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employed; practically identical with the Hindu Pachisi, and regarded by Prof. TyloV as evidence of the Asiatic origin of Mexican culture. The development of the game, which was originally cosmical and divinatory, may be traced in America, and there is no indication of its foreign origin. See Goose.

I*a I on, John Gibson, D.D., b. 1824. Scottish missionary to New Hebrides 1838-62 and since 1865. Autobiography, 1890.

Paton, Sir Joseph Noel, LL.D., b. 1821. Scottish painter, chiefly of figures and historical scenes; knighted 1867.

Patras. Greek town, on the Gulf, 81 m. w. of Corinth; anciently Patrae; commercially important. Pop., 1890, 33,529.

Patrla Potestas. Power of the paterfamilias, in Soman law,overall members of the family, slaves, children, wife. It included originally the power of life and death, the power to sell, and the right to all their acquisitions: this was much limited under the emperors.

Patriarch. Title of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; applied in N.T. to David, and in the Roman Empire to the Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antiocli and Jerusalem; borne by some other modern bishops, as of Venice and Lisbon.

Patricians. At Rome, original free citizens, who long monopolized all rights of government and allowed no share therein to later settlers until forced to yield, after a century and a half of agitation, which several times threatened to destroy the state. Patrick, St., ab. 372-465. Apostle of Ireland, where his work began 432; b. in Scotland; taken in a raid ab. 388, and a slave till 395; said to have been ordained and consecrated ab. 417 in France. He belongs alike to history and to legend.

Patrick, St.. Order Of. Instituted by George III. in 1783. It con, sists of 22 knights with the sovereign 'and the lord-lieutenant of Ireland.

Patrick, Simon, D.D., 1626-1707. Bp. of Chichester 1689, and of Ely 1691. Works, 9 vols., 1858.

Patriotism. Love of one's country, especially as shown by sacrifices in its behalf.

Patripassians. Species of Monarchians in 2d and 3d centuries, who, for fear of dividing the Godhead, taught that the Father suffered in Christ.

Patristlcs. Branch of Historical Theology treating of the writings and Order of St. Patrick. influence of the Ch. Fathers. Patroclug. Friend of Achilles, in command of whose troops he drove the Trojans back to their walls, but was slain

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the feudal system; variously resident in popes, bishops, corporations, and laymen of wealth or station. Its survival in the English Ch. is often objected to: under the voluntary system it cannot exist. In U.S. politics, the nominations for government positions by members of Congress.

Patrons of Husbandry. See Grangers.

Patroon. Grantee in N.Y. or N. J. under the Dutch W. I. Co., exercising manorial privileges, with right of entail. He was to plant a colony of 50 in New Netherlands within 4 veare of 1629.

Patten, Simon Nelson, b. 1852. Prof. Univ. Pa. since 1885. Premises of Political Economy, 1885; Constimption of Wealth, 1889; Stability of Prices, 1889; Principles of Taxation, 1890; Economic Basis of Protection, 1891; Theory of Dynamic Economics, 1892.

Patterson, Daniel Tod, U.S.N., 1786-1839. Distinguished at New Orleans 1814.—His son, Carlile Pollock, U.S.N., 1816-1881, was connected with the Coast Survey from 1861, and its head from 1874.

Patterson, Robert, 1792-1881. Born in Ireland; served in war of 1812. Major-gen. U.S. Vols. 1846 and 1861, serving in Mexico and Va.

Patterson, Thomas H., U.S.N., 1822-1889. Lieut. 1861. serving on the Atlantic coa-st; Commodore 1871, Admiral 1877.

Patteson, John Coleridge, D.D., 1827-1871. Missionary in New Zealand 1855; Bp. of Melanesia 1861; killed by natives.

Patti, Adelina (adelea Juana Maria), b. 1843. She sang in concerts as a child, but effected her operatic debut at the Academy of Music, New York, as Lucia 1859; went to Europe 1861, and did not return to America till 1881. In 1868 she was married to the Marquis de Caux, and in 1886 to the tenor Nicolini.—Her sister, Carlotta, 1840-1889, devoted herself to the concert stage, and in 1879 was married to the violoncello virtuoso De Munck. They were of Italian parentage.

Pattison, Mark, 1813^1884. Rector of Lincoln Coll., Oxford, from 1861; contributor to Essays and Reviews 1860: biographer of Casaubon 1875, and Milton 1879. Memoirs, 1885.— His sister. Dora Wyndlow. 1832-1878, joined an Anglican sisterhood 1864, and was eminent in philanthropic work.

Pattison, Thomas. U.S.N.. 1822-1891. Lieut. 1862; at Memphis, Tenn., 1863-65; Commodore 1877; Admiral 1883.

Pal I on, Francis Landey. D.D.. LL.D., b. 1843. Pres. Princeton Coll. 1889. Inspiration, 1869.

Patuxcnt River. In e. Md., flowing s.e. and entering Chesapeake Bay to the n. of the Potomac. Its oyster beds are very valuable.

Pail. Town of s. France, on the Gave de P., near the base

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of the Pyrenees; once capital of Beam; birthplace of Henry IV. and Bernadotte. Pop., 1891, 32,111.

Paul, St., ab.l-ah. 65. Originally Saul; Benjamite Jew, b. in Tarsus; Roman citizen; trained in Jerusalem, under the famous rabbi Gamaliel; violent persecutor, converted 36 into the most effective of the apostles; arrested ab. 58, confined in Jerusalem and Rome, and then beheaded. He stoutly opposed Jewish exclusiveness, opened the Church to the Gentiles, and by his epistles has supplied the main material for the development of Christian doctrine.

Paul, St. Vincent De. See Vincent De Paul.

Paul I. Pope 757-767.—II. Pietro Barbo. 1418-1471. Pope 1464.—III. Alessandro Farnese. 1468-1549. Pope 1534. He made his grandsons cardinals, excommunicated Henry VIII. 1538, instituted the Society of Jesus 1540, strengthened the Inquisition 1542, and called 'the Council of Trent 1545 —IV. Giovanni

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a severe and not wholly successful ruler.—V. Camillo BoeGhese, 1552-1621, Cardinal 1596, Pope 1605. He had a long quarrel with Venice, founded several orders, and promoted foreign missions.

Paul, 1754-1801. Emperor of Russia 1796; son of Peter III. and Catharine II.; feeble and inconsistent; slain by conspirators, who meant to force his abdication.

Paul, Hermann, b. 1846. Prof. Munich; one of the founders of the younger school of German philologists, ed. Gnindrias der germanischen Philologie. Principles of Language, 1880.

Paul, Howard, b. 1835. American actor and playwright.

Paul, Jean. See Richter, J. F.

Paula, St., d. 404. Roman lady of great wealth and illustrious family, who, with her daughter Eustochium, was won by St. Jerome to the ascetic life in Palestine. Her day is Jan. 26.

Paulding', James Kirke, 1779-1860. American novelist; Sec. Navy 1837-41. Salmagundi (with Irving), 1807-19; John Bull and Brother Jonathan, 1812; Dutchman's Fireside, 1881; Westward Ho, 1832; Life of Washington, 1835.

Paulding, John, 1758-1818. Captor, with I. Van "Wart and D. Williams, of Major Andre, Sept. 23, 1780.—His son, Hiram, U.S.N., 1797-1878, became Captain 1844 and Admiral 1862.

Pauli, Georg Reinhold, 1823-1882. Prof. Rostock 1857, Tubingen 1859, Marburg 1867, and Gottingen 1870. He wrote King Alfred, 1851, tr. 1852, and other books on English history.

Pauliclans. Mediaeval sect of Eastern dualists, who, in their dislike of Judaism, contended that St. Paul was the only genuine apostle; founded by Silvanus ab. 060; severely persecuted by Theodora ab. 850. Their doctrines survived, as among the Catnari.

Pauline Congregation. See Piarists.

Pauline Epistles. See Romans, Corinthians, etc.

Paullnus, Pontius, 353-431. Bp. of Nola, s. Italy, 409; author of poems and letters.

Paullnus, d. 644. Roman missionary to Britain 601; bp. 625; titular Abp. of York 633.

Paullst Fathers. R.C. order established by Rev. Isaac Thomas Hecker in N.Y. 1858; devoted to church work in various forms.

Paul of Samosata. Bp. of Antioch ab. 260-272. He

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Dr. Bourne Preaching at Paul's Cross.

taught that the Godhead in Christ was rather a power than a person.

Paul Prj'. Name given to an inquisitive and meddlesome fellow; from a comedy of that name by John Poole, 1825.

Paul's Cross. Originally of wood, on n. side of old St. Paul's, London: replaced ab. 1480 by a stone cross and pulpit which were removed by order of Parliament 1643. Sermons were preached, religious disputations held, I and papal bulls promulgated here.

Paul's, St. (C A T H E Dral). See St. Paul's.

Paulsen, Friedrich, b. 1846. Prof. Berlin 1878. Ethik, 1889; Einleitung in die Philosophie, 1892.

Paul us, Heinrich EberHard Gottlob, 1761-1851. Prof, at Jena 1789. Wurzburg 1803-8, and Heidelberg 1811; rationalistic commentator on the Psalms 1791, Isaiah 1793, and NT. 1800-4. Life of Jesus, 1828; Handbook of Gospels. 3 vols., 1830-33. He denied the supernatural.

Paulus, JULIUS, 3d cent. Roman jurist, from whom the Pandects draw largely.

Paulus, Lucius ^milius, ab. 230-160 B.C. Proconsul in Spain ab. 185; Consul 181 and 168; conqueror of Macedonia 168 B.C.

Paulus iEgineta. Greek physician, probably of 7th century. His he Re Medica was repeatedly tr. and widely read.

Paulus Diaconus, ab.72O-ab.800. Historian of the Lombards to 744; author or compiler also of a Hist. Romana and other works.

Paul Veronese. See Veronese.

Pauncefote, Sir Julian, b. 1828. British Minister to the U. S. 1888; knighted 1874.

Paunch, or Rumen. First and largest division of the ruminant stomach. It receives the vegetable food in bulky, half-chewed condition.

Pauperism. Dependence on public support, through poorrates or otherwise, of those without means of support through their own industry or individual assistance.

Paupers. See Immigration and Poor Laws.

Pauropoda. Order of Myriapoda, including only Pauropus, a white, minute, ten-jointed insect, with nine pairs of legs, eight of which are borne on four segments. The antenna? have only five joints, and there are no maxillipedes, as in the Chilopoda. Trachea? are absent.

Pausanlas, d. ab.470 B.C. Spartan, nephew of Leonidas; commander of the allied Greeks at Platasa 479 B.C.; conqueror of Cyprus and Byzantium. Dazzled by success, he aimed at becoming tyrant of all Greece by aid of the Persian king, was proved guilty of treason and starved in a temple.—His grandson, Pausanias, d. 385 B.C., was King of Sparta.

Pausanlas, 2d cent. Greek writer, of w. Asia Minor. His Itinerary of Greece, tr. 1793 and 1886, is extensive, reliable, and of great value to the classical antiquarian.

Pauw, Cornelis De, 1739-1799. Dutch scholar, canon of Xanten. He wrote on the American Indians 1768, Chinese and Egyptians 1774, and Greeks 1788.

Pavement. Roadbed of loose stones compacted and rolled, or of cubical blocks set on a solid foundation. The Roman road pavements were made of polygonal blocks of basalt set on a very solid foundation of rubble and concrete. Broken stone pavements were first used in France ab.1750, and soon after 1800 greatly developed in Great Britain by McAdam and Telford. Wooden pavements have been mainly used in the U. S., but have not proved successful. Brick pavements, introduced ab.1870, are proving excellent for light traffic. In 1892 there were in 51 U. S. cities 2,402 m. of stone pavement, 736 of wood, 421 of asphalt, 88 of brick, and 1,446 of broken stone. Stone ranks highest for heavy traffic, and asphalt for light traffic in towns, while broken stone is the cheapest and best adapted to country roads. McAdam roads cost from 45 cts. to $1.70 per sq. yd.: brick $1.00 to $2.35; wood $1.15 to $2.65; Belgian blocks of trap rock $2.00 to $2.50; granite blocks $2.00 to $4.50; asphalt $2.65 to $4.60. This depends largely upon the foundation for the pavement.

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Visconti Palace at Pavia (restored).

and made prisoner under its walls 1524. It fell to Austria 1814, but became a part of Italy 1859. Its university, traditionally founded by Charlemagne and really organized 1361, has ab. 60 instructors and 1,100 students. Pop. ab. 37,000.

Paving Stone. Stone blocks for paving streets are of trap, granite, or sandstone, the first being the toughest, while the others are better for horses' hoofs. They are 6 or 8 in. in depth, laid in courses across the street, the joints being filled with asphalt or cement.

Pavlov, Nicolai, 1803-1865. Russian essayist, novelist, and poet.

Pawl. See Ratchet.

Pawn. Lowest piece in chess, usually regarded as representing a foot-soldier, probably its original form. In Burmah effigies of soldiers with shields are still used. The pawn is generally called soldier, except in Siam, where it is called oia, cowrie shell, probably from cowries having been used for this piece.

Pawnbroker. One engaged in lending money on the securitv of personal property pledged to him. His business is generally regulated by statutes. Business of great antiquity. The three balls sign is from the armorial bearings of the Medicis.

Pawnees. Indians originally of the Platte River region. They are agriculturists, but the wife, who is purchased, is made to do all the work. There are now ab. 2,500 on reservations in Nebraska and Indian Territory. The Arickarees or Rees, and Wichitas, ab. 1,000, belong to "the same stock. They are unfriendly toward the whites.

Pawtucket. City of Providence co., R. I., on Blackstone River, 4 m. from Providence. Cotton manufacturing, begun here 1790, is the paramount industry, for which there is abundant water power. Pop., 1890, 27,633.

Paxillte. Spines with brush-like ends, produced upon some of the dermal plates of star-Ashes.

Pax Roinana. General order and tranquillity which under the Roman empire displaced the tumults and wars of preceding times.

Paxton, Sir Joseph, 1803-1865. English gardener and architect; designer of the Crystal Palace 1851; knighted 1852; M.P. 1854. Magazine of Botany, 1834-49; Botanical Dictionary (with John Lindley), 1840-68.

Pay Of U. S. Army. The allowances are quarters, and forage for horses used in the public service. The yearly pay is as follows: Major-general, $7,500; Brigadier-general, $5,500: Colonel, $3,500; Lieut.-colonel, $3,000; Major. $2,500; Captain (mounted). $2,000; Captain (not mounted), Regimental Adjutant, and Quartermaster, $1,800; First Lieutenant (mounted), $1,600; First Lieutenant (not mounted), and Second Lieutenant (mounted). $1,500; Second Lieutenant (not mounted), and Chaplain, $1,400. All officers, except the generals, receive 10 per cent increase of pay for every five years additional service, up to 40 per cent; except that the maximum pay of a colonel and lieut.-colonel does not exceed $4,500 and $4,000 respectively. The private soldier receives $13 per month during the first and second years, and $14. $15. and $16 for the third, fourth, and fifth years respectively of his first enlistment: afterward $1 extra per month for subsequent enlistments. The pay of the non-commissioned officers ranges from $15 per month to a corporal for the first year of his first enlistment to $34 per month to first sergeants of engineers, ordnance and signal corps for the same year. The highest pay per month for the first year of enlistment is $60 to the chief musician of artillery

or cavalry. The enlisted men in addition to pay proper are lodged, clothed, and fed. Full pay is the total pay to which the officer or soldier is entitled by law; half pay is given when an officer is on leave beyond the time for which he may draw full pay.

Pay Department Of U. S. Army. Under the direction of the Secretary of War this has charge of the payment of the army, and comprises one Paymaster-general with the rank of Brigadier-general, two Colonels, three Lieutenant-colonels, and twenty-two Majors.

Payer, Jean Baptiste, 1818-1860. Fellow of the Paris Institute. Families natureltes desplantes, 1848; Botanique cryptogamiqne, 1850-68.

Payment. Money or its equis'alent, received in discharge of an obligation.

Payn, James, b. 1830. English novelist; ed. Chambers' Journal, 1858, and Cornhill Mag., 1882-96. Lost Sir Massingberd, 1864; Carlyon'g Year, 1868: Literary Recollections, 1884.

Payne, John, b. 1842. English poet and translator.

Payne, John Howard, 1792-1852. American poet, playwright, and actor; U.S. Consul at Tunis from 1841. The song, Home, Sweet Home, occurs in Clari, or the Maid of Milan.

Payaandu. City of Uruguay on the left bank of the Uruguay River, 280 m. n.w. of Montevideo. It contains large

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Ruins of the Principal Church, slaughter houses and exports tinned meats, especially tongues. It was visited by an earthquake 1865.

Pay*on, Edward, D.D., 1783-1827. Pastor at Portland, Me., from 1807. His Sermons, 1828-31, were widely read.

Pay Streak. Portion of a vein in which the richest ore occurs.

Pazmanl, Peter, 1570-1637. Abp. of Presburg, Hungary. 1610. Cardinal 1629; eminent preacher, author, and persecutor of Protestants; founder Univ. Budapest, which is reprinting his works in 14 vols.

Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe, 1821-1886. Peruvian statesman and historian.

Pea. Pisum sativum. Climbing herb of the natural family Leguminosaz, native of s. Europe; widely cultivated in many varieties for its nutritious seeds. Peas are not grown in field culture in the U.S., except occasionally with oats or barley as a meslin crop. The climate is too dry and hot for their best development. When grown with oats or barley, the resulting fodder makes an excellent food for milch cows.

Pea, Everlasting, or Vetchling. Plants of the genus Lathyrus, natural family Leguminosa. Many of them bear showy flowers, and some are cultivated for ornament.

Peabody. Village of Essex co., Mass., 2 m. w. of Salem; called South Dan vera till 1868; birthplace of George Peabody, who founded an institute and a library here. Pop., 1890, 10.158.

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Peabody, Andrew Preston, D.D., LL.D., 1811-1893. Prof. Harvard 1860-81; ed. N. American Review 1853-61. Christian Doctrines, 1844.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer, 1800-1894. American educator, author, and reformer. Her sisters were the wives of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Horace Mann.

Peabody, George, 1795-1869. American merchant, in

London from 1838; distinguished for his munificent philanthropy. He founded and endowed institutes at S. Danvers and Salem, Mass.. and at Baltimore, Md., the last with $1,000,000; gave $150,000 each to Harvard and Yale, and smaller sums to other institutions; a fund of $3,500,000 to aid education in the South, and $2,500,000 to build lodging-houses for the London poor, besides numerous other donations.

Peabody - Martini Rifle. B r e ec h -loading rifle invented by Peabody, an American, and i niproved by Martini, a Swiss, and until recently the arm used by the English under the name of the Martini-Henry rifle. The breech block rotates around an axis at right angles to the bore and in rear of the block; used by the Turks during the Russo-Turkish war.

Peace. In International Law, the relation between states which are

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George Peabody.

not at war; in Municipal Law, freedom from serious disorder among citizens of a state. The London Peace Society was founded 1816, and similar organizations have been established in other European states and in U. S. A Peace Congress was held in Paris 1889.

Peace-Offerings. Sacrifices of thanksgiving and supplication, including a sacrificial repast; whereas in the Burntoffering the victim was entirely consumed.

Peaee of God. Ab.1000 an effort was made by the clergy in France and Normandy to repress violence. To this end oaths were exacted by the bishops from rulers and subjects. The '•Truce of God,'T first established perhaps by the Synod of Tuluges May 1027, ordained that warfare should cease from noon of Saturday till Monday morning. A later synod (1041) greatly extended this surcease of hostilities. During the Advent and Lenten seasons, e.g., it was to last from Wednesday evening to Monday morning, and so on various festivals. Soon the custom spread over most of w. Europe. Special courts punished violations of the Peace by excommunication and exile for 7 or 30 years. The church, the wayside cross, and even the plow, insured protection. This Truce had great influence throughout Europe during the 12th century, but began to decline in the 13th.

Peace of the Dailies. See Cambray, Peace Of.

Peace River. River of Athabasca, Canada, rising in Rocky Mts. and flowing ab. 600 m. e. and n.e. to the outlet of LakeAthabasca, where it joins (or becomes) the Slave.

Peach. Amygdalus persica. Small tree of the natural family Rosacea, native of China; widely cultivated in warm, temperate regions for its delicious fruit.

Peach, Charles W., 1800-1886. English geologist, first to discover fossil remains in the slate rocks of Cornwall, thereby establishing their Devonian age. He afterward labored successfully among the Devonian rocks of Scotland.

Peach Curl. Disease of peach leaves caused by the minute parasitic fungus, Exoascus deformans. Spraying with a 40 per cent of sulphate of iron solution will destroy the parasites.

Pcach-Tree Borer (sannina Exitiosa). The adult is bluish in color and resembles a small wasp. The eggs are deposited on the ground near the tree trunk. The young larva bores into the tree in early summer, and in a year has reached

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Japanned or Black-shouldered Pea-fowls.

are gregarious, omnivorous, and prefer to live in mountainous regions. The gorgeous tail of the male is formed of the upper tail coverts, and is not fully formed until the third year.

Peacock, Thomas Love, 1785-1866. English novelist and poet; clerk in India House 1819-56. Headlong Hall, 1816; Melincourt, 1817; Nightmare Abbey, 1818; Maid Marian, 1822; Elphin, 1829; Crotchet Castle, 1831; Gryll Grange, 1860. His works are short satirical extravaganzas. They were repub. 1875.

Peacock-Ore. See Bornite.

Pea-Fowl. See Phasianid^e and Peacock.

Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827. American painter, noted for portraits of Washington and other worthies.—His son, Rembrandt, 1778-1860, N.A. 1826, was successful on the same lines, a good colorist, and author of several books. Graphics, 1841.

Peanut. Arachis hypogcea. Herb of the natural family Legnminosai, native of America; widely cultivated for its nutritious, edible, subterranean fruit; also called Ground Nut, Earth Pea, and Goober. The kernels yield 20 per cent of nondrying oil, sp.gr. 0.918, used in dressing wool, as a lubricant, and for soap.

Peanut, Hog. Falcata comosa. Woodland vine of the Bean family, bearing edible tubers, native of e. N. America.

Pear. Pynis communis. Tree of the natural family Rosacea}, native of Europe; widely cultivated in many varieties for its delicious fruit. The liquor called Perry is fermented pear juice.

Pear, Alligator. See Alligator Pear.

Pear, Anchovy. Grias cauliflora. Tall tree of the Myrtle family, native of the W. Indies, valued for its large fleshy fruit.

Pear, Prickly. Cacti of the genus Opuntia, and others, bearing prickly, edible fruits, natives of America. O. puntio is the common e. American species, known as Indian Fig.

Pearce, Charles Sprague, b. 1851. American painter.

Pearcc, James Alfred, 1805-1862. M.C. from Md. 1835-39, 1841-43; U.S. Senator from 1843.

Pea Ridge. In Benton co., Ark., scene of Union successes March 6-8, 1862.

Pearl. Sp.gr. 2.6. Rounded masses of calcium carbonate with some animal matter formed around some particle in some mollusks, the shells of which are lined with the same substance. The best pearls are found in the pearl oyster in the Indian seas; they are also obtained off the coast of Australia. Black pearls are found off Lower California. Pearls are round, oval, and pear-shaped, the former being most and the last the least prized. They are sold by the diamond-carat weight, 3.168 grains. A diamond-grain is J of this. The best pearl, of a

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Pearl Fishery in Ceylon.

also utilized, the shells being worth from 200 to 300 dollars a ton. In Ceylon the hours during which fishing may be carried on are regulated by law, the shellfish being obtained b3' diving.

Pearl mussel. See Aviculxdm.

Pearl River. In Mississippi, flowing s.w. and s. to the Gulf of Mexico, and forming part of the La. boundary. Length ab. 250 m., drainage area 8,964 sq. m.

Pearl Spar. "Variety of dolomite with a striking pearly luster.

Pearlstone. Feldspathic rock of volcanic origin, possessing a peculiar enamel-like appearance, due to an arrangement of its component minerals in small spherules.

Pearl White. See Bismuth Basic Nitrate.

Pearlwort. Diminutive herbs of the genus Sagina, family Caryophyllacece, of wide geographical distribution.

Pearson, John, D.D., 1613-1686. Prof. Cambridge 1661; Bp. of Chester 1672: esteemed the greatest divine of his age. His Exposition of tlie Creed, 1659, is still used as a text-book. Minor Works, 1844.

Pear-Tree Borer (sbsia Pyri). Insect resembling the Peach-tree Borek (q.v.). The eggs are, however, deposited on the tree-trunk, and, after hatching, the small white larva? eat into the sap-wood, causing wart-like swellings. Kerosene applied to these swellings kills the grub-like larva;.

Peary, Robert Edwin. U.S.N., b. 1854. Arctic explorer of the Greenland coasts June 1891-Sept. 1892, reaching lat. 82° N. on e. side. He sailed again July 1893 and Jul}* 1896.

Peasant Proprietorship. Ownership of agricultural land by its actual cultivators; system in which land is divided into small farms, and these are owned by their occupiers.

Peasants' War. Uprising of peasants in Germany 1525, influenced by the example of the Swiss and inflnmed by the teachings of Luther and their own martial exploits in Italy. They committed the wildest excesses, plundered monasteries and castles, made Heilbroun the capital of their new empire, and were dispersed with great slaughter by the nobles. Thomas Mi'mzer, a religious enthusiast, the soul of the uprising in Thuringia, set up his New Jerusalem in Muhlhausen. At Frankenhausen the peasants were overthrown by the princes May 25; 5,000 were slain: Munzer was executed.

Peaslee, Edmund Randolph, M.D., LL.D., 1814-1878. Prof. Dartmouth from 1842, and in New York: specialist in gynecology. Histology, 1857; Ovariotomy, 1872.

Peat. Natural product of decomposition of vegetable matter that forms and accumulates slowly in bogs and marshes. It has a recognized value as a fuel and a fertilizer, and is finding increased use in the arts in several directions. It contains small and very variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphoric acid, but is chiefly valuable as adding vegetable matter to soils

lacking it, and. when dry, as an absorbent of the liquid and volatile parts of animal manures. When the vegetable matter

Peat Bofj near Dordrecht, Holland, is but slightly decomposed, it may be used as fuel, as largely in Ireland.

Pea-Weevil (bruchus Pisi). Beetle \ in. long, black in color, with white T-iike spots. Eggs are laid in the pod, and each larva enters a pea. in which it spends the winter. B. obsoletus, the bean-weevil, differs from this in that many grubs enter each bean. To destroy these insects the seed should be fumigated in a tight box with bisulphide of carbon, or else soaked a day in water before planting.

Pebble. Pieces of rock crystal used in jewelry or in the making of lenses for eye-glasses.

Pebble Powder. Large grained powder, generally cubical in form, first proposed by General Rodman ab.1860 for use in heavy guns, the object being to bring a less strain upon the gun during the first period of ignition than by the use of the quick-burning smaller grains; the size of the grains range from {J of an inch to 2 inch cubes.

Pecan-Nnt. Hicoria pecan. Large tree of the Walnut family (Juglandaceo?), native of the s.e. U. S. Its nuts are collected in large quantities and form an important article of commerce.

Peecarles. S. American small wild pigs, differing from

swine in having only one pair of teats and bearing at most two young. They have but four upper incisors: the stomach has three compartments. Metapodials III. and IV. unite into a

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cannon bone, and the outer toe is reduced to a splint. They live in herds, and defend themselves ferociously. They secrete a very offensive odor, ravage cultivated fields, hide in thickets when pursued, and are best hunted from trees. Length 3 ft., height 16 in.

Peeehlo, Giuseppe. Count. 1785-1885. Italian author, in England from 1823.

Peeehlo, Giuseppe, 1785-1835. Italian writer on political economy.

Peehill, Gulf Of. Arm of the Yellow Sea. extending into China.

Peek. In England and America, fourth of a bushel: in Eng., the Imperial, 554.55 cubic inches; in U.S., the Winchester, 537.6 cubic inches.

Peek, John James, 1821-1878. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862; distinguished at Yorktown and Williamsburg; defender of Suffolk, Va., 1863.

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