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tion Napoleon added new quays, bridges, markets, and other | Hyde, London, 598; Prospect, Brooklyn, 515; English Garden, improvements, and embellished the city with the fruits of his 'Munich, 500; Regents, London, 472; Victoria, London, 300; conquests. The progress arrested by his downfall was resumed | Thiergarten, Berlin, 200; Bois de la Cambre, Brussels, 124. by Louis Philippe. Under Napoleon III. P. was transformed. See YELLOWSTONE PARK. Long streets were constructed connecting the finest squares, Park, EDWARDS AMASA, D.D., b. 1808. Prof. Andover

1836–81; ed. Bibliotheca Sacra, 1851-84.

Park, MUNGO, 1771-1805. Scottish explorer in Africa 1795– 97 and 1805; drowned in the Niger, after descending it ab. 1,500 m. Travels, 1799.

Parke, JOHN GRUBB, U.S.A., b. 1827. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862–66; Col. of Engineers 1884; Supt. at West Point 1887–89. Rivers and Harbors, 1877–87.

Parker, AMASA JUNIUS, LL.D., 1807-1890. Vice-chancellor of N. Y. 1844-47; Judge of N. Y. Supreme Court 1847–55; Lecturer in Albany Law School. Criminal Cases, 6 vols., 1860-68.

Parker, FOXHALL ALEXANDER, U.S.N., 1821-1879. Captain 1866; Commodore 1872; Supt. Naval Academy 1878. Fleet Tactics, 1863; Naval Howitzer, 1865–66.

Parker, GILBERT, b. 1862. Anglo-Canadian novelist. Chief Factor, 1891; Trespasser, 1894; Seats of the Mighty, 1895.

Parker, HORATIO WILLIAM, b. 1863. Prof. Yale 1894; organist, and composer of cantatas. Hora Novissima.

Parker, SIR HYDE, R.N., 1739–1807. Captain 1763: knighted Paris, as seen from the Church of St. Gervais.

1779 for the capture of Savannah; Rear-admiral 1793; com

mander in the Baltic 1801. public buildings, and a double circle of spacious boulevards. The plans interrupted by the Franco-German war have since

Parker, ISAAC, LL.D., 1768-1830. M.C. 1797-99; Judge been further carried out. Many fine buildings were destroyed

Mass. Supreme Court 1806; Chief-justice from 1814; Law Prof. by fire during the outbreak of the Commune; most have since

Harvard 1816–27. His decisions were praised by Story. been restored. The exhibitions of 1855, 1867, 1878, and 1889 Parker, JAMES CUTLER DUNN, b. 1828. American comtook place here. Area 30 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 2,447,957.

poser of 3 cantatas, Redemption Hymn, St. John, and The Paris, or ALEXANDER. Son of Priam; brought up as a

Blind King. shepherd. He adjudged the golden apple to Venus, and so Parker, JOEL, 1795–1875. Judge N. H. Supreme Court 1833; drew on Troy the hatred of Juno and Minerva. By carrying Chief-justice 1836; prof. Dartmouth 1847, and Harvard from off Helen, wife of Menelaus of Sparta, he brought on the Tro 1857; legal writer. jan war.

Parker, JOEL, LL.D., 1816-1888. Gov, of N. J. 1863–66 and Paris, ALEXIS PAULIN, 1800–1881. Prof. Coll. of France 1871-74; Judge N. J. Supreme Court from 1880. 1853-72: prolific writer on French literature.-His son, GASTON Parker, JOSEPH, D.D., b. 1830. Minister of the City TemBRUNO PAULIN, b. 1839, Academician 1896, succeeded to his ple, London, since 1874. Ecce Deus, 1868; Ad Clerum, 1870; chair and carried on his other labors. Charlemagne, 1866;

| People's Bible, begun 1885. Poetry of the Middle Ages, 1885.

Parker, MATTHEW, D.D., 1504-1575. Dean of Lincoln 1552, Paris, DECLARATION OF. See DECLARATION OF PARIS. Abp. of Canterbury 1559, being regularly consecrated at Lam

Paris, JOHN AYRTON, M.D., D.C.L., 1785–1856. English beth by four bishops. See Nag's HEAD. scientist, inventor of the tamping-bar. Pharmacologia, 1819; Parker, SIR PETER, R.N., 1721-1811. Captain 1747, BaroMedical Jurisprudence, 1823.

net 1782. He attacked Charleston, and bore part in the taking Paris, LOUIS PHILIPPE ALBERT D'ORLEANS, COMTE DE, 1838 of New York and R. I.-His grandson, SIR PETER, R.N., 1786– 1894. Grandson of Louis Philippe; on Gen. McClellan's staff in 1814, destroyed much property along the Chesapeake, and was Va., with his brother and uncle, 1861; Deputy 1871; Legitimist killed at Chestertown, Md. heir to the throne from 1883; exiled 1886, and thenceforth in Parker, PETER, M.D., 1804–1888. Missionary in China 1834England.

40 and 1842–55; U. S. Commissioner there 1855–57. Paris, MATTHEW, ab. 1200–1259. English Benedictine and Parker, SAMUEL, D.D., 1744-1804. Rector of Trinity Ch., Latin chronicler. His Historia Major extends to 1259,

Boston, 1779; P.E. Bp. of Mass. 1804. Paris, PLASTER OF. See CALCIUM SULPHATE.

Parker, THEODORE, 1810–1860. Pastor in Boston from 1837; Paris, UNIVERSITY OF. Originated 1109 in a school of logic leader of the radical Unitarians; a man of genius, who by his taught by William of Champeaux, who was succeeded by Abe- sermons and publications exerted great influence on religious lard. By 1150 there were said to be more students in Paris thought. Works, 12 vols., 1863–65. than citizens. Soon after 1600 its 40 colleges were deserted; Parker, WILLARD, M.D., LL.D., 1800–1884. Prof. New but it was soon revived. It suffered from the strifes of Jesuits

| York 1839–83; pres. N. Y. Inebriate Asylum, Binghamton, 1865; and Jansenists, and was suppressed with other institutions

eminent as operator, teacher, and discoverer. 1793.

Parker, WILLIAM KITCHEN, F.R.S., 1823–1890. Prof. LonParis Green. Copper arsenite. CuHASO,; used as a pig

on an ment; made by precipitating a solution of copper sulphate

Parkersburg. City of W. Va., 63 m. n. of Charleston, with sodium arsenite.

at the junction of the Ohio and Little Kanawha rivers. It is Paris Yellow. See LEAD CHROMATE.

the outlet of the petroleum region and has a number of oil Parish. Smallest division of territory under an established refineries. Pop., 1890, 8,400. Ch.; in England the officers administered the poor-laws and Parkes, SIR HARRY SMITH, 1828–1885. English ambassador had charge of the highways, but these functions have been to Japan 1865–83, and then to China. largely transferred to other Boards; in America, aggregate of

Parkes, SIR HENRY, b. 1815. Premier of New South Wales persons and interests in a local religious society.

1872 and later. Parish Clerk. Minor ch. official in England.

Parkesine. Name given to celluloid, it having been first Park. Piece of ground in an untilled state used as a game made by A. Parkes. reserve or for walking or driving; also a tract of land kept for

Parkhurst, CHARLES HENRY, D.D., b. 1842. Presb. pastor ornament and public recreation. The Egyptians had parks at

in New York since 1880; pres. Soc. for Prevention of Crime a time much earlier than the records on the monuments show.

1891. His fearless activity in reform led to an investigation of Parks then were little more than a cluster of gardens. The

the N. Y. Police Department by the Lexow Committee 1894, Romans attached parks to their villas. Pompey and Horten

and in the fall to the most memorable political upheaval in sius among others had large parks. In England the first great

the history of any American city. Our Fight against Tampark particularly mentioned is Woodstock, formed by Henry

many, 1895. İ. 1125. The following are some of the best known parks: Fairmount, Philadelphia, 2,740 acres; Bois de Vincennes, Paris,

Parkhurst, John, 1728-1797. English author of a Hebrew 2.075; Phoenix, Dublin, 2,000; Bois de Boulogne, Paris, 2,000; Lexicon, 1762, long used, and of a Greek Lexicon to N. T., 1769. Prater Gardens, Vienna, 1,500; Golden Gate, San Francisco, Parkinson, John, 1567-1650. English herbalist. Para1,100.. Central, New York, 862; Druid Hill, Baltimore, 600; 1 disus Terrestris, 1629; Theatrum Botanicum, 1640.




Parkinson-Fortescue, CHICHESTER SAMUEL, b. 1823. eternal unchangeable substance, and that change is an M.P. 1847; member of several cabinets; Baron Carlingford illusion. 1874; Lord Privy Seal 1881-85.

Parmigiano (GIROLAMO MAZZOLA), 1504–1540. Italian Parkman, FRANCIS, 1823–1893. American historian of high painter. rank. His chief works relate to the French period in colonial

Parnahyba, River of n. Brazil, flowing n.e. to the Athistory, and are noted for their full research, entire fairness,

lantic. Length ab. 750 m., drainage area 150,000 sq. m. keen insight, and graphic style. Oregon Trail, 1849; Conspir

Parnassiens. French school of poets ab. 1866, who gave acy of Pontiac, 1851; Pioneers of France in the New World,

almost exclusive regard to form. 1865; Jesuits in N. America, 1867; La Salle, 1869; Old Regime in Canada, 1874; Frontenac and New France, 1877; Montcalm 1 Parnassus. Mountain n. of Delphi, chief seat of Apollo and Wolfe, 1884; A Half Century of Conflict, 1892.

and the Muses; sacred also to Dionysus. The Castalian Spring Park Range. Part of the Rocky Mountain system in Colorado and s. Wyoming, standing as the west wall of the series of Parks. Its peaks range from 13,000 to more than 14,000 ft. in height.


Parliament. Legislative body, especially that of Great Britain, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. The latter is elective and contains (1896) 670 members—465 for England, 30 for Wales, 72 for Scotland, and 103 for Ireland. The other comprises 549 lords temporal and 26 lords spiritual. Of this the Lord Chancellor is always Speaker of the lords temporal 16 Scottish peers are elected for each parliament and 28 Irish peers for life. Its duration was fixed 1716 at 7 years. It is generally in session

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Parnassus and He.icon, with the Gulf of Corinth. issued from between two cliffs above Delphi. The highest peak was the scene of the orgies of the worship of Dionysus. Alti

tude 8,068 ft. PALIT: NULLUHILE AU

Parnell, CHARLES STEWART, 1846–1891. M.P. 1875; founder JURU

and first pres, of Irish Land League 1879; leader of Home Rule party 1880; taken into alliance by Gladstone 1886, who attempted to pass a Home Rule bill with his aid; vigorously attacked by London Times, which published certain letters alleged to be his, indicating complicity with acts of violence

on the part of the Irish peasantry, but afterward proved to be | forgeries of one Pigott. For this libel he obtained $20,000

damages. In Nov. 1890 he became co-respondent in a suit for London, The Houses of Parliament, as seen from Lambeth.

divorce and later married the woman in the case. His leader

ship was consequently refused by the majority of the Home from about Feb. 15 to end of Aug. in each year. In case a

Rule party, but a section adhered to him till his death. majority of the Commons votes against the Government, the ministry resigns or dissolves parliament and orders a new elec

Parnell, THOMAS, 1679–1717. Irish poet; archdeacon of tion. It is the successor of the Witenagemote of early Saxon

Clogher 1705. A volume containing The Hermit and other times. Magna Charta, 1215, provided for the convening of

well-known poems appeared 1722, and another, of doubtful Parliament whenever money was to be raised. Writs are still

authenticity, 1758. in existence by which in 1265 Henry III. summoned the knights Parodies. Facetious imitations of well-known producand burgesses. The division of Parliament into two houses tions, usually in verse. They were found among the Greeks ab. dates about a century later. See LONG PARLIAMENT and RUMP 550 B.C., and form part of every national literature. Among PARLIAMENT.

the most notable modern examples are some of H. and J. Parliamentary Law. According to the rules and

Smith's Rejected Addresses, 1812, Aytoun & Martin's Ballads by usages of Parliament or to the established rules and prac

Bon Gaultier, 1851, Calverley's Fly-Leaves, 1871, and in prose tices of legislative bodies. Usually in the U. S. the rules and

Bret Harte's Condensed Novels, 1867, and Burnand's New Sandpractices of Congress are followed.

ford and Merton, 1872. Parliaments, IN FRANCE. Law courts. That of Paris

Parecious. Mosses in which the archegonia and anwas the chief law court of the realm, charged with registering

theridia are borne in close proximity. the royal edicts. In 1789 there were 13 parliaments in France, Par-of-Exchange. Amount of money which has to be differing in extent of jurisdiction, that of Paris covering a paid in one place for a bill of exchange of a certain face value, third of the kingdom.

payable at another place. Parlor Cars. Length about 60 st., width 10 ft., weight Parole. Promise of a prisoner not to escape, go beyond 60,000 lbs., cost $10,000, seating capacity 32. Nearly all the bounds, or resume hostilities, according to the degree of liberty parlor and sleeping cars of the U.S. are owned by the Pullman granted him; esteemed sacredly binding in military circles. and Wagner Companies, and used by the railroads under

Parol Evidence. Not in writing; inadmissible to vary contract.

or contradict a written instrument. The exceptions to this Parma. City of n. Italy, on the P., 12 m. s, of the Po;

m. s. of the Po; rule are numerous. built by Etruscans; subject to Rome 183 B.C.; capital of a duchy 1545–1731 and 1814-60. Its university, founded 1599, has

Paro-ophoron. See VASA ABERRENTIA. ab. 40 teachers and near 300 students. The palace contains Paropamisus. Range of mountains in n. Afghanistan. some fine paintings and a library of 214,000 vols. Some of the Paros. One of the Cyclades, in the Ægean Sea; noted for churches are notable. Near here an Austrian army encountered | its marbles, called Parian. Pop., 1890, 3,048. the allied forces of France, Spain, and England, June 29, 1734, Parostosis. Ossification in the dermis, forming exoskeleand Russians under Suwarrow routed the French under Mac tal bones. donald June 19, 1799.

Parotid Gland. Largest of the salivary glands, seated Parma, DUKE OF. See FARNESE and CAMBACERES.

| under the ear and near the angle of the lower jaw. It weighs Parmenides, 5th cent. B.C. Greek philosopher of Elea 1 oz. and discharges its secretions into the mouth opposite the in Lucania, famous for the doctrine that there is only one second molar tooth in the upper jaw

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Parotitis. Infectious disease attacking children and young Parry, SIR WILLIAM EDWARD, R.N., 1790–1855. Arctic expersons most frequently, in which the parotid and other sali plorer, knighted 1829, Rear-admiral 1852. In 1820 he won £5,000 vary glands become swollen. Treatment consists of regulation by going farther west than any before him; in 1827 he reached of diet, mild purgatives, and vegetable acids as lemonade as a | 82° 45' N. lat., the highest till 1876. Journal, 1824; Narrative, beverage. In males the testes and spleen often swell and in 1828. females the ovaries and mammæ. Suppuration of the glands | Parry Sound. Village in the district at the e. extremity scarcely ever occurs. It is also called Mumps, and in Scotland

of P. S., an inlet of Georgian Bay. Pop. 1,500. Branks.

Parsees. Remnant, in Persia and w. India, of the adherParovarium. See EPO-OPHORON.

ents of Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Persia. They Parquetry. Flooring of oak and other wood, laid in worship one god, specially symbolized by fire, and are eminent blocks to form a mosaic.

for activity, business capacity, thrift, and probity. They reParr. See SALMO. Parr, CATHERINE, 1512-1548: 6th wife of Henry VIII., mar

ried at 12 to Edward Borough,
who died 1529; at 17 to Lord
Latimer, who d. 1542; to the
king July 1543; and 1547 to Sir
Thomas Seymour. She was
distinguished for her learning,
especially of religious subjects.

Parr, SAMUEL, LL.D., 1747–
1825. English teacher, in his
time of great fame for learn-
ing, which his works, 8 vols.,
1828, fail to support.

Parr, THOMAS, 1483–1635.
English marvel of longevity,
called “Old Parr.” See LON-

Parrhasius, 4th cent.
B.C. Most famous of Greek
painters, except perhaps his
rival Zeuxis.

Parricide. In modern acceptance, murder of a parent; in Roman law, that of any near relative, and peculiarly punished.

Parsee Hotel Keeper. Parris, ALBION KEITH, 1788–1857. M.C. 1815–19; Gov. fuse to eat food prepared by one of a different faith, do not

of Me. 1821-26; U.S. Senator bury their dead, but place them on towers that the birds may Queen Catherine Parr, Painted by Holbein.

1826–28; Judge of Me. Supreme clean the bones, which are collected and buried. They number Court 1828–36.

ab. 8,000 in Persia and 85,000 in India, chiefly at Bombay. See Parris, SAMUEL, 1653–1720. Minister at Salem, Mass., 1689– GUEBERS and DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD. 96; promoter of the witchcraft delusion, which began in his Parsley. Fetroselinum sativum. Herb with finely cut family 1692, and of 20 judicial murders caused thereby.

leaves, of the Carrot family, native of the Mediterranean reParrish, JOSEPH, M.D., 1779-1840. Practitioner in Phila.

gion, widely cultivated as a flavoring herb. Hernia, 1836.- Of his sons, JOSEPH, M.D., 1818–1891, was noted

Parsley, FOOL's. Æthusa cymapium. White-flowered, poias an alienist and for the care of inebriates; EDWARD, 1822–1872,

sonous herb of the Carrot family, native of Europe; introduced an eminent pharmacist, was pres. of Swarthmore Coll. 1868–70. as a weed into N. America. Parrish, STEPHEN, b. 1846. American landscape painter

Parsnip. Pastinaca sativa. Yellow-flowered, coarse herb and etcher.

of the Carrot family, native of Europe, extensively cultivated

for its edible roots, and introduced as a weed into N. America. Parrot Coal. Cannel coal, which makes a crackling noise Parsnips are occasionally grown as a field crop, solely as a in burning.

cattle food. They are especially valuable for milch cows. The Parrots. Order PSITTACI (q.v.), including 430 species, 9 cultivation is essentially like that given for beets, though care families, and 45 genera, nearly all tropical. Some are brilliantly must be taken that the seed is fresh and vigorous. The comcolored, some very plain. The size ranges from that of the mon parsnip easily runs wild, when it becomes an unsightly sparrow-like LOVE-BIRDS (q.v.) to the MACAWS (q.v.). They and troublesome weed. associate in flocks in forests, are vegetarian, and have harsh Parsnip, MEADOW. Plants of the genus Thaspium, yellowvoices, but some are good imitators of sounds. The Kaka of

flowered herbs of the Carrot family, natives of e. N. America. New Zealand has taken to eating mutton, attacking even live sheep, from which it tears the flesh. See also COCKATOOS and

Parsnip, WATER. Marsh herbs of the genus Sium, natural PARAKEETS.

family Umbelliferæ, natives of the n. temperate zone. Parrott, ENOCH GREENLEAF, U.S.N.. 1814-1879. Distin

Parson. Parish priest of English church; so called beguished on the Atlantic coast 1861–65; Admiral 1873.

cause by his person the church is represented. He is a cor

poration sole, holding legal title to the temporalities of his Parrott, ROBERT PARKER, 1804–1877. U.S. officer 1824–36;

parish. inventor of rifled cannon and projectiles.

Parsons, ALFRED WILLIAM, b. 1847. English landscape Parrott Gun. Cast-iron, muzzle-loading, rifled gun, hav- | artist. Notes in Japan, 1895. ing a wrought-iron band shrunk over the breech in rear of the Parsons, or Persons, ROBERT, 1546–1610. English Jesuit, trunnions. They were extensively used during the Rebellion

much dreaded by Elizabeth; missionary at home 1580–81; in the field, siege, and seacoast artillery, up to 300 lbs. They founder of schools in Spain and France; rector English College were not always reliable, for some would burst after a few at Rome 1598–1610. His Christian Directory, 1583-91, was re. rounds, while others would stand the full service life of 1,000

vised by Dean Stanhope 1700; other books of his were considrounds.

ered treasonable. Parrott Projectile. Elongated cast-iron projectile ar Parsons, SAMUEL HOLDEN, 1737-1789. Brig.-gen. U.S.A. ranged to take the rifled motion by means of a brass band cast | 1776; Major-gen. 1780; Judge of Northwest Territory 1788. on the butt of the projectile. Upon being fired the powder gas expanded the band and drove it into the grooves of the

Parsons, THEOPHILUS, LL.D., 1750-1813. Chief-justice of

Mass. Supreme Court from 1806.-His son, THEOPHILUS, LL.D., rifling, thus causing the projectile to take the rifled motion.

1797–1882, was prof. Harvard Law School from 1847. Law of Parry, CHARLES CHRISTOPHER, M.D., 1823–1890. Botanist Contracts, 1853; Maritime Law, 1859; Partnership, 1867; Mato several Western surveys; writer on botany.

rine Insurance, 1868. Parry, CHARLES HUBERT HASTINGS, b. 1848. English com Parsons, THOMAS WILLIAM, 1819–1892. American poet. poser. Prof. Royal College of Music. Art of Music, 1893. Tr. Dante's Inferno, 1867.




Partative Force. Greatest weight a magnet can sup | Participle. Adjective formed from a verb. When active, port. That of a saturated horseshoe magnet may, according ) it often carries the force of both parts of speech. to Hücker, be given by the formula,

Particle. In Mechanics, smallest mass upon which force P- a 'p?,

may be supposed to act. A particle may have a motion of

simple translation, but as it is assumed to occupy the volume in which p is the weight of the magnet, and a a coefficient de of a geometrical point only, it cannot rotate. Indeed, since in pending for its value upon the nature of the steel and the many problems particles are assumed to have different masses, method of magnetization,

the idea of non-rotation or zero volume seems to be the most Parthenius, OF NICÆA, 1st cent. B.C. Greek writer of

important. prose and verse. Some romances survive.

Parting. Layer of slate, dirt, or other valueless material, Parthenogenesis. Formation of sperm cells by asexual

occurring in a seam of coal. processes; known in both vegetable and animal kingdoms; de Partition. Division of property between joint or co-tenvelopment of eggs without fertilization. Every egg which the ants, so that each may have exclusive possession of his share. queen-bee lays either is fertilized or is not: the former develop It may result from the mutual consent of the parties or be ad. into workers (females), the latter become drones (males). The | judged in a legal action. males are therefore parthenogenetically produced. In other Partition, WALL OF. Wall in Jewish Temple, beyond cases, as in Plant-lice, the parthenogenetic generations are which none but Jews were allowed to go, on pain of death. usually females.

St. Paul declares that Christ has broken this down, by admitParthenon. Temple of Athene Parthenos (virgin) on the ting all believers in Him to equal privileges, Acropolis at Athens, built at command of Pericles by Ictinus Partnership. Relation subsisting between persons carryand Callicrates 444-438 B.C. The temple platform measures ing on a business in common with a view of profits. Whether 228 by 101 ft., having 15 Doric columns 35 ft. high on either this relation exists in a particular case is generally determined side and 8 on each end. The sculptures of pediment, metopes, by the intention of the parties, as evinced by their acts. Each and frieze were wrought and placed under direction of Phidias.

partner is a general agent for the firm and may bind it by acts In the cella was his world-famed chryselephantine statue of within the apparent scope of his authority. A person may

make himself liable as a partner by holding himself out as such, and thereby inducing others to become creditors of the supposed firm. The liability of partners for firm debts is joint, and for firm torts joint and several. The entire fortune of each partner is liable for firm obligations; the equity rule, however, for distributing to firm and separate creditors is to give firm creditors the preference in the firm estate and separate creditors priority in the separate estate. Each partner is bound to exercise the utmost good faith toward his associates, and cannot introduce another into the firm without consent of all its members.

Parton, JAMES, 1822–1891. American author of English birth; biographer of Greeley, 1855; Burr, 1857; Jackson, 3 vols., 1860, and others. Captains of Industry, 1884–91.-His wife, SARAH PAYSON (FANNY FERN"), 1811-1872, was a sister of N. P. Willis, whom she satirized in a novel, Ruth Hall, 1854, and a once popular writer.

Part Ownership. Title in two or more to personal The Parthenon.

property, without right of survivorship or right to force par

tition. the goddess. In the Middle Ages the Parthenon became a church dedicated to the Virgin, and then a mosque. It was

Partridge, WILLIAM ORDWAY, b. 1861. American sculptor; nearly destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder 1687, during

author of the Shakespeare in Lincoln Park, Chicago, a bronze the siege of Athens by the Venetians. Many of the remaining

Hamilton, and an equestrian statue of Grant in Brooklyn; sculptures of the pediments and frieze were wrenched from

noted also for portraits and ideal subjects. their position by Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Mu Partridge-Berry. Mitchella repens. Low evergreen seum. See ARCHITECTURE.

plant of the Madder family, bearing red berries, native of e. Parthenopean Republic. In Naples, Jan. 1799; the N. America; also Wintergreen. Bourbons were reinstated the following June. Parthenope Partridge-Pea. Cassia chamæcrista. Yellow-flowered was an ancient town on the site of Naples, named from one of herb of the Pea family, native of N. America. the Sirens, whose tomb was shown there.

Partridges. Different genera of the family Tetraonidæ. Parthenosperms. Reproductive bodies borne by certain The most common of the Old World is Perdix, the Gray PartAlgæ of the order Conjugatæ, resembling zygosperms, but produced independently of the process of conjugation; parthenospores.

Parthĩa. Country of Asia, s.e, of the Caspian, whose warriors were famed for their skill in horsemanship and archery; subject to Persia and the Greek kings of Syria until Arsaces moved a revolt and set up an independent monarchy ab. 255 B.C. The Parthian empire was established ab. 174 B.C. by Mithradātes I., who conquered Media, Susiana, Persia, Babylonia, and Bactriana. Mithradates II., “the Great," 124 87 B.C., extended the empire in several directions, but lost Armenia A Roman expedition against P. under Crassus, 54 B.C., was a bad failure. "The Parthians defeated the Romans again 51 and 40, and made themselves masters of Syria, but were checked 39 in an attempt to conquer Asia Minor. Antony's great expedition, 36 B.C., ended disastrously. From this time for 150 years there were no more open wars with Rome, but in 114 A.D. Trajan conquered a large part of the Parthian empire, to be surrendered however 117. P. became dependent on Rome 165, and the empire came to an end 226 through a revolt of the Persians. At its height, it extended from the Indus and the Ocean to the Euphrates and the Oxus.

Parthian Arrows. Discharged by horsemen in apparent retreat.

Partial Contraction. Stream of water issuing from an orifice and contracted only on one or two sides, owing to rounded edges of the orifice or to a wall on one side. The con

Partridge (Perdix communis). traction is then said to be partially suppressed.

ridge. The Snow Pheasants of the heights of the Himalayas Participation in Profits. See INDUSTRIAL PARTNERSHIP. I may exceed 6 lbs. in wt. The Gray Partridge of India is not

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palatable as food, but, being very pugnacious, is kept for tight Pascal's Theorem. A hexagon being inscribed in a ing; the male has two spurs on each foot. There are 9 genera conic and the pairs of opposite sides being produced, the points and 45 species of American Partridges, among which are the of intersection lie in the same straight line. Mountain Quail of Cal., the Bob-White of e. V. S., called Quail

Paschal I. Pope 817–824. Also an antipope 687, d. 694.north and Partridge south, while the RUFFED GROUSE (q.v.),

II. RANIERI, ab. 1050-1118; cardinal ab. 1076, pope 1099. He exBonasa umbellus, is called Partridge north and Pheasant south.

communicated Henry IV. of Germany, and was imprisoned by It is shy and forest-loving; the male makes a drumming sound

Henry V.-III. Antipope 1164–68. by vibrating its wings. Its tarsus is feathered half way, the head crested, and plumage variegated. Length 18 in. The tail

Paschal Controversies. Between East and West, as to consists of 18 soft, broad feathers. See SAND GROUSE and

the time and manner of Easter observance. QUAILS.

Pasha. Turkish title, first of princes, since of governors, Parts of speech. The earliest forms of language seem

officers, or favorites; of three degrees, 1, 2, or 3 horsetails be

ing the standard and emblem of rank. to have been (a) pronominal and (b) verbal: a combination of these produced the verb and its differences of person, to which Pasini, ALBERTO, b. 1820. Italian-French painter. number, tense, and mood were added. The noun, or substan- | Pasiphăe. Wife of Minos, King of Crete: mother of tive, and the adjective were early developed from the root. | Ariadne, Phædra, and the Minotaur. with endings to express case, gender, and number. Verb and

Paskevitch, IVAN FEODOROVITCH, COUNT OF ERIVAN, substantive (covering, of course, pronoun and adjective), there

PRINCE OF WARSAW, 1782-1856. Russian Field-marshal; active fore, with their varieties of inflection, include all the original

against the French 1812-14. In 1825 he conquered Persian parts of speech. Adverbs are either fossilized cases (e.g., whilom

Armenia, taking Erivan; in 1828-29 he took Kars and Erzerum is a dative plural, while an accusative singular, of the noun

from the Turks. He crushed the Polish revolt 1831, and was while), or are made by a suffix, such as -ly, from an older equiv

Gov. of Poland, joined the Austrians to quell the Hungarian alent of like. Prepositions, as the name implies, were once

insurrection 1848; and was defeated by the Turks 1854. prefixes of the verb. Conjunctions are of later origin; thus that in "I see that you are blind," was once “You are blind, I

Paso del Norte. Mountain pass, which is the chief thorsee that.” Interjections hardly count as parts of speech, and

oughfare between Mexico and New Mexico. stand outside of syntactical relations.

Paspatis, ALEXANDER GEORGE, LL.D., 1814–1891. Greek Part Song. Musical composition, in three-voiced har

author, who wrote also in French and English; once a Turkish mony or more, generally of a secular character, homophonic,

slave; educated in America and France; physician in Constantiand sung without accompaniment.

nople 1840–78; prof, at Athens 1878. Party Wall. One standing on or near a real property

Pasqualis, MARTINEZ, 1715–1779. Jewish cabalist, active line, in which the adjoining proprietors have rights in common.

among French Freemasons; founder of the Martipists, Parveyance. Obsolete right of buying provisions and

Pasque-Flower. Pulsatilla patens, and other species of other necessaries for use of government at an appraised valu

showy-flowered herbs of the Buttercup family, natives of the n. ation, and without regard to the consent of the owner.

hemisphere. The leaves are narcotic, acrid, and poisonous, and Parvin, THEOPHILUS, M.D., LL.D., b. 1829. Prof. Jefferson Medical Coll., Phila., 1883. Obstetrics, 1886.

Pasadena. City of Cal., 10 m. n.n.e. of Los Angeles; winter resort. Pop., 1890, 4,882.

Pasargădæ. Ancient capital of Persis, said to have been founded by Cyrus on the site of his victory over Astyages; its ruins are near Murghab.

Pascagoula. River of s.e. Mississippi, flowing s. to a bay on the Gulf. Length 85 m., drainage area 8,980 sq. m.; navigable.

Pascal, BLAISE, 1623-1662. French philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, famous for his attack on the Jesuits in the Provincial Letters, 1656, in defense of his friend Arnauld and the Jansenists, and for his paradoxical and half skeptical


Pasque-Flower (Pulsatilla pratensis).

contain anemonine. The extract is a favorite medicine of the homeopathists. It bears blue bell-shaped flowers, the petals of which are used to color Easter eggs purple.

Pasquino, ANTONIO, d. ab. 1500. Tailor in Rome, noted for his quips and witty sallies. His name was given to a broken statue found near his stall, to which anonymous lampoons were affixed by night. Hence pasquinade.

Pass. Mill or opening left in the deads through which ore falls to loading place.

Passagians. Semi-Jewish sect in Italy, condemned 1184.

Passaglia, CARLO, 1812–1887. Prof. at Rome 1844-57, and at Turin from 1861; expelled by Jesuits 1859 for attacking the temporal power and urging Italian unity; Deputy 1863.

Passaic. City of P. co., N. J., 11 m. n.w. of Jersey City; on the P. It has some manufactures. Pop., 1890, 13,028.

Passaic River. In the n.e. of N. J., flowing e. then s. past Paterson and Newark into Newark Bay.

Passamaquoddy Bay. Between Me, and New BrunsBlaise Pascal.

wick, at mouth of Bay of Fundy; ab. 10 m. by 15.

Passarowitz. Town of Servia, 40 m. s.e. of Belgrade. doctrines in the Thoughts, 1669; writer on Conic Sections, 1640; Here a treaty was signed July 21, 1718, ending the Turkish war first to determine the properties of the cycloid; founder of the against Venice, and securing part of Wallachia, Servia, and doctrine of mathematical probability, and discoverer of the Bosnia to Austria. The Turks held the Morea. Pop. ab, 10,000. weight of the air and the existence of a vacuum.-His sister,

Passau. Old town of Bavaria, on the Danube, Ilz, and JACQUELINE, 1625–1661, was a nun at Port Royal from 1652. Inn. By a treaty signed here Aug. 1552 toleration was granted Pascal's Principle. See HYDROSTATICS.

I to the Lutherans. It was an old Roman camp and has strong

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