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ublic buildings, and a double circle of spacious boulevards, he plans interrupted by the Franco-German war have since been further carried out. Many fine buildings were destroyed by fire during the outbreak of the Commune; most have since been restored. The exhibitions of 1855, 1867, 1878, and 1889 took place here. Area 30 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 2,447,957.

Paris, or Alexander. Son of Priam; brought up as a shepherd. He adjudged the golden apple to Venus, and so drew on Troy the hatred of Juno and Minerva. By carrying off Helen, wife of Menelaus of Sparta, he brought on the Trojan war.

Paris, Alexis Paulin, 1800-1881. Prof. Coll. of France 1853-72; prolific writer on French literature.—His son, Gaston Bruno Paulin, b. 1839, Academician 1896, succeeded to his chair and carried on his other labors. Charlemagne, 1866; Poetry of the Middle Ages, 1885.

Paris, Declaration Of. See Declaration Of Paris.

Paris, John Ayrton, M.D., D.C.L., 17*5-1856. English scientist, inventor of the tamping-bar. Pharmacologia, 1819; Medical Jurisjjrudence, 1823.

Paris, Louis Philippe Albert D'orleans. Comte De, 18381894. Grandson of Louis Philippe; on Gen. McClellan's staff in "Va., with his brother and uncle, 1861; Deputy 1871; Legitimist heir to the throne from 1883; exiled 1886, and thenceforth in England.

Paris, Matthew, ab. 1200-1259. English Benedictine and Latin chronicler. His Historia Major extends to 1259.

Paris, Plaster Of. See Calcium Sulphate.

Paris, University Of. Originated 1109 in a school of logic taught by "William of Champeaux, who was succeeded by Abelard, By 1150 there were said to be more students in Paris than citizens. Soon after 1600 its 40 colleges were deserted; but it was soon revived. It suffered from the strifes of Jesuits and Jansenists, and was suppressed with other institutions 1793.

Paris Green. Copper arsenite. CuHAsO,; used as a pigment; made by precipitating a solution of copper sulphate with sodium arsenite.

Paris Yellow. See Lead Chromate.

Parish. Smallest division of territory under an established Ch.; in England the officers administered the poor-laws and had charge of the highways, but these functions have been largely transferred to other Boards; in, America, aggregate of persons and interests in a local religious society.

Parish Clerk. Minor ch. official in England.

Park. Piece of ground in an unfilled state used as a game reserve or for walking or driving; also a tract of land kept for ornament and public recreation. The Egyptians had parks at a time much earlier than the records on the monuments show. Parks then were little more than a cluster of gardens. The Romans attached parks to their villas. Pompey and Hortensius among others had large parks. In England the first great park particularly mentioned is Woodstock, formed by Henry I. 1125. The following are some of the best known parks: Fairmount, Philadelphia, 2.740 acres; Bois de Vincennes, Paris, 2.075; Phoenix. Dublin. 2,000; Bois de Boulogne, Paris, 2,000; Prater Gardens, Vienna. 1,500; Golden Gate. San Francisco, 1.100-. Central, New York, 862; Druid Hill, Baltimore, 600;

Hyde, London, 598; Prospect, Brooklyn, 515; English Garden, Munich, 500; Regents, London, 472; Victoria, London, 300; Thiergarten, Berlin, 200; Bois de la Cambre, Brussels, 124. See Yellowstone Park.

Park, Edwards Ahasa, D.D., b. 1808. Prof. Andover 1836-81; ed. Bibliotheca Sacra, 1851-84.

Park, Munoo, 1771-1805. Scottish explorer in Africa 179597 and 1805; drowned in the Niger, after descending it ab. 1,500 m. Travels, 1799.

Parke, John Grubb, U.S.A., b. 1827. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862-66; Col. of Engineers 1884; Supt. at West Point 1887-89. Rivers and Harbors, 1877-87.

Parker, Amasa Junius, LL.D.. 1807-1890. Vice-chancellor of N. Y. 1844-47; Judge of N. Y. Supreme Court 1847-55; Lecturer in Albany Law School. Criminal Cases, 6 vols., 1860-68.

Parker, Foxhall Alexander, U.S.N., 1821-1879. Captain 1866; Commodore 1872; Supt. Naval Academy 1878. Fleet Tactics, 1863; Naval Hoioitzer, 1865-66.

Parker, Gilbert, b. 1862. Anglo-Canadian novelist. Chief Factor, 1891; Trespasser, 1894; Seats of the Mighty, 1895.

Parker, Horatio "william, b. 1863. Prof. Yale 1894; organist, and composer of cantatas. Hora Novissima.

Parker, Sir Hyde, R.N., 1739-1807. Captain 1763: knighted 1779 for the capture of Savannah; Rear-admiral 1793; commander in the Baltic 1801.

Parker, Isaac, LL.D., 1768-1830. M.C. 1797-99; Judge Mass. Supreme Court 1806; Chief-justice from 1814; Law Prof. Harvard 1816-27. His decisions were praised by Story.

Parker, James Cutler Dunn, b. 1828. American composer of 3 cantatas, Redemption Hymn, St. John, and The Blind King.

Parker, Joel, 1795-1875. Judge N. H. Supreme Court 1833; Chief-justice 1836; prof. Dartmouth 1847, and Harvard from 1857; legal writer.

Parker, Joel, LL.D., 1816-1888. Gov. of N. J. 1863-66 and 1871-74; Judge N. J. Supreme Court from 1880.

Parker, Joseph, D.D., b. 1830. Minister of the City Temple, London, since 1874. Ecce Deus, 1868; Ad Clerum, 1870; People's Bible, begun 1885.

Parker, Matthew, D.D., 1504-1575. Dean of Lincoln 1552, Abp. of Canterbury 1559, being regularly consecrated at Lambeth by four bishops. See Nao's Head.

Parker, Sir Peter. R.N., 1721-1811. Captain 1747. Baronet 1782. He attacked Charleston, and bore part in the taking of New York and R. I.—His grandson, Sir Peter. R.N., 17861814, destroyed much property along the Chesapeake, and was killed at Chestertown, Md.

Parker, Peter, M.D.. 1804-1888. Missionary in China 183440 and 1842-55; U. S. Commissioner there 1*55-57.

Parker, Samuel. D.D., 1744-1804. Rector of Trinity Ch., Boston, 1779; P.E. Bp. of Mass. 1804.

Parker, Theodore, 1810-1860. Pastor in Boston from 1837; leader of the radical Unitarians; a man of genius, who by his sermons and publications exerted great influence on religious thought. Works, 12 vols., 1863-65.

Parker, Willard, M.D., LL.D., 1800-1884. Prof. New York 1889-83; pres. N. Y. Inebriate Asylum, Binghamton, 1865; eminent as operator, teacher, and discoverer.

Parker, William Kitchen, F.R.S.. 1823-1890. Prof. London 1873-83; writer on anatomy.

Parkersburg. City of W. Va., 63 m. n. of Charleston, at the junction of the Ohio and Little Kanawha rivers. It is the outlet of the petroleum region and has a number of oil refineries. Pop., 1890, 8,400.

Parkes, Sir Harry Smith, 1828-1885. English ambassador to Japan 1865-83, and then to China.

Parkes, Sir Henry, b. 1815. Premier of New South Wales 1872 and later.

Parkesine. Name given to celluloid, it having been first made by A. Parkes.

Parkhurst, Charles Henry, D.D., b. 1842. Presb. pastor in New York since 1880; pres. Soc. for Prevention of Crime 1891. His fearless activity in reform led to an investigation of the N. Y. Police Department by the Lexow Committee 1894, and in the fall to the most memorable political upheaval in the history of any American city. Our Fight against Tammany, 1895.

Parkhurst, John, 1728-1797. English author of a Hebrew Lexicon. 1762. long used, and of a Greek Lexicon to N. T„ 1769.

Parkinson, John, 1567-1650. English herbalist. Paradisus Terrestris, 1629; Theatrum Botanicum, 1640.

Parkinson-Fortescuc, Chichester Samuel, b. 1828. M.P. 1847; member of several cabinets; Baron Carlingford 1874; Lord Privy Seal 1881-85.

Parkman, Francis, 1823-1893. American historian of high rank. His chief works relate to the French period in colonial history, and are noted for their full research, entire fairness, keen insight, and graphic style. Oregon Trail, 1849; Conspiracy of Pontiac, 1851; Pioneers of France in the New World. 1865; Jesuits in N. America, 1867; La Salle, 1869; Old Regime in Canada, 1874; Frontenac and New France, 1877; Montcalm and Wolfe, 1884; A Half Century of Conflict, 1892.

Park Range. Part of the Rocky Mountain system in Colorado and s. Wyoming, standing as the west wall of the series of Parks. Its peaks range from 13,000 to more than 14,000 ft. in height.

Parley, Peter. See Goodrich, Samuel Griswold.

Parliament. Legislative body, especially that of Great Britain, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. The latter is elective and contains (1896) 670 members—465 for England, 30 for Wales, 72 for Scotland, and 103 for Ireland. The other comprises 549 lords temporal and 26 lords spiritual. Of this the Lord Chancellor is always Speaker. Of the lords temporal 16 Scottish peers are elected for each parliament and 28 Irish peers for life. Its duration was fixed 1716 at 7 years. It is generally in session

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Ijondon—The Houses of Parliament, as seen from Lambeth.

from about Feb. 15 to end of Aug. in each year. In case a majority of the Commons votes against the Government, the ministry resigns or dissolves parliament and orders a new election. It is the successor of the Witenagemote of early Saxon times. Magna Charta, 1215, provided for the convening of Parliament whenever money was to be raised. Writs are still in existence by which in 1265 Henry III. summoned the knights and burgesses. The division of Parliament into two houses dates about a century later. See Lono Parliament and Rump Parliament.

Parliamentary Law. According to the rules and usages of Parliament or to the established rules and practices of legislative bodies. Usually in the U. S. the rules and practices of Congress are followed.

Parliaments, In France. Law courts. That of Paris was the chief law court of the realm, charged with registering the royal edicts. In 1789 there were 13 parliaments in France, differing in extent of jurisdiction, that of Paris covering a third of the kingdom.

Parlor Cars. Length about 60 ft., width 10 ft., weight 60,000 lbs., cost $10,000, seating capacity 32. Nearly all the parlor and sleeping cars of the U. S. are owned by the Pullman and Wagner Companies, and used by the railroads under contract.

Parma. City of n. Italy, on the P.. 12 m. s. of the Po;

built by Etruscans; subject to Rome 183 B.C.: capital of a duchy 1545-1731 and 1814-60. Its university, founded 1599, has ab. 40 teachers and near 300 students. The palace contains some fine paintings and a library of 214,000 vols. Some of the churches are notable. Near here an Austrian army encountered the allied forces of France, Spain, and England, June 29, 1734, and Russians under Suwarrow routed the French under Macdonald June 19, 1799.

Parma, Duke Of. See Farnese and Cambaceres.

Parmenides, 5th cent. B.C. Greek philosopher of Elea in Lucania, famous for the doctrine that there is only one

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Parnassus and He.icon, with the Gulf of Corinth.

issued from between two cliffs above Delphi. The highest peak was the scene of the orgies of the worship of Dionvsus. Altitude 8,068 ft.

Parnell, Charles Stewart, 1846-1891. M.P. 1875; founder and first pres. of Irish Land League 1879; leader of Home Rule party 1880; taken into alliance by Gladstone 1886, who attempted to pass a Home Rule bill with his aid; vigorously attacked by London Times, which published certain letters alleged to be his, indicating complicity with acts of violence on the part of the Irish peasantry, but afterward proved to be forgeries of one Pigott. For this libel he obtained $20,000 damages. In Nov. 1890 he became co-respondent in a suit for divorce and later married the woman in the case. His leadership was consequently refused by the majority of the Home Rule party, but a section adhered to him till his death.

Parnell, Thomas. 1679-1717. Irish poet; archdeacon of Clogher 1705. A volume containing The Hermit and other well-known poems appeared 1722, and another, of doubtful authenticity, 1758.

Parodies. Facetious imitations of well-known productions, usually in verse. They were found among the Greeks ab. 550 B.C., and form part of every national literature. Among the most notable modern examples are some of H. and J. Smith's Rejected Addresses, 1812, Aytoun & Martin's Ballads by Bon Oaultier, 1851, Calverley's Fly-Leaves, 1871, and in prose Bret Harte's Condensed Novels, 1867, and Burnand's New Sandford and Merton, 1872.

Parfleeious. Mosses in which the archegonia and antheridia are borne in close proximity.

Par-of-Exchange. Amount of money which has to be paid in one place for a bill of exchange of a certain face value, payable at another place.

Parole. Promise of a prisoner not to escape, go beyond bounds, or resume hostilities, according to the degree of liberty granted him; esteemed sacredly binding in military circles.

Parol Evidence. Not in writing; inadmissible to vary or contradict a written instrument. The exceptions to this rule are numerous.

Paro-ophoron. See Vasa Aberrentia.

Paropaniisus. Range of mountains in n. Afghanistan.

Paros. One of the Cvclades, in the AZgean Sea; noted for its marbles, called Parian. Pop., 1890, 3,048.

Parostosis. Ossification in the dermis, forming exoskeletal hones.

Parotid Gland. Largest of the salivary glands, seated under the ear and near the angle of the lower jaw. It weighs 1 oz. and discharges its secretions into the mouth opposite the second molar tooth in the upper jaw

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Parotitis. Infectious disease attacking children and youngpersons most frequently, in which the parotid and other salivary glands become swollen. Treatment consists of regulation of diet, mild purgatives, and vegetable acids as lemonade as a beverage. In males the testes and spleen often swell and in females the ovaries and mammae. Suppuration of the glands scarcely ever occurs. It is also called Mumps, and in Scotland Branks.

Parovarium. See Epo-ophoron.

Parquetry. Flooring of oak and other wood, laid in blocks to form a mosaic. Parr. See Salmo.

Parr, Catherine, 1513-1548: 6th wife of Henry VIII., married at 12 to Edward Borough, who died 1529; at 17 to Lord Latimer, who d. 1542: to the king July 1543; and 1547 to Sir Thomas Seymour. She was distinguished for her learning, especially of rel igious subjects.

Parr, Samuel, LL.D.. 17471825. English teacher, in his time of great fame for learning, which his works, 8 vols., 1828, fail to support.

Parr, Thomas, 1483-1635. English marvel of longevity, called "Old Parr." See LonGevity.

Parrhnsius, 4th cent. B.C. Most famous of Greek painters, except perhaps his rival Zeuxis.

Parricide. In modern acceptance, murder of a parent; in Roman law, that of any near relative, and peculiarly punished.

Parrig, Albion Keith, 1788-1&57. M.C. 1815-19; Gov. of Me. 1821-26; U.S. Senator 1826-28: Judge of Me. Supreme Court 1828-36.

Minister at Salem, Mass., 168996; promoter of the witchcraft delusion, which began in hi.s family 1692, and of 20 judicial murders caused thereby.

Parrisli, Joseph, M.D., 1779-1840. Practitioner in Phila. Hernia, 1836.—Of his sons, Joseph. M.D., 1818-1891, was noted as an alienist and for the care of inebriates; Edward, 1822-1872, an eminent pharmacist, was pres. of Swarthmore Coll. 1868-70.

Parritih, Stephen, b. 1846. American landscape painter and etcher.

Parrot Coal. Cannel coal, which makes a crackling noise in burning.

Parrot§. Order Psittaci (q.v.), including 430 species, 9 families, and 45 genera, nearly all tropical. Some are brilliantly colored, some very plain. The size ranges from that of the sparrow-like Love-birds (q.v.) to the Macaws (q.v.). Thev associate in Socks in forests, are vegetarian, and have harsh voices, but some are good imitators of sounds. The Kaka of New Zealand has taken to eating mutton, attacking even live sheep, from which it tears the flesh. See also Cockatoos and Parakeets.

Parrott, Enoch Greenleaf. U.S.N.. 1814-1879. Distinguished on the Atlantic coast 1861-65; Admiral 1873.

Parrott, Robert Parker, 1804-1877. U.S. officer 1824-36; inventor of rifled cannon and projectiles.

Parrott Gun. Cast-iron, muzzle-loading, rifled gun, having a wrought-iron band shrunk over the breech in rear of the trunnions. They were extensively used during the Rebellion in the field, siege, and seacoast artillery, up to 300 lbs. They were not always reliable, for some would burst after a few rounds, while others would stand the full service life of 1,0011 rounds.

Parrott Projectile. Elongated cast-iron projectile arranged to take the rifled motion by means of a brass band cast on the butt of the projectile. Upon being fired the powder gas expanded the band and drove it into the grooves of the rifling, thus causing the projectile to take the rifled motion.

Parry, Charles Christopher, M.D.. 1823-1890. Botanist to several Western surveys; writer on botany.

Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings, b. 1848. English composer. Prof. Royal College of Music. Art of Music, 1893.

Queen Catherine Parr, Painted by Holbein.

Parrls, Samuel. 1653-1720.

Parry, Sir William Edward, R.N., 1790-1855. Arctic explorer, knighted 1829, Rear-admiral 1852. In 1820 he won £5.000 by going farther west than any before him; in 1827 he reached 82° 45' N. lat., the highest till 1876. Journal, 1824; Narrative, 1828.

Parry Sound. Village in the district at the e. extremity of P. S., an inlet of Georgian Bay. Pop. 1,500.

Parsees. Remnant, in Persia and w. India, of the adherents of Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Persia. They worship one god, specially symbolized by fire, and are eminent for activity, business capacity, thrift, and probity. They re

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Parsee Hotel Keeper.

fuse to eat food prepared by one of a different faith, do not bury their dead, but place them on towers that the birds ma3' clean the bones, which are collected and buried. They number ab. 8,000 in Persia and 85,000 in India, chiefly at Bombay. See

GUEBERS and DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD.

Par§ley. Fetroselimim sativum. Herb with finely cut leaves, of the Carrot family, native of the Mediterranean region, widely cultivated as a flavoring herb.

Parsley, Fool's. JEthusa cynapium. White-flowered, poisonous herb of the Carrot family, native of Europe; introduced as a weed into N. America.

Parsnip. Pastinaca sativa. Yellow-flowered, coarse herb of the Carrot family, native of Europe, extensively cultivated for its edible roots, and introduced as a weed into N. America. Parsnips are occasionally grown as a field crop, solely as a cattle food. They are especially valuable for milch cows. The cultivation is essentially like that given for beets, though care must be taken that the seed is fresh and vigorous. The common parsnip easily runs wild, when it becomes an unsightly and troublesome weed.

Parsnip, Meadow. Plants of the genus Thaspium, yellowflowered herbs of the Carrot family, natives of e. N. America.

Parsnip, Water. Marsh herbs of the genus Stum, natural family Umbellifene, natives of the n. temperate zone.

Parson. Parish priest of English church; so called because by his person the church is represented. He is a corporation sole, holding legal title to the temporalities of his parish.

Parsons, Alfred William, b. 1847. English landscape artist. Notes in Japan, 1895.

Parsons, or Persons, Robert, 1546-1610. English Jesuit, much dreaded by Elizabeth; missionary at home 1580-81; founder of schools in Spain and France; rector English College at Rome 1598-1610. His Christian Directory, 1583-91, was re vised by Dean Stanhope 1700; other books of his were considered treasonable.

Parsons, Samuel Holden, 1737-1789. Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1776; Major-gen. 1780: Judge of Northwest Territory 1788.

Parsons, Theophilus, LL.D., 1750-1813. Chief-justice of Mass. Supreme Court from 1806.—His son. Theophilus, LL.D.. 1797-1882, was prof. Harvard Law School from 1847. Law of Contracts, 1853; Maritime Law, 1859; Partnership, 1867; Marine Insurance, 1868.

Parsons, Thomas William, 1819-1892. American poet. Tr. Dante's Inferno, 1867.

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I*AltTATIVE FORCE—PARTRIDGES

Partatire Force. Qreatest weight a mag-net can support. That of a saturated horseshoe magnet may, according to Hiicker, be given by the formula,

P - a ^pi,

in which p is the weight of the magnet, and a a coefficient depending for its value upon the nature of the steel and the method of magnetization.

Parthenius, Of Nic.ka. 1st cent. B.C. Qreek writer of prose and verse. Some romances survive.

Parthenogenesis. Formation of sperm cells by asexual processes; known in both vegetable and animal kingdoms; development of eggs without fertilization. Every egg which the queen-bee lays either is fertilized or is not: the former develop into workers (females), the latter become drones (males). The males are therefore parthenogenetically produced. In other cases, as in Plant-lice, the parthenogenetic generations are usually females.

Partlieiiun. Temple of Athene Parthenon (virgin) on the Acropolis at Athens, built at command of Pericles by Ictinus and Callicrates 444 438 B.C. The temple platform measures 228 by 101 ft., having 15 Doric columns 35 ft. high on either side and 8 on each end. The sculptures of pediment, metopes, and frieze were wrought and placed under direction of Phidias. In the cella was his world-famed chryselephantine statue of

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the goddess. In the Middle Ages the Parthenon became a church dedicated to the Virgin, and then a mosque. It was nearly destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder 1687, during the siege of Athens bv the Venetians. Many of the remaining sculptures of the pediments and frieze were wrenched from their position by Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Museum. See Architecture.

Parthcnopean Rcpnbllc. In Naples, Jan. 1799; the Bourbons were reinstated the following June. Parthenope was an ancient town on the site of Naples, named from one of the Sirens, whose tomb was shown there.

Partheuosperins. Reproductive bodies borne by certain Algce of the order Conjugatce, resembling zygosperms, but produced independently of the process of conjugation; parthenospores.

Partllla. Country of Asia, s.e. of the Caspian, whose warriors were famed for their skill in horsemanship and archery; subject to Persia and the Greek kings of Syria until Arsaces moved a revolt and set up an independent monarchy ab. 255 B.C. The Parthian empire was established ab. 174 B.C. by Mithradates I., who conquered Media, Susiana, Persia. Babylonia, and Bactriana. Mithradates II., "the Great,-' 12487 B.C., extended the empire in several directions, but lost Armenia. A Roman expedition against P. under Crassus, 54 B.C.. was a bad failure. The Parthians defeated the Romans again 51 and 40, and made themselves masters of Syria, but were checked 39 in an attempt to conquer Asia Minor. Antony's great expedition, 36 B.C., ended disastrously. From this time for 150 years there were no more open wars with Rome, but in 114 A.D. Trajan conquered a larg-e part of the Parthian empire, to be surrendered however 117. P. became dependent on Rome 165, and the empire came to an end 226 through a revolt of the Persians. At its height, it extended from the Indus and the Ocean to the Euphrates and the Oxus.

Parthian Arrows. Discharged by horsemen in apparent retreat.

Partial Contraction. Stream of water issuing from an orifice and contracted only on one or two sides, owing to rounded edges of the orifice or to a wall on one side. The contraction is then said to be partially suppressed.

Participation in Profits. See Industrial Partnership.

Participle. Adjective formed from a verb. When active, it often carries the force of both parts of speech.

Particle. In Mechanics, smallest mass upon which force may be supposed to act. A particle may have a motion of simple translation, but as it is assumed to occupy the volume of a geometrical point only, it cannot rotate. Indeed, since in many problems particles are assumed to have different masses, the idea or non-rotation or zero volume seems to be the most im portant.

Parting. Layer of slate, dirt, or other valueless material, occurring in a seam of coal.

Partition. Division of property between joint or co-tenants, so that each may have exclusive possession of his share. It may result from the mutual consent of the parties or be adjudged in a legal action.

Partition, Wall Of. Wall in Jewish Temple, beyond which none but Jews were allowed to go, on pain of death. St. Paul declares that Christ has broken this down, by admitting all believers in Him to equal privileges.

Partnership. Relation subsisting between persons carrying on a business in common with a view of profits. Whether this relation exists in a particular case is generally determined by the intention of the parties, as evinced by their acts. Each partner is a general agent for the firm and may bind it by acts within the apparent scope of his authority. A person may make himself liable as a partner by holding himself out as such, and thereby inducing others to become creditors of the supposed firm. The liability of partners for firm debts is joint, and for firm torts joint and several. The entire fortune of each partner is liable for firm obligations; the equity rule, however, for distributing to firm and separate creditors is to give firm creditors the preference in the tirm estate and separate creditors priority in the separate estate. Each partner is bound to exercise the utmost good faith toward his associates, and cannot introduce another into the firm without consent of all its members.

Parlon, James, 1822-1891. American author of English birth; biographer of Greeley, 1855; Burr,1857; Jackson, 3 vols.. 1860, and others. Captains of Industrt/, 1884-91.—His wife, Sarah Payson ("fanny Fern"), 1811-1872, was a sister of N. P. Willis, whom she satirized in a novel, Ruth Hall, 1854, and a once popular writer.

Part Ownership. Title in two or more to personal property, without right of survivorship or right to force partition.

Partridge, William Obdway, b. 1861. American sculptor; author of the Shakespeare in Lincoln Park, Chicago, a bronze Hamilton, and an equestrian statue of Grant in Brooklyn: noted also for portraits and ideal subjects.

Partridge-Berry. Mitchella repens. Low evergreen

Slant of the Madder family, bearing red berries, native of e. . America; also Wintergreen.

Partridge-Pea. Cassia chamaicrista. Yellow-flowered herb of the Pea family, native of N. America.

Partridges. Different genera of the family Tetraonidm. The most common of the Old World is Perdix, trie Gray Part

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PARTS OF SPEECH—PASS A V

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palatable as food, but, being very pugnacious, is kept for fighting; the male has two spurs on each foot. There are 9 genera and 45 species of American Partridges, among which are the Mountain Quail of Cal., the Bob-White of e. U. 8., called Quail north and Partridge south, while the Ruffed Grouse (q.v.), Bonasa umbeUus, is called Partridge north and Pheasant south. It is shy and forest-loving; the male makes a drumming sound by vibrating its wings. Its tarsus is feathered half way, the head crested, and plumage variegated. Length 18 in. The tail consists of 18 soft, broad feathers. See Sand Grouse and Quails.

Part* or Speech. The earliest forms of language seem to have been (a) pronominal and (b) verbal: a combination of these produced the verb and its differences of person, to which number, tense, and mood were added. The noun, or substantive, and the adjective were early developed from the root, with endings to express case, gender, and number. Verb and substantive (covering, of course, pronoun and adjective), therefore, with their varieties of inflection, include all the original parts of speech. Adverbs are either fossilized cases (e.g., whilom is a dative plural, while an accusative singular, of the noun while), or are made by a suffix, such as -ly, from an older equivalent of like. Prepositions, as the name implies, were once prefixes of the verb. Conjunctions are of later origin; thus that in "I see that you are blind," was once "You are blind, I see that." Interjections hardly count as parts of speech, and stand outside of syntactical relations.

Part Song. Musical composition, in three-voiced harmony or more, generally of a secular character, homophonic, and sung without accompaniment.

Party Wall. One standing on or near a real property line, in which the adjoining proprietors have rights in common.

Purveyance. Obsolete right of buying provisions and other necessaries for use of government at an appraised valuation, and without regard to the consent of the owner.

Parvln, Theophilus. M.D., LL.D., b. 1829. Prof. Jefferson Medical Coll., Phila., 1883. Obstetrics, 1886.

Pasadena. City of Cal., 10 m. n.n.e. of Los Angeles; winter resort. Pop., 1890, 4,882.

Pnsnrgftdte. Ancient capital of Persis, said to have been founded by Cyrus on the site of his victory over Astyages; its ruins are near Murghab.

Pascagoula. River of s.e. Mississippi, flowing s. to a bay on the Gulf. Length 85 ax,, drainage area 8,980 sq. m.; navigable.

Pascal, Blaise, 1628-1662. French philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, famous for his attack on the Jesuits in the Provincial Letters, 1656, in defense of his friend Arnauld and the Jansenists, and for his paradoxical and half skeptical

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Pascal's Theorem. A hexagon being inscribed in a

conic and the pairs of opposite sides being produced, the points of intersection lie in the same straight line.

Paschal I. Pope 817-824. Also an antipope 687, d. 694.— II. Ranieri, ab. 1050-1118; cardinal ab. 1076, pope 1099. He excommunicated Henry IV. of Germany, and was imprisoned by Henry V.—III. Antipope 1164-68.

Paschal Controversies. Between East and West, as to the time and manner of Easter observance.

Pasha. Turkish title, first of princes, since of governors, officers, or favorites; of three degrees, 1, 2, or 8 horsetails being the standard and emblem of rank.

Paslni, ALBERTO, b. 1820. Italian-French painter.

Paslphfle. Wife of Minos, King of Crete: mother of Ariadne, Phasdra, and the Minotaur.

Paskevltch, Ivan Feodorovitch, Count Of Erivan, Prince Of Warsaw, 1782-1856. Russian Field-marshal; active against the French 1812-14. In 1825 he conquered Persian Armenia, taking Erivan; in 1828-29 he took Kars and Erzerum from tha Turks. He crushed the Polish revolt 1831, and was Gov. of Poland, joined the Austrians to quell the Hungarian insurrection 1848; and was defeated by the Turks 1854.

Paso del Norte. Mountain pass, which is the chief thoroughfare between Mexico and New Mexico.

Paspatis, Alexander George, LL.D., 1814-1891. Greek author, who wrote also in French and English; once a Turkish slave; educated in America and France; physician in Constantinople 1840-78; prof, at Athens 1878.

Pasqualis, Martinez, 1715-1779. Jewish cabalist, active among French Freemasons; founder of the Martinists.

Pasque-Flower. Ihilsatilla patens, and other species of showy-flowered herbs of the Buttercup family, natives of the n. hemisphere. The leaves are narcotic, acrid, and poisonous, and

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contain anemonine. The extract is a favorite medicine of the homoeopathists. It bears blue bell-shaped flowers, the petals of which are used to color Easter eggs purple.

Pasqulno, Antonio, d. ab. 1500. Tailor in Rome, noted for his quips and witty sallies. His name was given to a broken statue found near his stall, to which anonymous lampoons were affixed by night. Hence pasquinade.

Pass. Mill or opening left in the deads through which ore falls to loading place.

Passagiam. Semi-Jewish sect in Italy, condemned 1184.

Passaglia, Carlo, 1812-1887. Prof, at Rome 1844-57, and at Turin from 1861; expelled by Jesuits 1859 for attacking the temporal power and urging Italian unity; Deputy 1863.

Passaic. City of P. co., N. J., 11 m. n.w. of Jersey City; ou the P. It has some manufactures. Pop., 1890, 13,028.

Passaic River. In the n.e. of N. J., flowing e. then s. past Paterson and Newark into Newark Bay.

Passainaquoddy Bay. Between Me. and New Brunswick, at mouth of Bay of Fundy; ab. 10 m. by 15.

Passarowltz. Town of Servia, 40 m. s.e. of Belgrade. Here a treaty was signed July 21,1718, ending the Turkish war against Venice, and securing part of Wallachia. Servia, and Bosnia to Austria. The Turks held the Morea. Pop. ab. 10,000.

Passau. Old town of Bavaria, on the Danube, Ez, and Inn. By a treaty signed here Aug. 1552 toleration was granted to the Lutherans. It was an old Roman camp and has strong

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