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Peabody, Andrew Preston, D.D., LL.D., 1811-1893. Prof. Harvard 1860-81; ed. N. American Review 1853-61. Christian Doctrines, 1844.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer, 1800-1894. American educator, author, and reformer. Her sisters were the wives of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Horace Mann.

Peabody, George, 1795-1869. American merchant, in

London from 1838; distinguished for his munificent philanthropy. He founded and endowed institutes at S. Danvers and Salem, Mass.. and at Baltimore, Md., the last with $1,000,000; gave $150,000 each to Harvard and Yale, and smaller sums to other institutions; a fund of $3,500,000 to aid education in the South, and $2,500,000 to build lodging-houses for the London poor, besides numerous other donations.

Peabody - Martini Rifle. B r e ec h -loading rifle invented by Peabody, an American, and i niproved by Martini, a Swiss, and until recently the arm used by the English under the name of the Martini-Henry rifle. The breech block rotates around an axis at right angles to the bore and in rear of the block; used by the Turks during the Russo-Turkish war.

Peace. In International Law, the relation between states which are


George Peabody.

not at war; in Municipal Law, freedom from serious disorder among citizens of a state. The London Peace Society was founded 1816, and similar organizations have been established in other European states and in U. S. A Peace Congress was held in Paris 1889.

Peace-Offerings. Sacrifices of thanksgiving and supplication, including a sacrificial repast; whereas in the Burntoffering the victim was entirely consumed.

Peaee of God. Ab.1000 an effort was made by the clergy in France and Normandy to repress violence. To this end oaths were exacted by the bishops from rulers and subjects. The '•Truce of God,'T first established perhaps by the Synod of Tuluges May 1027, ordained that warfare should cease from noon of Saturday till Monday morning. A later synod (1041) greatly extended this surcease of hostilities. During the Advent and Lenten seasons, e.g., it was to last from Wednesday evening to Monday morning, and so on various festivals. Soon the custom spread over most of w. Europe. Special courts punished violations of the Peace by excommunication and exile for 7 or 30 years. The church, the wayside cross, and even the plow, insured protection. This Truce had great influence throughout Europe during the 12th century, but began to decline in the 13th.

Peace of the Dailies. See Cambray, Peace Of.

Peace River. River of Athabasca, Canada, rising in Rocky Mts. and flowing ab. 600 m. e. and n.e. to the outlet of LakeAthabasca, where it joins (or becomes) the Slave.

Peach. Amygdalus persica. Small tree of the natural family Rosacea, native of China; widely cultivated in warm, temperate regions for its delicious fruit.

Peach, Charles W., 1800-1886. English geologist, first to discover fossil remains in the slate rocks of Cornwall, thereby establishing their Devonian age. He afterward labored successfully among the Devonian rocks of Scotland.

Peach Curl. Disease of peach leaves caused by the minute parasitic fungus, Exoascus deformans. Spraying with a 40 per cent of sulphate of iron solution will destroy the parasites.

Pcach-Tree Borer (sannina Exitiosa). The adult is bluish in color and resembles a small wasp. The eggs are deposited on the ground near the tree trunk. The young larva bores into the tree in early summer, and in a year has reached

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Japanned or Black-shouldered Pea-fowls.

are gregarious, omnivorous, and prefer to live in mountainous regions. The gorgeous tail of the male is formed of the upper tail coverts, and is not fully formed until the third year.

Peacock, Thomas Love, 1785-1866. English novelist and poet; clerk in India House 1819-56. Headlong Hall, 1816; Melincourt, 1817; Nightmare Abbey, 1818; Maid Marian, 1822; Elphin, 1829; Crotchet Castle, 1831; Gryll Grange, 1860. His works are short satirical extravaganzas. They were repub. 1875.

Peacock-Ore. See Bornite.

Pea-Fowl. See Phasianid^e and Peacock.

Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827. American painter, noted for portraits of Washington and other worthies.—His son, Rembrandt, 1778-1860, N.A. 1826, was successful on the same lines, a good colorist, and author of several books. Graphics, 1841.

Peanut. Arachis hypogcea. Herb of the natural family Legnminosai, native of America; widely cultivated for its nutritious, edible, subterranean fruit; also called Ground Nut, Earth Pea, and Goober. The kernels yield 20 per cent of nondrying oil, 0.918, used in dressing wool, as a lubricant, and for soap.

Peanut, Hog. Falcata comosa. Woodland vine of the Bean family, bearing edible tubers, native of e. N. America.

Pear. Pynis communis. Tree of the natural family Rosacea}, native of Europe; widely cultivated in many varieties for its delicious fruit. The liquor called Perry is fermented pear juice.

Pear, Alligator. See Alligator Pear.

Pear, Anchovy. Grias cauliflora. Tall tree of the Myrtle family, native of the W. Indies, valued for its large fleshy fruit.

Pear, Prickly. Cacti of the genus Opuntia, and others, bearing prickly, edible fruits, natives of America. O. puntio is the common e. American species, known as Indian Fig.

Pearce, Charles Sprague, b. 1851. American painter.

Pearcc, James Alfred, 1805-1862. M.C. from Md. 1835-39, 1841-43; U.S. Senator from 1843.

Pea Ridge. In Benton co., Ark., scene of Union successes March 6-8, 1862.

Pearl. 2.6. Rounded masses of calcium carbonate with some animal matter formed around some particle in some mollusks, the shells of which are lined with the same substance. The best pearls are found in the pearl oyster in the Indian seas; they are also obtained off the coast of Australia. Black pearls are found off Lower California. Pearls are round, oval, and pear-shaped, the former being most and the last the least prized. They are sold by the diamond-carat weight, 3.168 grains. A diamond-grain is J of this. The best pearl, of a

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Pearl Fishery in Ceylon.

also utilized, the shells being worth from 200 to 300 dollars a ton. In Ceylon the hours during which fishing may be carried on are regulated by law, the shellfish being obtained b3' diving.

Pearl mussel. See Aviculxdm.

Pearl River. In Mississippi, flowing s.w. and s. to the Gulf of Mexico, and forming part of the La. boundary. Length ab. 250 m., drainage area 8,964 sq. m.

Pearl Spar. "Variety of dolomite with a striking pearly luster.

Pearlstone. Feldspathic rock of volcanic origin, possessing a peculiar enamel-like appearance, due to an arrangement of its component minerals in small spherules.

Pearl White. See Bismuth Basic Nitrate.

Pearlwort. Diminutive herbs of the genus Sagina, family Caryophyllacece, of wide geographical distribution.

Pearson, John, D.D., 1613-1686. Prof. Cambridge 1661; Bp. of Chester 1672: esteemed the greatest divine of his age. His Exposition of tlie Creed, 1659, is still used as a text-book. Minor Works, 1844.

Pear-Tree Borer (sbsia Pyri). Insect resembling the Peach-tree Borek (q.v.). The eggs are, however, deposited on the tree-trunk, and, after hatching, the small white larva? eat into the sap-wood, causing wart-like swellings. Kerosene applied to these swellings kills the grub-like larva;.

Peary, Robert Edwin. U.S.N., b. 1854. Arctic explorer of the Greenland coasts June 1891-Sept. 1892, reaching lat. 82° N. on e. side. He sailed again July 1893 and Jul}* 1896.

Peasant Proprietorship. Ownership of agricultural land by its actual cultivators; system in which land is divided into small farms, and these are owned by their occupiers.

Peasants' War. Uprising of peasants in Germany 1525, influenced by the example of the Swiss and inflnmed by the teachings of Luther and their own martial exploits in Italy. They committed the wildest excesses, plundered monasteries and castles, made Heilbroun the capital of their new empire, and were dispersed with great slaughter by the nobles. Thomas Mi'mzer, a religious enthusiast, the soul of the uprising in Thuringia, set up his New Jerusalem in Muhlhausen. At Frankenhausen the peasants were overthrown by the princes May 25; 5,000 were slain: Munzer was executed.

Peaslee, Edmund Randolph, M.D., LL.D., 1814-1878. Prof. Dartmouth from 1842, and in New York: specialist in gynecology. Histology, 1857; Ovariotomy, 1872.

Peat. Natural product of decomposition of vegetable matter that forms and accumulates slowly in bogs and marshes. It has a recognized value as a fuel and a fertilizer, and is finding increased use in the arts in several directions. It contains small and very variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphoric acid, but is chiefly valuable as adding vegetable matter to soils

lacking it, and. when dry, as an absorbent of the liquid and volatile parts of animal manures. When the vegetable matter

Peat Bofj near Dordrecht, Holland, is but slightly decomposed, it may be used as fuel, as largely in Ireland.

Pea-Weevil (bruchus Pisi). Beetle \ in. long, black in color, with white T-iike spots. Eggs are laid in the pod, and each larva enters a pea. in which it spends the winter. B. obsoletus, the bean-weevil, differs from this in that many grubs enter each bean. To destroy these insects the seed should be fumigated in a tight box with bisulphide of carbon, or else soaked a day in water before planting.

Pebble. Pieces of rock crystal used in jewelry or in the making of lenses for eye-glasses.

Pebble Powder. Large grained powder, generally cubical in form, first proposed by General Rodman ab.1860 for use in heavy guns, the object being to bring a less strain upon the gun during the first period of ignition than by the use of the quick-burning smaller grains; the size of the grains range from {J of an inch to 2 inch cubes.

Pecan-Nnt. Hicoria pecan. Large tree of the Walnut family (Juglandaceo?), native of the s.e. U. S. Its nuts are collected in large quantities and form an important article of commerce.

Peecarles. S. American small wild pigs, differing from

swine in having only one pair of teats and bearing at most two young. They have but four upper incisors: the stomach has three compartments. Metapodials III. and IV. unite into a

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cannon bone, and the outer toe is reduced to a splint. They live in herds, and defend themselves ferociously. They secrete a very offensive odor, ravage cultivated fields, hide in thickets when pursued, and are best hunted from trees. Length 3 ft., height 16 in.

Peeehlo, Giuseppe. Count. 1785-1885. Italian author, in England from 1823.

Peeehlo, Giuseppe, 1785-1835. Italian writer on political economy.

Peehill, Gulf Of. Arm of the Yellow Sea. extending into China.

Peek. In England and America, fourth of a bushel: in Eng., the Imperial, 554.55 cubic inches; in U.S., the Winchester, 537.6 cubic inches.

Peek, John James, 1821-1878. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862; distinguished at Yorktown and Williamsburg; defender of Suffolk, Va., 1863.

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Peck, Tracy, b. 1838. Prof. Cornell 1871, Yale 1880; ed. several Latin classics.

Peck, William Gut, LL.D., 1890-1892. Prof. Columbia from 1857; author of text-books on mathematics.

Peckbam, Rufvs Wheeler, 1809-1873. M.C. 1853-55; Judge N.Y. Supreme Court 1859-70, and Court of Appeals from 1870.—His son and namesake, b. 1835, became associate Justice U.S. Supreme Court 1895.

Pecock, Reginald. D.D., ab.1390-ab.1460. Bp. of St. Asaph's 1444, and Chichester 1450. His theological writings, though in part against the Lollards, caused wrath by their moderation and by being in English: he was condemned as a heretic 1457, and confined in an abbey. On Faith, ab.1456.

Pecora, or Cotylophora. Section of selenodont (Ruminant) Ungulates including the families MOSCHID^E, CameloPardellidje, and Cervid.s: (q.v.).

Pecos River. Branch of the Rio Grande, flowing s. and then s.e. through an arid region of New Mexico and Texas. Though ab. 800 m. long, it runs nearly dry through much of the year.

Pecquet, Jean, ab. 1600-1674. French anatomist, first to trace the course of the lacteal vessels in man.

Pectase. Ferment found with pectose in fruit tissues which transforms pectose into pectin in the process of ripening.

Pccten. Vascular process of the choroid, projecting through the retina into the hinder chamber of the eye in birds. See Processus Falciformis.

Pectlc Acid. Ci«H„Oi5?. Insoluble gelatinous substance produced by boiling an aqueous extract of carrots with sodium carbonate and precipitating with hydrochloric acid.

Pectin, or Plant Jelly. Csjh1803j?. Substance present in fruits, etc.. which causes their juice upon evaporation to form a jelly; soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol, and precipitated from water by its addition; little known.

Pectinate. In Botany and Zoology, organs with numerous narrow segments, resembling the teeth of a comb.

Pectlnes. Comb-like organs born by the second abdominal segment in scorpions.

Pectlnidw (scollops). Lamellibranchs without a siphon, with nearly equal symmetrical valves to the shell and a straight hinge line. The valves are united by one adductor muscle and are usually fan-shaped, ribbed, or scolloped. The edge of the

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free mantle-lobes bears many tentacles and eyes. The foot secretes a byssus for attachment of some species; others swim about by rapidly opening and closing the shell. Some are edible, and are even more esteemed than oysters.

Pectinobranchiata. See Prosobranchiata and CtenoBranchiata.

Pectoral Fin*. See Fins.

Pectoral Girdle. See Shoulder-girdle.

Pectoriloquy. Speech or voice coming from the chestPhenomenon presented by consumptive individuals when their chests are examined with the stethoscope. It does not always indicate a cavity in the lung, as a portion of the lung may have solidified and produce the same noise.

Pectose. Substance found in unripe fruits and other vegetable organs.

Pectoslc Acid. Gelatinous product produced by the action of pectase upon pectose. Its composition is unknown.

Peculiar. In England, chapels royal. Westminster Abbey, and others not subject to episcopal jurisdiction.

Peculiar People. English sect, founded 1838; faithhealers, except in surgical cases.

Pedagogics. The science of education, including the subjects to b<- taught, the arrangements of these subjects, and the methods to be employed.

Pedal. In the organ, keyboard played upon with the feet also mechanical contrivances (combination pedal) for drawing a group of stops by foot pressure; on the pianoforte, a lever for the foot for lifting all the dampers off the strings at once, shifting the action so that the blow is given to only one or two of the unison strings, or the force of the blow is lessened (piano or soft piano), or prolonging the sound of a desired tone or group of tones, by preventing the fall of the dampers (sustaining or sostenuto pedal); on the harp, a lever for raising the pitch of the strings.

Pedal Ganglion. Nerve centers (brains) in the foot of Mollusks. They form part of a short circumcesophageal system, which in the cerebral ganglia is united with another longer visceral system composed of the pleural, abdominal, and parieto-splanchnic ganglia.

Pedallnacea>. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class AngioHpemia;, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series OanioyetaloE, comprising 15 genera and ab. 40 species, natives of the warm regions of the earth; especially numerous in Africa.

Pedal Point. See Organ Point.

Pedata. Holothurinns with many ambulacral feet, either in regular zones or irregularly distributed. They are fusiform and somewhat flattened on the side on which they lie. Respiratory trees are preseut. The oral tentacles are arborescent in the group, and shield-like in the AspidochirOt^e (q.v.).

Pedate. In Botany, leaves and other flat organs palmately parted into narrow segments.

Pedder, James, 1775-1859. Ed. Boston Cultivator from 1844. Farmer's Land Meastire, 1854.

Pcdersen, Kristiern, 1480-1554. Danish author and reformer, canon at Lund. Tr. N. T. and Psalms 1529-31.

Pedes. Feet of birds, distinguished as P. gradarii and P. vadantes. Of the former we have P. adhamantes, scansorii, flssi, ambulatorii, gresorii, insidentes. Of the latter are P. grallarii, divided into colligati, semicolligati, cursorii, palmati, semipalmati. flssipalmati, lobati, stegani. See each of these.

Pedesis, or Brownian Movement. Dancing motion of very small particles, suspended in a liquid, as seen under high magnification. No satisfactory explanation of this movement has yet been given; but it appears probable that the vibrating molecules surrounding the body do not bombard it with equal force on all sides at any given instant; hence the particle is jostled in different directions.

Pedestal. An erection for the support of a statue, vase, or other ornamental object.

Pedlastreap. Sub-order of minute fresh-water Alga;.

Pedicel. Stalk of a flower in a flower-cluster.

Pcdlccllarirc. Little snapping jaws set on stalks on the surface of starfishes and sea urchins.

Pcdicellinn. See Endoprocta.

Pedlciilati. Sub-order of Acanthopteri, including scale

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first dorsal spine modified, and with very odd shape of body. Lophius (q.v.), the Fishing: Frog, is an example. Pediculidse (lice). Insects of the group Aptera, order Rhynchota. Pediculus capitis is the headlouse of man. It sucks blood, has hooked joints on its feet, and lays its eggs on the bases of the hairs. The young undergo no metamorphosis, and are sexually mature in eighteen days after hatching, which occurs a week after the eggs are

laid. Numerous eggs are produced in a HeadL. Body L. ghort tjme by each femaie: jn t|ie case 0f

the body louse, P. vestimenti, ab. 5,000 in eight weeks. Pedimana. See Entomophaga.

Pediment. Gable of classic architecture, or the triangle formed by the cornice of the entablature and that which denotes the outline of the roof. It is always of low pitch and in the classic temples was a principal field for the display of sculpture.

Pedipalp (maxillary Palp). Clawed Chelicer^e (q.v.) of Arachnids, or more especially of the Scorpion-spiders.

Pedipalpi, or Phrynidea (scorpion-spiders). Large Arachnida, with jaws provided with claws: the anterior pair of legs are slender and antennae-like. The abdomen has eleven or twelve segments; unlike the scorpions, but like the spiders, it is clearly marked off from the thorax. The term, in a broader sense, includes the Scorpions.

Pedometer. Instrument which, when carried by a pedestrian, counts his steps, and thus enables him to determine approximately the distance traveled. See Odometer.

Pedrarias Davila, ab.1480-1531. Gov. of Castilla del Oro (Darien) 1514-26, and then of Nicaragua. He imprisoned Balboa 1514, put him to death 1517. and founded Panama 1519.

Pedro, "the Cruel." 1334-1369. King of Castile and Leon 1350; defeated and slain by his brother Henry.

Pedro I., 1798-1834. Son of John VI. of Portugal, who became king 1816; in Brazil from 1807; Regent 1821; Emperor 1822, independence being secured. He inherited the throne of Portugal 1826. resigned it to his daughter Maria, abdicated 1831, went to England, and procured the deposition of the usurper Miguel and Maria's restoration.—His son. Pedro II., 1825-1891, Emperor 1831-1889, was a good ruler, much respected everywhere for his character and enlightened views, but was deposed on the proclamation of the Republic. He traveled much in Europe, and visited the U.S. 1876. Slavery was gradually abolished in Brazil 1871-88.

Pedro Sancho, or Sancho Pedro. Game like All Fours, in which the five of trumps, called Pedro, counts 5 points, and the nine of trumps, called Sancho, 9 points.

Pedunele. Stalk, either of a single flower or of a flowercluster.

Pednneulata. Group of Barnacles, characterized by the presence of a stalk by which the animal is fixed; six pairs of

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Peel, Sir Robert. 1788-1850. M.P. 1809; Sec. for Ireland 1812-18; Home Sec. 1822-27 and 1828-30; leader of the Commons; mover of Catholic emancipation 1829; Prime Minister 1834-35 and 1841—16. Mainly a Conservative, he accepted the repeal of the Corn Laws, and at last was more Whig than Torv.—Of his sons, Sir Robert, 1822-1895, M.P. 1850, was Sec. for Ireland 1861-65; Arthur Wellesley, b. 1829, became M.P. 1865 and Speaker 1884.

Peele, George, ab.1558-ab.1598. English poet and dramatist. Arraignment of Paris, 1584; Old Wires' Tale, 1595; David and Bethsabe. 1599.

Peeping Tom. Character in the Godiva story, represented as a tailor who thought to have a peep at Lady Godiva, and was punished by the loss of an eye. See Godiva.

Peep-of-Day Boys. Irish insurgents of 1784, later known as Orangemen (q.v.).

Peepul. Ficus religiosa. Sacred fig of India, and Botree of Ceylon. Vishnu is supposed to have been born beneath it.

Peerlkamp, Peter Hofman, 1786-1865. Prof. Leyden 1822—49; classical rationalist, who applied a destructive criticism to Horace, Virgil, and Tacitus.

Peers. British dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons, having (with the bishops or lords spiritual) seats in the House of Lords. The French House of Peers, 1814-48, was arbitrarily constructed.

Peesash. Hot, dry land wind in n. India, like the sirocco, and possibly of a fohn-like character.

Peet, Stephen Denison, b. 1830. Ed. American Antiquarian, 1879-88. Picture Writing, 1885; Primitive Symbolism, 1887.

Pecwet (lapwing). European plover.

Peewit (peewee, etc.). Phoebe; olive-green Tyrant flycatcher.

Peganthidse. Family of Narcotnedusai, including Jellyfishes, without radial canals or stomach-pouches in the subumbrella, but with a ring-canal which is festooned with separated pouches. The tentacles project up, and Otoporps (q.v.) are at the bases of auricular tentacles.

Pegasus. Winged horse which sprang from the blood of Medusa; steed of the Muses. A blow of his hoof on Mt. Helicon evoked their fountain, Hippocrene. By his aid Bellerophon conquered the Chimsera.

Pegmatite. Varieties of granite which are very coarsely crystallized.

Peiho. White River of China. It is a tributary of the Han Kiang. Length ab. 124 m.

Peine Forte ct Dure. Brutal punishment occasionally employed in England ab.1400-1741, by loading the offender's body with heavy weights, to force him to plead; abolished 1772; heroically endured 1692 at Salem, Mass., by Giles Cory, accused of witchcraft, to avoid the forfeiture of goods and impoverishment of his family.

Pelpus. Double lake of w. Russia, s. of Gulf of Finland, ab. 87 m. long; area 1,356 sq. m. The s. part is Lake Pskoff.

Pelrce, Benjamin. LL.D., 1809-1880. Prof. Harvard from 1833; Supt. U. S. Coast Survey 1867-74; of high authority as astronomer and mathematician; author of sundry influential text-books. Analytic Mechanics, 1855.

Peirce, Bradford Kinney, 1819-1889. Ed. Zion's Herald (Boston), 1872-88; religious and biographical writer.

Peirce, Cyrus, 1790-1860. Promoter of Normal Schools; head of the first opened in U. S., at Lexington, Mass., 1839-42 and 1844-49.

Peixoto, Floriano. 1839-1895. Brazilian general; Vicepres. 1890, Pres. 1891-94. He crushed a dangerous rebellion 1893-94, which had threatened Rio Janeiro.

Peixoto, Ignacio Jose De Alvarenga, 1748-1793. Brazilian poet, condemned 1792 for insurrection.

Peking, or PEKIN. Capital of China; 100 m. from the sea and 120 ft. above sea-level: area inclosed 24i sq. m. It consists of a Tartar and a Chinese section; the imperial palaces are in the former, the Temple of Heaven in the latter. It was

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The Hi(jh Street, Peking.

and walled 1409-37. The English and French forces entered it 1860. Pop. ab. 500.000.

Pela, or Pehla. White wax prepared by the Chinese from the secretions of Coccus sinensis, an insect of the cochineal family. It resembles spermaceti and is used in candle making. It melts at ab. 81° C.

Pelagia. See Nk.m.kostomk.i-:.

Pelagianisni. Doctrine supposed to deny original sin and divine grace, as teaching that men sin merely by imitation, and may reform of their own will; condemned by the Church, led by Augustine.

Pelagic. In Botany and Zoology, organisms inhabiting the deep seas.

Pelagic Zone. See Bathymetric Distribution.

Pclagius. British heresiarch, in Rome ab. 400; perhaps a monk, but never ordained; banished 418. His doctrine was urged by Coelestius, and condemned 431.

Pelagius I. Pope 555-60.—II. Pope 578-90.

Pelargomorplire. Order of birds equivalent to a part of the Orallatores, including Herons and Storks. See Herodii.

Pelargonlc Acid. C,HlsO,. Mpt. 12.5° C, bpt. 253° C. Colorless, oily liquid which turns yellow by ag:e, occurring naturally in oil of rose-geranium. It is made by heating oil of rue with" nitric acid.

Pelargonlc Ether. Bpt. 216°-219° C. Ethyl ether of pelargonic acid. It gives the odor to the quince.

Pelasgi. Race, prob. Aryan, apparently first to occupy the coasts of Greece, islands of the ^Egean, and s. Italy. The oldest architectural remains of Greece are ascribed to them.

Pelayo, 8th cent. Traditional Spanish king or chief, in conflict with the Moors.

Pelecypoda. See Lamellibranchiata.

Pele's-Halr. Form of cirrus cloud.

Pele's Hair. Variety of glassy lava from the Hawaiian Islands, spun by wind action into fine threads.

Peleus. King of Phthia, Thessaly; argonaut; husband of Thetis and father of Achilles.

Pelew Islands. Group in the Pacific, s.e. of the Philippines; discovered 1543; held by Spain. Area 170 sq. m., pop. ab. 10,000.

Pelham, Henry. 1696-17.54. Brother of the Duke of Newcastle; Sec. for War 1724; Prime Minister from 1743.

Pelicans. Twelve species of tropical and subtropical


Pelican (Peiecanus onocrotalus).

for carrying fish. The Pelican of N. America goes north into temperate regions in summer, and at its breeding time (May) a deciduous excrescence develops on top of the beak.

Pclides. Achilles, as son of Peleus.

Pellgot's Salt. KClCrOv Formed by the action of concentrated hydrochloric acid upon potassium dichromate; red prismatic crystals.

Pcllon. Range in e. Thessaly. See Ossa.

Pellssier, Jean Jacques Amable, 1794-1864. French general 1850; commander in the Crimea 1855; made Marshal and Duke of Malakoff for storming a fort near Sebastopol; Ambassador to England 1858-59; Gov. of Algeria from 1860.

Pella. Macedonian capital, ab. 15 m. n.w. of the Thermaic Gulf; birthplace of Philip II. and Alexander; important in their times, but it disappeared before 600 A.D.

Pellegrini, Carlo, 1838-1889. Italian cartoonist, in London from 1868.

Pellew, George, 1801-1892. Anglo-American journalist and author. Castle and Cabin, 1888; Life of Chief-justice Jay, his great-grandfather, 1890.

Pelllco, Silvio, 1789-1854. Italian patriot, author of tragedies and of My Prisons, 1833; imprisoned by Austria for alleged political offenses 1820-30: sentenced to death 1822.

Pellltory. Herbs of the genus Parietaria. of the Nettle family, natives of the n. hemisphere.

Pelly River. Right branch of the Yukon, in British Columbia.

Pelmatozoa. Group of Echinoderms, including stalked and mostly fossil forms, of the classes Cr'inoidea, Cystoma, and Blastoidea (q.v.).

Pelobatidae. Family ofJ Toads, including Scaphiopits, the Spade-foots. These live underground, burrowing to a considerable distance. They appear in June during rains, to lay their eggs in temporary pools. They are very noisy. Most of the stories of finding toads in the midst of rocks during blasting operations are probably based on finding them either in hard soil or in rock clefts. See



Pellitory {Parietaria offlcinalii).

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