50,000 more. A separate treaty provided for mutual aid in case of revolt in either kingdom.

Pequots, or Pequods. Tribe of Indians in Conn., which was hostile to the whites and caused several conflicts and massacres; nearly exterminated 1637 by a band led by John Mason, assisted by Uncas and the Mohegans. More than 600 Pequots were killed: others were sold as slaves to the W. Indies.

Pera. Suburb of Constantinople, occupied by foreigners and embassies; ravaged by fire 1870.

Per sen. Palestine e. of the Jordan, or part thereof, between Pella and Machasrus.

PcraU. Malay territory held by Britain from 1874. Area ab. 8,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 200,000.

Pcralta, Gaston De. Marquis De Falces, ab.1520-ab.1580. Viceroy of Mexico 1566-67; noted for justice and humanity; Constable of Navarro 1568.

Peralta, Manuel Maria De, b. 1847. Costa Rican author and diplomatist, well known at Washington 1875-78 and later.

Pernlta-Barnuevo, Pedro, 1663-1743. Peruvian author.

Perameles (bandicoot). See Entomophaoa.

Peramelldw. See Entomophaoa.

Per Capita. By heads; according to the number of individuals. See Per Stirpes.

Percentage. Process and result of reckoning by the hundred. The primary elements are the base and the rate per cent: their product is the percentage. The base being given in units, the rate is expressed decimally.

Perception. Psychologically, process of acquiring knowledge of the external world by means of the senses. The basis of perception is therefore sensation, but something more is needed. The object to be perceived must not only arouse a sensation, but must be discriminated, recognized, localized in space and time, and assimilated into the body of conscious ex

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perience. Perhaps the most important act in the complex process of perception is the movement of attention, which brings the sensation or the object producing it into the focus of consciousness, and allows the operation of the processes necessary to the development of perception.

Percesoccs. Sub-orderof Acanthopterous fishes, including the Mullets (Mugilidte), Smelts (Atherinidce), and Barracudas (Sphyrcenidte). These fishes stand between the Perches and the Pikes. They have the ventral fins abdominal in position,the spinous dorsal well separated from the soft dorsal, branchial arches well developed and scales cycloid. The largest species (Mugil albula) averages 2 lbs. in wt. They come in schools to spawn in June. They feed on the mud of the bottom, having a gizzard-like stomach and an extra long intestine; but the mud is partly culled before it is swallowed; the indigestible pieces are thrown out of the mouth. A special arrangement of the pharyngeal bones acts as a filter in the throat. The head is flat and scaly, the body is of pike-like proportions, but has two dorsal fins, and the ventrals are below the pectorals. The anterior dorsal is spiny.

Perceval, Amand-pierre Caussin De, 1795-1871. French Arabic scholar.

Perceval, John, 1680-1748. Irish baronet 1891, Baron 1715, Viscount 1722. Earl of Egmont 1733; grantee of a charter to colonize Georgia 1732.—His grandson, SPENCER, 1762-1812, became M.P. 1796, Atty.-gen. 1802, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1807, Prime Minister 1809, and was murdered.

Percheron. See Horse.

Perches. Percidce, including a large number of species of Acanthopteri. Some are called Pikes, or Pike-perches. Of these the wall-eyed pike, Stizostedion vitreum, is a prominent example. It may attain a weight of 10 to 30 lbs.; the body is more elongated and less compressed than in the yellow perch.


1. Sea Bass (Labrax liimis), 2. Striped Bass (Serraniis scriba), 8. Wreck Bass (Poli/prion cemuum).

The principal fishery for this species is Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. The white perch (Morone) belongs to the Labracidce. The sub-family Etheostominoe includes the Darters, which are considered minute perches. The Sunfishes, q. v., (Lepomis) and Black Bass (Micropterxis) of the Centrarchidce have 3 or more anal spines and rudimentary pseudobranchs, while the Sea Bass (Roccus or Labrax) of the Serranidce have large pseudobranchs. These families are by some authors included in the Perch family, here restricted to perches with 1 or 2 anal spines, and rudimentary pseudobranchs (except Stizostedion).

Perchcrs (birds). See Insessores.

Pcrclllorates. Metallic derivatives of perchloric acid.

Perchloric Acid. HC10(. Colorless, fuming liquid, very unstable and explosive. It produces bad wounds when brought in contact with the flesh. It is made by treating potassium perchlorate, KCIO,, with sulphuric acid.

Perclval, James Gates, 1795-1856. American poet, of considerable repute in the past; geologist of Wis. 1854. Clio, 1822-27.

Percurrent. Midvein of a leaf when it extends to but not beyond the apex.

Percussion. The sudden stopping of a body by impact, from which the term has been applied to shells to be exploded upon striking by means of a percussion fuse: the means employed to discharge the musket by a percussion cap, within which is placed a small charge of fulminate. Explosion in such cases is produced by the conversion of mechanical energy into heat.

Percussion. Process in physical diagnosis, which, by tapping various parts of the bodv\ more particularly the chest and abdomen, gives an indication of the physical condition of the organs beneath by the resultant sound.

Percussion Cap. Small copper cylinder containing fulminating powder, a mixture of 7 parts "mercury fulminate and 2 parts potassium chlorate, placed in the lock of a gun to explode the charge. See Fulminates.

Percussion Table. Apparatus used in ore-dressing, in which the pulp flows in a thin sheet over the surface of an inclined table, and is kept in agitation by a succession of blows given either at the upper end or at the side of the table.

Percy, Henry, d. 1408. Fourth Baron of Alnwick: first Earl of Northumberland 1377.—His son, Henry ("hotspur"), 1364-1403, victor of Chevy Chase, 1888, was killed at Shrewsbury, and celebrated by Shakespeare. Others of this line were prominent in war and intrigue.

Percy, John, 1817-1889. Physician in the Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, 1842-51; Lecturer on Metallurgy to the Roval School of Mines 1851-79; pres. Iron and Steel Institute 1885-87. His works on Fuel, Iron and Steel. Silver and Gold, and the metallurgy of the other metals, pub. 1869-80, are standard works, and have been tr. into French, German, and Spanish.

Percy, Thomas, D.D., 1728-1811. Bp. of Dromore 1782. His Reliques of Ancient Englisli Poetry, 3 vols., 1765, is an important collection of ballads, freely revised and enlarged by his own hand.

Percy Anecdotes. Famous collection, published in London, in monthly parts, 1820-23, by Thomas Byerley, d. 1826, and Joseph C. Robertson, d. 1852, who wrote under the name of Shilto and Ruben Percy.

Perdiccas. Kings of Macedonia ab.700. 454-413, and 365360 B.C.

Perdiccas, d. 321 B.C. General of Alexander, and temporary regent after his death, holding his signet-ring.

Pcreda, Jose Maria De, b. 1833. Spanish novelist and descriptive writer.

Perelixe, Hardouin De Beaumont De. 1605-1671. Bp. of Rhodes 1649, Abp. of Paris 1662; persecutor of Port Royal.

Peregrine Falcon (falco PeregriNUS). Hawk formerly used in falconry. It is a very swift flyer. It is known to have attained a speed of 150 m. an hour. The male, called Tercel, is smaller than the female.

Pereiopod. One of the walking legs of the lobster and of allied Crustacea.

Pereira, Jonathan, M.D., F.R.S., 1804-1853. Practitioner and prof, in London. Materia Medica, 1839-40; Diet, 1843.

Pereira da Silva, Joao Manoel, b. 1817. Brazilian historian.

Pereira de Figueiredo, Antonio,

1725-1797. Portuguese priest of the Ora- Hooded Peregrine on the tory. He tr. the Bible and wrote much block, against the Jesuits.

Pcrckop, Isthmus Of. In Russia, connecting the Crimea with the mainland of European Russia. It is crossed by a ship canal.

Pcre-la-Chalse. Cemetery in e. Paris; named from the Jesuit confessor of Louis XIV., whose garden was converted into this burial place 1804.

Perennial. Vegetable structures which endure indefinitely, year after year.

Pereniiibraiichiata (proteida, Sozobranchia). Tribe of Ichthyoidea (Urodele Amphibians), including forms having


One end of the leash la attached to the Jesses, the other to a ring driven Into the side or top of the block; and thus toe hawk Is prevented from escaping.

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