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Paggavant, Johann David, 1787-1861. German painter, head of the Stadel Institute at Frankfort; author of an important Life of Raphael. 1839-58.

Paggavant, William Alfred. D.D., 1821-1894. Lutheran pastor at Pittsburg 1844-55; ed. Missionary 1848-61, and Workman from 1880: founder of hospitals, orphanages, and of the Chicago Tlieol. Sem. 1891; introducer of deaconesses for hospital work 1849. Much of his work is carried on by his son and namesake, b. 1857.

Passenger Cars. Length 60 ft., width 10 ft., weight 60,000 lbs., cost $5,000. seats 60. The average life of passenger cars is 16 years. In U. S. 1895 there were 26,419 passenger cars.

Paggerat, Jean, 1534-1602. French poet and satirist; prof. Coll. of France 1572.

Paggeres (coracomorph^e, Insessores. Perchers). Order of Birds containing many of small size, generally good flyers, using their feet mostly for perching; when on the ground they usually hop. The beak is horny, without cere; the young are altrices. A vocal apparatus (syrinx) is usually present. They have been artificially grouped into the Oscines, or singers, and the Clamatores, or shriekers: but similar varieties of beaks occur in both groups, according to which we have five tribes: Levirostres, Tenuirostres, Fissirostres, DentirosTRES, and Conirostres (q. v.). They are monogamous, migratory, gregarious, and build skillfully constructed nests. The Levirostres are frequently placed with the CUCULI (q.v.).

Passeroni, Carlo Giovanni, 1713-1803. Italian lyric poet.

Paggifloraceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermai and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising 27 genera and ab. 235 species, all growing in the tropics and warm regions bordering thereon; called the Passion-Flower family.

Paggion. Desires or affections when uncontrolled by the reason or by moral rules.

Pasglon-Flower. Vines of the genus Passiflora, natural family Paairifloracete, of wide geographical distribution, often

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Paggion Week, or Holy Week. Last of Lent, preceding Easter. Strictly this is Holy Week, the preceding being Passion Week.

Paggion Mugic. Settings of the history of Christ's passion, as drawn from the Gospels and performed in the service of Holy Week in the German Church. By the 4th century the recital took on a quasi-dramatic character; the story was chanted dialogue interspersed with choruses. In the Western Church ab. 1200-1570 the recital was divided between three deacons, one of whom sang the words of the evangelist, the second those of Christ, the third those of the apostles and spectators, plain chant melodies being used. Subsequently the cries of the people were set to simple polyphonic music in Italy, and ab. 1690 in Germany the ch. chants were set aside and the entire Passion was set to original music, which led to the master work of its kind, Bach's Passion according to St. Matthew.

Paggive State. Condition of iron when immersed in concentrated nitric acid, probably due to the formation of a thin layer of protosesquioxide of iron. On this state depends the possibility of a zinc-iron battery.

Paggovcr. Chief festival of the Israelites, commemorating the deliverance from Egypt, when God passed over their homes smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians; celebrated 14th of the month Nisan, first full moon after vernal equinox. For every household a paschal lamb was sacrificed, and eaten by the family accoutered as for hasty departure. No leaven could be found in any house throughout the week.

Paggow, Franz Ludwiq Karl, 1786-1833. Prof. Breslau 1815; author of an important Greek lexicon, 1819-24, much drawn on by Liddell and Scott.

Paggport. Document useful and often necessary in foreign travel; issued or signed by officers of government.

Pagta, Giuditta (negri). 1798-1865. Italian singer, prominent in opera at Paris and London 1822-34.

Pagteboard. See Cardboard.

Pagtel. Crayon for drawing on parchment or rough paper.

Pagteur, Louis, 1822-1895. Physician in Paris from 1857; Prof, of Chemistry at the Sorbonne 1867; famous for his treatment of hydrophobia by inoculation. Memoire sur les corpuscuhs organises qui existent dans Vatmosphere, 1862; Fermentation, 1863; Etudes sur la maladie des vers d soie, 1870; Lis Microbes, 1878. His Institute in Paris, opened 1888. has relieved patients from all parts of Europe, and been the model of similar establishments in America. Courses of lectures on the related subjects are also given here.

Pasteurized Milk. See Sterilized Milk.

Pagton Letters. 1,000 or more documents written by or to William Paston of Norfolk and his relatives 1422-1509; of historical value. Vols. I. and II. were pub. 1787, III. and IV. 1789, V. 1823; reprinted, 3 vols., 1872-75.

Pagtoral Epistles. I. and II. Timothy, and Titus.

Pagtoral Letter. Addressed by a pastor to his flock, by a bishop to his diocese, by the House of Bishops after General Convention, or by a synod to its congregations.

Pagtoral Poetry. Begun among the Greeks by Theocritus in his idyls, it passed to Rome, as in Virgil's eclogues; was revived in Provence, and in Italy by Petrarch and Boccaccio, and later in dramatic form; was cultivated in Spain, France, England, and Germany: became a part of every national literature, and is now somewhat out of favor.

Pagtoral Staff. Commonly called Crosier; curved and ornamented, borne by bishops, mitered abbots, and abbesses, one cross-bar denoting episcopal, two archiepiscopal, three patriarchal or papal rank.

Pagtoral State. That stage in the progress of mankind in which cattle and other animals are domesticated and furnish the principal part of subsistence. It represents a decided advance on the hunter state, but is still far below the agricultural state.

Pagtoral Theology. Branch of the seminary course, treating of parish work and the cure: of souls,

Pust ora Is, or Pastorells. Disorderly mobs of would-be crusaders, who infested France 1251 and 1320.

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 1651-1719. German Quaker, head of a company of emigrants 1683; founder of Germantown, Pa.; celebrated in Whittier's Pennsylvania Pilgrim. Pastoral Staff.

Pasture. Land devoted to grasses or forage plants, upon which domestic animals are grazed.

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Patagium. Fold of skin which stretches between the limbs on the sides of the body of bats and flying squirrels.

Patagonia. S. part of S. America; region of high mountains and desolate plains, inhabited by roving savages; recently appropriated and apportioned between Chili and Argentina, the former holding the portion west of the Andes and that bordering on the Strait of Magellan and the latter the portion east of the Andes. Araucanian nomadic tribes, living by fishing and hunting, numbering 4,000, inhabit w. P., and Patagonians, numbering ab. 7,000, e. P.

Patagonlans (tehuelt Indians). Noted for their physical development: the men average 6 ft., but the women are much shorter. They are powerful, Drachycephalic, dark yellow, have long, coarse, abundant hair, Roman noses, and intelligent expression. They are cleanly, but paint and hang trinkets


Group ol' Patagonians.

in their ears: tatooing is practiced. They live by hunting from horseback, using the bolas; their houses are tents of skins. Honest among themselves, they steal from and deceive strangers. The wife is won by courtship. They worship the moon; the dead are buried in stone cairns in a sitting posture.

Patapsco River. In Md.. flowing e. through Baltimore into Chesapeake Bay. Length 80 m.

Patay. Town of France, 13 m. n.w. of Orleans. Here the French under Dunois and Joan of Arc defeated the English under Talbot June 18, 1429.

Patch, Abbott Lawrence, b. 1861. American meteorologist.

Patch, Samuel, 1807-1829. American athlete, who leaped Niagara safely, and was killed at Genesee Falls, Rochester, N.Y.

Patches. Used by ladies ab.1600-1725 to set off their complexions.

Patchouli. Perfume derived from Pogostemon patchouli, a small shrubby plant, native of Penang and Malacca. In India it is used to scent tobacco and as a perfume for the hair. It is also used to keep insects from linen and woolen articles.

Patella. See Knee.

Patellidae. See Cyclobranchiata.

Patelllform. In Botany and Zoology, organs or organisms shaped like shallow saucers.

Paten. Round plate to hold the bread for Holy Communion.

Patent. Governmental grant to an inventor, securing to him the exclusive enjoyment of his invention. The subject is regulated by statutes. In the U.S., the national government has exclusive jurisdiction of patents. Each grant of patent is for 17 years; or, if previously granted in a foreign country, it expires simultaneously with the latter. The fee for filing is $15 and issuing $20. In 1895, 22,057 patents were granted; from 1831-96, 566,615 patents were issued by U.S.

Patent Hummer. So arranged that several stone chisels can be clamped together to form its head; used for dressing stone after the surface has been roughly formed by the common hammer.

Patent Medicines. Medical compounds for the sale of which the proposer obtains an exclusive privilege from the Government. His invention must be registered in the Patent Office, hence it differs from a secret and proprietary medicine.

Pater, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 1695-1736. French painter, pupil and follower of Watteau.

Pater, Walter Horatio, 1839-1894. English author, noted for delicacy of thought and purity of style. The Renaissance,

1875; Marius the Epicurean, 1885; Imaginary Portraits, 1887; Appreciations, 1889; Plato and Platonism, 1893; Gaston de Latour, 1896.

Paterculus, Velleius, ab.19 B.C.-ab.31. Roman courtier and historian; praetor 15. His book was first pub. 1520.

Patereros. Small pieces of ordnance worked on swivels. Used on board ship, mounted on the gunwale to throw nails, etc., into the enemy's ships.

Patcr-noster. Lord's Prayer in Latin; used in nearly all liturgies.

Paterson. City of Passaic co., N. J., 14 m. n.w. of Jersey City; on Passaic River, which here falls 72 ft.; settled 1791, chartered 1850; noted for its manufactures of silk. Pop., 1890, 78,347.

Paterson, John, 1744-1808. Col. of Mass. troops 1775; Brig.-gen. 1777, Major-gen. 1783; M.C. from N.Y. 1803-5.

Paterson, Robert, ab. 1715-1801. Original of Scott's "Old Mortality."

Paterson, "william, 1658-1719. Scottish projector of the Bank of England, 1694, and of a colony at Darien, which failed disastrously 1698-69; M. P. 1708; free-trader and advanced financier.

Paterson, William, LL.D., 1745-1806. U.S. Senator 178990; Gov. of N.J. 1791; Justice U.S. Supreme Court from 1793.

Pathogenic Bacteria. Those that produce disease. See Disease Germs.

Pathology. Branch of medical science investigating the character of the changes of the tissue in disease and of the modifications of the function of any organ due to disease.

Pathology (mental). See Lunacy.

Patience. The habit of mind which enables one calmly to endure afflictions or await what one wishes for.

Patkul, Johann Reinhold Von, ab.1660-1707. Livonian negotiator of the alliance of Russia against Sweden; given up to Charles XII., tortured, and executed.

Pal more. Coventry Kearsey Deiohton, 1823-1896. English poet. His Angel in the House includes Tlie Betrothal, 1854, The Espousals, 1856, and two more parts, 1860-63. He ed. Tlie Children's Garland, 1862.

Patmos. Island in the ^Egean Sea, s. of Samos, to which St. John was banished, and where it is supposed he wrote the


Cave in which St. John the Divine was imprisoned.

Revelation. It is 28 m. in circumference, and is divided into n. and s. parts by a narrow isthmus. The population is entirely Greek and mostly sponge fishermen, numbering 4,000.

Patna. City of India, on s. bank of the Ganges, 140 m. e. of Benares. It has a Mohammedan college, considerable manufactures, and a large trade. Pop., 1891, 165.192.

Patois. Provincial dialect used by the illiterate.

Patok. Corean pebble game, corresponding with the Japanese game called So. and the Chinese game of Enclosing. The Corean board is peculiar in emitting a musical note when a piece is played.

Patolli. Game of the old Mexicans, played upon a crossshaped diagram with pieces or men, according to the throws with certain objects, for which beans are said to have been

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employed; practically identical with the Hindu Pachisi, and regarded by Prof. TyloV as evidence of the Asiatic origin of Mexican culture. The development of the game, which was originally cosmical and divinatory, may be traced in America, and there is no indication of its foreign origin. See Goose.

I*a I on, John Gibson, D.D., b. 1824. Scottish missionary to New Hebrides 1838-62 and since 1865. Autobiography, 1890.

Paton, Sir Joseph Noel, LL.D., b. 1821. Scottish painter, chiefly of figures and historical scenes; knighted 1867.

Patras. Greek town, on the Gulf, 81 m. w. of Corinth; anciently Patrae; commercially important. Pop., 1890, 33,529.

Patrla Potestas. Power of the paterfamilias, in Soman law,overall members of the family, slaves, children, wife. It included originally the power of life and death, the power to sell, and the right to all their acquisitions: this was much limited under the emperors.

Patriarch. Title of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; applied in N.T. to David, and in the Roman Empire to the Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antiocli and Jerusalem; borne by some other modern bishops, as of Venice and Lisbon.

Patricians. At Rome, original free citizens, who long monopolized all rights of government and allowed no share therein to later settlers until forced to yield, after a century and a half of agitation, which several times threatened to destroy the state. Patrick, St., ab. 372-465. Apostle of Ireland, where his work began 432; b. in Scotland; taken in a raid ab. 388, and a slave till 395; said to have been ordained and consecrated ab. 417 in France. He belongs alike to history and to legend.

Patrick, St.. Order Of. Instituted by George III. in 1783. It con, sists of 22 knights with the sovereign 'and the lord-lieutenant of Ireland.

Patrick, Simon, D.D., 1626-1707. Bp. of Chichester 1689, and of Ely 1691. Works, 9 vols., 1858.

Patriotism. Love of one's country, especially as shown by sacrifices in its behalf.

Patripassians. Species of Monarchians in 2d and 3d centuries, who, for fear of dividing the Godhead, taught that the Father suffered in Christ.

Patristlcs. Branch of Historical Theology treating of the writings and Order of St. Patrick. influence of the Ch. Fathers. Patroclug. Friend of Achilles, in command of whose troops he drove the Trojans back to their walls, but was slain

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the feudal system; variously resident in popes, bishops, corporations, and laymen of wealth or station. Its survival in the English Ch. is often objected to: under the voluntary system it cannot exist. In U.S. politics, the nominations for government positions by members of Congress.

Patrons of Husbandry. See Grangers.

Patroon. Grantee in N.Y. or N. J. under the Dutch W. I. Co., exercising manorial privileges, with right of entail. He was to plant a colony of 50 in New Netherlands within 4 veare of 1629.

Patten, Simon Nelson, b. 1852. Prof. Univ. Pa. since 1885. Premises of Political Economy, 1885; Constimption of Wealth, 1889; Stability of Prices, 1889; Principles of Taxation, 1890; Economic Basis of Protection, 1891; Theory of Dynamic Economics, 1892.

Patterson, Daniel Tod, U.S.N., 1786-1839. Distinguished at New Orleans 1814.—His son, Carlile Pollock, U.S.N., 1816-1881, was connected with the Coast Survey from 1861, and its head from 1874.

Patterson, Robert, 1792-1881. Born in Ireland; served in war of 1812. Major-gen. U.S. Vols. 1846 and 1861, serving in Mexico and Va.

Patterson, Thomas H., U.S.N., 1822-1889. Lieut. 1861. serving on the Atlantic coa-st; Commodore 1871, Admiral 1877.

Patteson, John Coleridge, D.D., 1827-1871. Missionary in New Zealand 1855; Bp. of Melanesia 1861; killed by natives.

Patti, Adelina (adelea Juana Maria), b. 1843. She sang in concerts as a child, but effected her operatic debut at the Academy of Music, New York, as Lucia 1859; went to Europe 1861, and did not return to America till 1881. In 1868 she was married to the Marquis de Caux, and in 1886 to the tenor Nicolini.—Her sister, Carlotta, 1840-1889, devoted herself to the concert stage, and in 1879 was married to the violoncello virtuoso De Munck. They were of Italian parentage.

Pattison, Mark, 1813^1884. Rector of Lincoln Coll., Oxford, from 1861; contributor to Essays and Reviews 1860: biographer of Casaubon 1875, and Milton 1879. Memoirs, 1885.— His sister. Dora Wyndlow. 1832-1878, joined an Anglican sisterhood 1864, and was eminent in philanthropic work.

Pattison, Thomas. U.S.N.. 1822-1891. Lieut. 1862; at Memphis, Tenn., 1863-65; Commodore 1877; Admiral 1883.

Pal I on, Francis Landey. D.D.. LL.D., b. 1843. Pres. Princeton Coll. 1889. Inspiration, 1869.

Patuxcnt River. In e. Md., flowing s.e. and entering Chesapeake Bay to the n. of the Potomac. Its oyster beds are very valuable.

Pail. Town of s. France, on the Gave de P., near the base


of the Pyrenees; once capital of Beam; birthplace of Henry IV. and Bernadotte. Pop., 1891, 32,111.

Paul, St., ab.l-ah. 65. Originally Saul; Benjamite Jew, b. in Tarsus; Roman citizen; trained in Jerusalem, under the famous rabbi Gamaliel; violent persecutor, converted 36 into the most effective of the apostles; arrested ab. 58, confined in Jerusalem and Rome, and then beheaded. He stoutly opposed Jewish exclusiveness, opened the Church to the Gentiles, and by his epistles has supplied the main material for the development of Christian doctrine.

Paul, St. Vincent De. See Vincent De Paul.

Paul I. Pope 757-767.—II. Pietro Barbo. 1418-1471. Pope 1464.—III. Alessandro Farnese. 1468-1549. Pope 1534. He made his grandsons cardinals, excommunicated Henry VIII. 1538, instituted the Society of Jesus 1540, strengthened the Inquisition 1542, and called 'the Council of Trent 1545 —IV. Giovanni

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a severe and not wholly successful ruler.—V. Camillo BoeGhese, 1552-1621, Cardinal 1596, Pope 1605. He had a long quarrel with Venice, founded several orders, and promoted foreign missions.

Paul, 1754-1801. Emperor of Russia 1796; son of Peter III. and Catharine II.; feeble and inconsistent; slain by conspirators, who meant to force his abdication.

Paul, Hermann, b. 1846. Prof. Munich; one of the founders of the younger school of German philologists, ed. Gnindrias der germanischen Philologie. Principles of Language, 1880.

Paul, Howard, b. 1835. American actor and playwright.

Paul, Jean. See Richter, J. F.

Paula, St., d. 404. Roman lady of great wealth and illustrious family, who, with her daughter Eustochium, was won by St. Jerome to the ascetic life in Palestine. Her day is Jan. 26.

Paulding', James Kirke, 1779-1860. American novelist; Sec. Navy 1837-41. Salmagundi (with Irving), 1807-19; John Bull and Brother Jonathan, 1812; Dutchman's Fireside, 1881; Westward Ho, 1832; Life of Washington, 1835.

Paulding, John, 1758-1818. Captor, with I. Van "Wart and D. Williams, of Major Andre, Sept. 23, 1780.—His son, Hiram, U.S.N., 1797-1878, became Captain 1844 and Admiral 1862.

Pauli, Georg Reinhold, 1823-1882. Prof. Rostock 1857, Tubingen 1859, Marburg 1867, and Gottingen 1870. He wrote King Alfred, 1851, tr. 1852, and other books on English history.

Pauliclans. Mediaeval sect of Eastern dualists, who, in their dislike of Judaism, contended that St. Paul was the only genuine apostle; founded by Silvanus ab. 060; severely persecuted by Theodora ab. 850. Their doctrines survived, as among the Catnari.

Pauline Congregation. See Piarists.

Pauline Epistles. See Romans, Corinthians, etc.

Paullnus, Pontius, 353-431. Bp. of Nola, s. Italy, 409; author of poems and letters.

Paullnus, d. 644. Roman missionary to Britain 601; bp. 625; titular Abp. of York 633.

Paullst Fathers. R.C. order established by Rev. Isaac Thomas Hecker in N.Y. 1858; devoted to church work in various forms.

Paul of Samosata. Bp. of Antioch ab. 260-272. He


Dr. Bourne Preaching at Paul's Cross.

taught that the Godhead in Christ was rather a power than a person.

Paul Prj'. Name given to an inquisitive and meddlesome fellow; from a comedy of that name by John Poole, 1825.

Paul's Cross. Originally of wood, on n. side of old St. Paul's, London: replaced ab. 1480 by a stone cross and pulpit which were removed by order of Parliament 1643. Sermons were preached, religious disputations held, I and papal bulls promulgated here.

Paul's, St. (C A T H E Dral). See St. Paul's.

Paulsen, Friedrich, b. 1846. Prof. Berlin 1878. Ethik, 1889; Einleitung in die Philosophie, 1892.

Paul us, Heinrich EberHard Gottlob, 1761-1851. Prof, at Jena 1789. Wurzburg 1803-8, and Heidelberg 1811; rationalistic commentator on the Psalms 1791, Isaiah 1793, and NT. 1800-4. Life of Jesus, 1828; Handbook of Gospels. 3 vols., 1830-33. He denied the supernatural.

Paulus, JULIUS, 3d cent. Roman jurist, from whom the Pandects draw largely.

Paulus, Lucius ^milius, ab. 230-160 B.C. Proconsul in Spain ab. 185; Consul 181 and 168; conqueror of Macedonia 168 B.C.

Paulus iEgineta. Greek physician, probably of 7th century. His he Re Medica was repeatedly tr. and widely read.

Paulus Diaconus, ab.72O-ab.800. Historian of the Lombards to 744; author or compiler also of a Hist. Romana and other works.

Paul Veronese. See Veronese.

Pauncefote, Sir Julian, b. 1828. British Minister to the U. S. 1888; knighted 1874.

Paunch, or Rumen. First and largest division of the ruminant stomach. It receives the vegetable food in bulky, half-chewed condition.

Pauperism. Dependence on public support, through poorrates or otherwise, of those without means of support through their own industry or individual assistance.

Paupers. See Immigration and Poor Laws.

Pauropoda. Order of Myriapoda, including only Pauropus, a white, minute, ten-jointed insect, with nine pairs of legs, eight of which are borne on four segments. The antenna? have only five joints, and there are no maxillipedes, as in the Chilopoda. Trachea? are absent.

Pausanlas, d. ab.470 B.C. Spartan, nephew of Leonidas; commander of the allied Greeks at Platasa 479 B.C.; conqueror of Cyprus and Byzantium. Dazzled by success, he aimed at becoming tyrant of all Greece by aid of the Persian king, was proved guilty of treason and starved in a temple.—His grandson, Pausanias, d. 385 B.C., was King of Sparta.

Pausanlas, 2d cent. Greek writer, of w. Asia Minor. His Itinerary of Greece, tr. 1793 and 1886, is extensive, reliable, and of great value to the classical antiquarian.

Pauw, Cornelis De, 1739-1799. Dutch scholar, canon of Xanten. He wrote on the American Indians 1768, Chinese and Egyptians 1774, and Greeks 1788.

Pavement. Roadbed of loose stones compacted and rolled, or of cubical blocks set on a solid foundation. The Roman road pavements were made of polygonal blocks of basalt set on a very solid foundation of rubble and concrete. Broken stone pavements were first used in France ab.1750, and soon after 1800 greatly developed in Great Britain by McAdam and Telford. Wooden pavements have been mainly used in the U. S., but have not proved successful. Brick pavements, introduced ab.1870, are proving excellent for light traffic. In 1892 there were in 51 U. S. cities 2,402 m. of stone pavement, 736 of wood, 421 of asphalt, 88 of brick, and 1,446 of broken stone. Stone ranks highest for heavy traffic, and asphalt for light traffic in towns, while broken stone is the cheapest and best adapted to country roads. McAdam roads cost from 45 cts. to $1.70 per sq. yd.: brick $1.00 to $2.35; wood $1.15 to $2.65; Belgian blocks of trap rock $2.00 to $2.50; granite blocks $2.00 to $4.50; asphalt $2.65 to $4.60. This depends largely upon the foundation for the pavement.

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Visconti Palace at Pavia (restored).

and made prisoner under its walls 1524. It fell to Austria 1814, but became a part of Italy 1859. Its university, traditionally founded by Charlemagne and really organized 1361, has ab. 60 instructors and 1,100 students. Pop. ab. 37,000.

Paving Stone. Stone blocks for paving streets are of trap, granite, or sandstone, the first being the toughest, while the others are better for horses' hoofs. They are 6 or 8 in. in depth, laid in courses across the street, the joints being filled with asphalt or cement.

Pavlov, Nicolai, 1803-1865. Russian essayist, novelist, and poet.

Pawl. See Ratchet.

Pawn. Lowest piece in chess, usually regarded as representing a foot-soldier, probably its original form. In Burmah effigies of soldiers with shields are still used. The pawn is generally called soldier, except in Siam, where it is called oia, cowrie shell, probably from cowries having been used for this piece.

Pawnbroker. One engaged in lending money on the securitv of personal property pledged to him. His business is generally regulated by statutes. Business of great antiquity. The three balls sign is from the armorial bearings of the Medicis.

Pawnees. Indians originally of the Platte River region. They are agriculturists, but the wife, who is purchased, is made to do all the work. There are now ab. 2,500 on reservations in Nebraska and Indian Territory. The Arickarees or Rees, and Wichitas, ab. 1,000, belong to "the same stock. They are unfriendly toward the whites.

Pawtucket. City of Providence co., R. I., on Blackstone River, 4 m. from Providence. Cotton manufacturing, begun here 1790, is the paramount industry, for which there is abundant water power. Pop., 1890, 27,633.

Paxillte. Spines with brush-like ends, produced upon some of the dermal plates of star-Ashes.

Pax Roinana. General order and tranquillity which under the Roman empire displaced the tumults and wars of preceding times.

Paxton, Sir Joseph, 1803-1865. English gardener and architect; designer of the Crystal Palace 1851; knighted 1852; M.P. 1854. Magazine of Botany, 1834-49; Botanical Dictionary (with John Lindley), 1840-68.

Pay Of U. S. Army. The allowances are quarters, and forage for horses used in the public service. The yearly pay is as follows: Major-general, $7,500; Brigadier-general, $5,500: Colonel, $3,500; Lieut.-colonel, $3,000; Major. $2,500; Captain (mounted). $2,000; Captain (not mounted), Regimental Adjutant, and Quartermaster, $1,800; First Lieutenant (mounted), $1,600; First Lieutenant (not mounted), and Second Lieutenant (mounted). $1,500; Second Lieutenant (not mounted), and Chaplain, $1,400. All officers, except the generals, receive 10 per cent increase of pay for every five years additional service, up to 40 per cent; except that the maximum pay of a colonel and lieut.-colonel does not exceed $4,500 and $4,000 respectively. The private soldier receives $13 per month during the first and second years, and $14. $15. and $16 for the third, fourth, and fifth years respectively of his first enlistment: afterward $1 extra per month for subsequent enlistments. The pay of the non-commissioned officers ranges from $15 per month to a corporal for the first year of his first enlistment to $34 per month to first sergeants of engineers, ordnance and signal corps for the same year. The highest pay per month for the first year of enlistment is $60 to the chief musician of artillery

or cavalry. The enlisted men in addition to pay proper are lodged, clothed, and fed. Full pay is the total pay to which the officer or soldier is entitled by law; half pay is given when an officer is on leave beyond the time for which he may draw full pay.

Pay Department Of U. S. Army. Under the direction of the Secretary of War this has charge of the payment of the army, and comprises one Paymaster-general with the rank of Brigadier-general, two Colonels, three Lieutenant-colonels, and twenty-two Majors.

Payer, Jean Baptiste, 1818-1860. Fellow of the Paris Institute. Families natureltes desplantes, 1848; Botanique cryptogamiqne, 1850-68.

Payment. Money or its equis'alent, received in discharge of an obligation.

Payn, James, b. 1830. English novelist; ed. Chambers' Journal, 1858, and Cornhill Mag., 1882-96. Lost Sir Massingberd, 1864; Carlyon'g Year, 1868: Literary Recollections, 1884.

Payne, John, b. 1842. English poet and translator.

Payne, John Howard, 1792-1852. American poet, playwright, and actor; U.S. Consul at Tunis from 1841. The song, Home, Sweet Home, occurs in Clari, or the Maid of Milan.

Payaandu. City of Uruguay on the left bank of the Uruguay River, 280 m. n.w. of Montevideo. It contains large


Ruins of the Principal Church, slaughter houses and exports tinned meats, especially tongues. It was visited by an earthquake 1865.

Pay*on, Edward, D.D., 1783-1827. Pastor at Portland, Me., from 1807. His Sermons, 1828-31, were widely read.

Pay Streak. Portion of a vein in which the richest ore occurs.

Pazmanl, Peter, 1570-1637. Abp. of Presburg, Hungary. 1610. Cardinal 1629; eminent preacher, author, and persecutor of Protestants; founder Univ. Budapest, which is reprinting his works in 14 vols.

Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe, 1821-1886. Peruvian statesman and historian.

Pea. Pisum sativum. Climbing herb of the natural family Leguminosaz, native of s. Europe; widely cultivated in many varieties for its nutritious seeds. Peas are not grown in field culture in the U.S., except occasionally with oats or barley as a meslin crop. The climate is too dry and hot for their best development. When grown with oats or barley, the resulting fodder makes an excellent food for milch cows.

Pea, Everlasting, or Vetchling. Plants of the genus Lathyrus, natural family Leguminosa. Many of them bear showy flowers, and some are cultivated for ornament.

Peabody. Village of Essex co., Mass., 2 m. w. of Salem; called South Dan vera till 1868; birthplace of George Peabody, who founded an institute and a library here. Pop., 1890, 10.158.

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