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Paplnianus, Cemilius, d. 212. Most eminent of Roman jurisconsults; high official under Septimius Severus. From his 59 books 595 passages were admitted to the Pandects.
Papln'i Digester. See Digester.
Papoonc. North American Indian child, usually fastened
upon a board and carried on the back of the mother or hung up out of harm's way.
Papoose-Root. See CoHosh, Blue.
Pappenhelm, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf Von, 1594-1632. Marshal of German empire; distinguished at Prague 1620; associated with Tilly and Wallenstein in the Thirty Years' War; killed at Lutzen.
Pappus. Crown of hairs, bristles or scales which surmounts the achenes of plants of the Composite family, being the modified teeth of the calyx.
Pappus, Of Alexandria. Greek mathematician, probably of 3d century. His Collection, in 8 books, but lacking the first and part of the second, was pub. 1876-78.
Papuans. Natives of New Guinea and Melanesia, of NegRito (q.v.) blood; resembling the Australians. They tattoo by Papoose. cutting and scarring the skin,
use bows and arrows, paint their bodies, dye their hair, which is abundant and receives great care, and hang huge ornaments in ears and through the nasal septum. Their toes are partly prehensile. Their clothing is but a fringed girdle and a head dress. Cannibalism is practiced. They use communal houses, erected on piles over water and reached by boats. They are head-hunters like the Dyaks (q.v.). They cultivate land, but have no private ownership, and depend mainly on hunting and fishing. They love to barter. Trial by fire and witchcraft obtain among them, and rude wooden images of the dead are prayed to.
Papyrus. Cyperus papyrus. Sedge or reed, native of Asia and Africa; formerly growing in marshes of the Nile valley, 4 to 6 in. in diameter and 8 to 12 ft. high; still found in some parts of Nubia and Abyssinia, the Jordan valley, and Sicily. The Romans cultivated it in some wet lands of Italy, but obtained their chief supply from Alexandria. It was used by the Egyptians in the manufacture of various articles, as
Par. In Business Arithmetic, sign of equality between apparent and real values, or between values expressed in different monetary units.
Para. City of Brazil, on the P.; commercially important. Pop. 40,000.
Para. S.e. outlet of the Amazon, after receiving the Tocantins; 20 to 40 m. wide; separated from the main stream by Marajo Island.
Para. Turkish coin of copper or base silver; fortieth of a piastre.
Parabasals. See Dicyclic Crinoids.
Parables. Comparisons; especially our Lord's illustrations of the kingdom of heaven by brief narratives, fictitious in form, or by references to familiar human relations or natural processes. This mode of teaching was used by none of the Apostles.
Parabola. See Conic.
Parabolas, General. Curves whose equations have the form ym — 2pxr.
Parabolic Comets. Comets whose orbits as determined do not differ appreciably from parabolas. They comprise 200 out of 270 computed orbits.
Parabolic Governor. See Governor.
Parabolic Semaphore. Semaphore signal whose arm is bent to a parabolic curve, so as to reflect along the track the light of a lantern placed in the focus of the curve. It is arranged to show red when in a horizontal position, and white or green when inclined at the position of safety.
Parabolic Spindle. Solid formed by revolving a parabola about a double ordinate perpendicular to the axis of the curve.
Parabolic Spiral. One defined by the equation f>* — ad+b, where a and b are arbitrary constants; or (p—r)" — 2p6, where r is the radius of a fixed circle and 2p the constant of a parabola.
Paraboloid of Revolution. Solid formed by revolving a parabola upon its axis: its volume is one-half that of a cylinder having the same base and altitude.
Parabranchlum. Gill-like organ on left side of neck in Prosobrancbs, near the true ctenidium. It represents the olfactory organ (osphradium) of the original right side.
Paracellulose. Modification of cellulose, soluble in cupro-ammonia after treatment with dilute acids.
Paracelsus (philippus Von Hohenheim), 1493-1541. Swiss physician and philosopher, who read and traveled widely in search of medical learning. He introduced new remedies and methods of treatment; taught a sort of pantheism, combining the Cabbala with natural science; and was a mixture of charlatan, investigator, and reformer. Chirurgia Magna; Hermetic Writings, tr. 1894. See Chemistry and Alchemy.
Parachordals. Cartilaginous bars, one on each side of the anterior end of the notochord, in Vertebrate embryos.
Parachute. Large umbrella-like apparatus, by means of which a man can descend from a balloon, the velocity of fall being not dangerously great. The top is sometimes 16 ft. in diameter, and has an aperture in the center, through which the air rushes and thus prevents any oscillations which might cause accident.
Parachute. In Mining, attachment above a hoisting cage, to prevent fall in case of breakage of the cable, and to protect persons on the cage from falling bodies.
Parachute. Fold of skin on each side of the body of Flying Squirrels, etc., which, during their soaring leaps, is stretched between the fore and hind limbs and acts as an aeroplane.
Paracme. That part of the life of an organism from maturity to death; characterized by the gradually increasing effects of senesence.
Para Compounds. When used as a prefix, seethe main portion of the word; e.g., for Paratoluidine see Toluidine. See Meta Compounds.
Paractinire. See Malacodermata.
Bird of Paradise (Parndiata rubra).
female lacks plumes anil varied colors, and. as is usual among animals, the young males resemble the females. In other species the side plumes are crimson. In the King-bird of Paradise they are fan-shaped. Some species have wonderful crests, and their plumage glows like brilliant gems.
Paradise, or Paryis. Open space surrounded with a coping of masonry in front of a cathedral or other important building.
Paradise Lost. Milton's purpose to write a great epic was formed as early as 1689. On his return to England from the Continent he was occupied in the choice of a subject. A list of those considered remains; 61 were Scriptural, 88 from British History. The first on the list was finally chosen. For a time he wavered between a dramatic and an epic treatment. During the 20 years of his controversial life the poem was laid aside. It was taken up 1658, and was nearly finished 1663. It appeared 1667 in 10 books; the 2d ed., 1674, had 12, books VII. and X. being subdivided, and 8 lines added in books VIII. and XII.
Paradise of the West. See 8ukhavati.
Paradox. Apparent contradiction in terms, usually conveying a weighty truth; e.g., "He that findeth his life shall lose it."
Paradoxides. Middle Cambrian Trilobite, sometimes attaining a length of 20 in.
Para-Epididymls, or Paradidymis. Remains of posterior part of Wolffian body in the male, near the epididymis. See Vasa Aberrentia.
Paraffin. Sp.gr. 0.87, mpt. 50°-60° C, bpt. 870° C. It separates as a solid from the heavy oils which are obtained by the distillation of the high boiling portion of petroleum. It is also obtained from wood tar, and by the distillation of shales and brown coal. It consists of C„H4, to C„H,S hydrocarbons, and is used for making candles, as a wax for coating insulated wires, and in chewing gum. Crude Pa. petroleum contains ab. 2 per cent. It occurs in the mineral Ozokerite (q.v.). It is a white solid, soluble in naphtha, ether and oils; also in hot alcohol, but separates in crystalline needles on cooling.
Paraffins. Hydrocarbons corresponding to the symbol CnH,n-l-j. So marsh gas, CH4, is a paraffin; also texone, C(H„, and solids, as C,BH„. The paraffins are also called alkyl hydrocarbons.
Paraflagcllum. Flagellum of small size and secondary importance, situated on a flagellated Infusorian which has one or more large principal flagella.
Parafuclislne. CmHjjN.ClO,. Pararosaniline hydrochloride; prepared as in the case of fuchsine, except that para compounds alone are used in connection with aniline, and that less toluidine or nitrotoluene is used. It is similar to fuchsine, and can be used for the same purposes. It is especially used in the manufacture of dye-stuffs.
Paragaster, or Paraoastkic Cavity. Cavity of a simple sponge, single or branched, before any special differentiations of the endoderm cells arise; primitive cavity of the sponge gastrula.
Par agastric Canals. Two canals that open from the bases of the primary radial canals of Ctenophores, on each side of the oesophagus. They pass to and end blindly near the mouth.
Paragastrula. Peculiar gastrula found in sponges. It originates from an amphiblastula by invagination or the flagellated cells, leaving the granular cells outside to become the elctoderm.
Paraglossia. Secondary pieces borne on the sides of the glossa or ligula of insects.
Paragonite. Mineral resembling common mica, but containing sodium instead of potassium. It gives character to the rock known as paragonite schist.
Paraguay. Republic of S. America, between Brazil and Argentine Republic; 22°-27° S. lat. and 54°-64° W. long. The surface is hilly in the north. In its middle portion it consists of forested plains, while in the south it becomes low and marshy. Its area is ab. 142,000 sq. m. The capital, Asuncion, was founded 1536. In 1620 P. proper was separated from
Buenos Ayres, and both put under the vice-royalty of Peru. In 1776 Buenos Ayres was made a vice-royalty and P. placed under its jurisdiction. It declared its independence of Spain 1811, but became a despotism 1814 under Dr. Francia. C. A. Lopez came to power 1841. His son, F. S. Lopez, engaged in destructive wars 1864-70, from which P. has since been slowly recovering. Pop. ab. 400,000.
Paraguay. River tributary to the Parana or Rio de la Plata, rising in Brazil and forming part of the Bolivian boundary; discovered by Cabot 1526. Length ab,1,800 m., partly navigable.
Paraguay Tea. See Mate.
Paraheliotropism. In Plant Physiology, movement of leaves into a position parallel with the rays of light.
Parakeets, or Parrakeets. Old World Parrots, with long wedge-shaped tail. In the New World is the corresponding family of Macaws (q.v.). Conurus, the Carolina Parrot or Parakeet, is now restricted to Florida and in danger of becoming extinct. Its general color is green: the head is yellow, the forehead red.
Paraldehyde. CtHl70,. Colorless liquid, boiling at 124° C.; produced from acetaldehyde by bringing the latter in contact with sulphuric acid. It has a disagreeable taste, but is largely used as a soporific.
Parallactic Angle. Angle at a star, formed by arcs of great circles drawn to the pole and zenith.
Parallactic Inequality Of The Moon. Change in the sun's disturbing effect upon the moon's motion, due to variation of the sun's distance. Thus when the moon describes 1130
that half of its orbit nearest the sun, the effect of the latter is greater than while the other half is described.
Parallactic Orbit OF A Star. A star which has a measurable parallax appears to describe a small orbit with a period of one year. The orbit is an ellipse whose semi-major axis is equal to the annual parallax. The motion is only apparent, being due to the earth's annual motion about the sun. Parallax. Difference in apparent position of a body as
seen from two points. The diurnal parallax of a planet is the difference in apparent position as seen from the center of the earth and a point on the surface. The annual parallax of a star is the angle at the star subtended by the radius of the earth's orbit. The equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun or a planet is the parallax when seen in the horizon from a point on the earth's equator. Parallax, Solas. Angle at the center of the sun, subtended by the earth's equatorial radius. Various methods have been employed for measuring its value, the most important being by transits of Venus across the sun's disk, by observation of Mars near opposition, and by the velocity of light. Some of the values which have been found for this constant are as follows: Ptolemy 3', Cassini 9.5", Encke 8.5776", Newcomb 8.848". Most recent determinations about 8.79". Calculated from this the distance of the sun from the earth is about 93,000,000 m.
Parallax of Fixed Stars. Only a few cases have been found of measurable value. A few of the most important are as follows:
Parallax of a heavenly body M.
definition. If two lines be perpendicular to a third: or both parallel to a third: or make alternate interior angles equal, or the sum of the interior angles on one side of the transversal equal to two right angles, they are parallel. If the lines are given by their equations, they will be parallel when their slopes are equal; y --■ mx -)- b, y ~ m'x -f- b1 are parallel if m — m1.
Pa ra lie I is in, Plane. Two planes are parallel when, their equations being solved in respect to one variable, the coefficients of the other two coordinates are respectively equal.
Parallel Hoi ions. Systems of pivoted linkages, by means of which one of the points of the rods is compelled to move in a straight line; used to guide the end of piston rods of steam engines in cases where a crosshead and its guides would be inconvenient. The best known of these linkages are "Watts' parallelogram, the "grasshopper," and Evans' motions, and their modifications. The Peaucellier cell and the White hypocycloidal gear (the latter also as modified by Tchebischeff of Russia) make elegant constructions, but have not been much used in practice. Such linkages are restricted in U. S. to vertical beam engines for pumping purposes.
Parallelogram. Quadrilateral having its opposite sides parallel: they are also equal. The area of a parallelogram equals the product of its base and altitude, or the product of two adjacent sides and the sine of their included angle.
Parallelogram of Forces. If two forces can be represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, the diagonal of the parallelogram colinear with the two forces will represent their resultant in magnitude and direction. The case is applicable to two velocities or two accelerations, and so we have the parallelogram of velocities and that of accelerations. In general, the principle can be applied to any two directed quantities whatever.
Parallelopiped. Prism the bases of which are parallelograms. If the lateral edges are perpendicular to the base, it is a right parallelopiped: if in addition the bases are rectangles, it is rectangular. The volume of a parallelopiped equals the product of its base and altitude. The name Cuboid has been suggested for the rectangular parallelopiped.
Parallels. Open earthen trenches parallel to the front of the fortification against which siege operations are to be conducted. In the conduct of actual sieges five or more have been found necessary.
Parallel Sphere. Celestial sphere as seen by an observer at the pole, where all the heavenly bodies would appear to describe circles parallel to the horizon.
Parallel Variation, or Analogous Variation. Form of variation in which two independent lines of descent mimic each other in various divergent lines of development; e.g., (1) where similar eyes are produced in the widely separated descendants of an eyeless ancestor; (2) dentition of the marsupials, which in Australia shows Insectivorous, Carnivorous, Rodent, Herbivorous, etc., groups, analogous to similar groups forming other phyla of Mammals.
Paralogism. Fallacy in reasoning which deceives the subject; distinguished from a sophism, which deceives others only.
Paralysis. Complete or partial loss of function of any muscle or sets of muscles caused by the disease or injury of the nerve energizing the muscles. Either motion or sensation, or both, may be affected.
Paramagnetic. See Magnetism.
Paramaribo. Capital of Dutch Guiana, on the Surinam, 18 m. from its mouth. Pop., 1890, 28,831.
Paramastoid Process. Jugular process; eminence on each occipital.
Paramecium. Genus of holotrichous Infusoria, shaped like a slipper twisted slightly about its longitudinal axis, and of size just visible to the naked eye. The mouth is in one edge near the middle. The front end is the heel of the slipper. There are two contractile or pulsating vacuoles, a macronucleus or endoplast, and a micronucleus (endoplastule). A definite proctal region is present. The cortex (ectosarc) contains
Parallelogram of Forces.
Paramecium aurelia. Two individuals conjugating:.
lost and one of the remaining migrates into the other Paramecium and unites with the residual nucleus forming a zygote, the process being mutual. Each zygote divides into a macroand a micronucleus.
Paramerea. 1. Right and left halves of a metamere. 2. Actinomeres of a radiate. 3. Similar parts that are repeated in any appendage, as the fingers or toes. The last is the best usage. See Antimere.
Parameters. Constants which determine the specific character or position of a locus: any specific locus may be designated by its parameters: the line whose equation is 2x 43y 4- 4 = 0 may be named as the straight line (2, 3, 4).
Paramitas. Virtues of Buddhism: Charity, moral conduct, patience, fortitude, meditation, and wisdom. Also truth, steadfastness, kindness, and imperturbability.
Parana. River of S. America. It rises in e. Brazil, flows w. and s.w., forming the e. and s. boundary of Paraguay, then s. through Argentina, after joining the Paraguay, and with the Uruguay forms the Rio de la Plata. Length ab. 2,000 m., drainage area ab.l,200,000 sq. m.
Paranahj ba. See Parnahyba.
Paranoia. Form of mental disease. While there is a defective nervous organization from birth, the manifestations of mental alienation are frequently so slight as to mislead an expert. Youthful precocity, some eccentricity of conduct, or a slight morbidness may be the only manifestation. Many of the enthusiasts and cranks of the world, who are able to carry on complex affairs to a successful termination, are but illybalanced paranoiacs. Were it not that the disease tends to chronicity and not to cure, and, as it progresses, seizes its victims with delusions leading to crime, it may be to homicide, it might be classed as a harmless affection.
Paranucleolu§. In Plant Cytology, secondary nucleolus. Paranucleus. Secondary nucleus, sometimes seen in different cells, outside the principal nucleus. In Protozoa it is the micronucleus or endoplastule; in eggs it is the yolk nucleus. Accessory nuclei are present in nearly all sorts of cells, but are probably not homologous structures.
Parapet. Low wall rising above a roof, anciently used for
defense and crenellated for that purpose, but in modern buildings serving only to protect persons on the roof from falling. It is a common feature in mediaeval and modern architecture.
Parapctalous. Stamens at the sides of petals.
Ornamented Gothic Parapet.
Parapets. Earthen covers to protect artillery and infantry troops and material from the fire of the enemy, and arranged to permit an effective fire to be delivered upon every point in their front. They should be at least one and a half times as thick as the penetration of the projectiles fired against them.
Paraphernalia. Apparel and ornaments of the wife, which have been furnished by the husband and belong to her, over and above her dower. The Roman paraplierna corresponded to the wife's separate estate under modern statutes.
Paraphlepia. Loss of motor power in both legs. See Paralysis.
Parapliragm. Process of the endosternite, which passes
outward, upward, and forward to unite with the endopleurite of its own and the preceding segment, in the endophragm of lobster-like Crustacea.
Paraphrase. Expansion of a text of whatever length; intended to elucidate it.
Paraphrases, Scottish. Versifications of Scripture, prepared by order of General Assembly 1742-45, and authorized for private use 1751; revised 1781, when 22 were added. They were widely used and drawn upon. The chief authors were W. Cameron, M. Bruce, and J. Morison; some are by Blair, Blacklock, Ogilvie, and others; 8 are anonymous.
Paraph} Hum. Leaf-like expansion or appendage, not a true leaf.
Paraphvses. Barren filaments accompanying the repro" ductive organs of many of the lower plants.
Paraplegia. Paralysis affecting the lower extremities.
Parapodla. Bristle-bearing, unjointed appendages, borne on the sides of the segments of a chsetopod worm.
Parapophysis. Ventral portion of the transverse process, in the rib-bearing (dorsal) vertebrae; it is short, close to the centrum, and articulates with the head (capitulum) of the rib.
Parapterum. See Scapulars.
Pararosanllinc. (C„H4.NH,),C.OH. Triamidotriphenylcarbonol; made by the oxidation of paraleucaniline. Its properties and derivatives are analogous to those of ROSANILINE (q.v.), made by oxidizing a mixture of aniline and paratoluidine with arsenic acid.
Paragang. Persian measure of distance, according to Herodotus, equal to 30 stadia, or ab. 3i English miles.
Paraselena. Bright spot on either side of the moon as seen in lunar halos, similar in origin to the Parhelia.
Parasites. Plants existing on the juices of others, which they obtain through their sucking roots. Green parasites, as
Dodder (Cuscuta glomerata).
the Mistletoe, are able to form some organic matter, but the pale parasites, containing no chlorophyll, must obtain their food already elaborated: such are the Beech Drops and Dodder. Animal parasites are divided into ectoparasites (Louse, Bedbug, etc.), and endoparasites (Tapeworm, Trichina, etc.). See Entozoa and Pediculidve.
Parasitica. See Anoplura and Aptera.
Parasitic Diseases. Those induced by vegetable or animal parasites. Animal parasites are such as trichina, tick, scabies, lice, tapeworm, etc. Vegetable parasites include thrush, ringworm, and actinomycosis.
Parasphenoid. Dagger-shaped bone which covers the under side of the cranium in the frog, fish, and other Jchthyopxida.
Parastamen. See Staminodium.
Parastichles. Secondary spirals, occurring in some methods of alternate leaf-arrangement.
Paraiichenia. Sides of the neck in birds.
Parcse. Three goddesses of Fate, sisters of Fortune, of whom Clotho puts the wool on the spindle, Lachesis spins it, and Atropos cuts the thread (of man's life). They are conceived both as birth and as death-goddesses.
Pare aux Cerfs. Deer-park laid out at Versailles by Louis XII.—Also a beautiful retreat of Mme. de Pompadour.
Parcenary. Common-law estate by descent to co-heirs. Modern legislation in the U. S. has changed it to a tenancy in common.
Parches!. Ancient Hindu game, played upon a board in the form of a cross by two or four players, each with four men. In India, in the game called Pachisi or Twenty-five, from which the American game is borrowed, the moves are made according to the throws with Cowrie shells. In our game dice are employed; the corresponding Hindu dice game is called Chansar. From internal evidence it appears that pachisi was originally cosmical and divinatory, the four arms of the cross being referable to the four directions. An almost indentical game was played by the ancient Mexicans under the name of Patoli. The latter is regarded by many as conclusive evidence of the Asiatic origin of Mexican culture, but is likely to have developed independently in Asia and America. Pachisi is widely diffused in Asia, from the Philippine Islands toSvria, where it is known as Edris. It was introduced into the fj. S. 1865.
Parchment. Dried skin, brought into use ab. 190 or 160
B.C. at Pergamus in Asia Minor, as a substitute for papyrus, the exportation of which from Egypt had been prohibited. The skins are unhaired, stretched, dried, planed and rubbed with pumice stone. Sheep-skins are used for diplomas; calf-skins are used for drum heads.
Parcimony. Law of economy in explanation of phenomena, requiring the fewest possible causes necessary to an effect. Two or more causes should never be supposed when one is adequate to the result.
Parcvantha. Deity worshiped by the Jains, regarded as the 23d Tirthankara, personages corresponding to Buddhas. He was born in Benares, and is said to have died at the age of 100 years in 823 B.C. His color is blue: a serpent is his emblem.
Pardee, Ario. 1810-1892Capitalist at Hazleton, Pa.; owner and operator of coal mines; benefactor of Lafayette College.
Pardessus, Jean Marie, 1772-1853. Prof. Paris 1810; deputy; writer on commercial law.
Pardo, Manuel, 1834-1878. Banker of Lima; pres. of Peru 1872-76; exemplary and highly useful; murdered while pres. of senate.
Pardo Razan, Emilia (sig
NORA QUIROGARICHE), b. 1852, 111. 1868. Spanish realistic novelist . and critic.
Pardoc, Julia, 1806-1862. English novelist, descriptive and historical writer. Louis XIV., 1847.
Pardon. Relief of an offender from his penal liabilities: in the U. S. generally regulated by constitution and statutory provisions.
Pare, Ambroise, 1517-1590. French army-surgeon, inventor of ligatures for the arteries in amputations; surgeon to Henry II., 1552, and to his successors; important as a reformer of surgical practice and benefactor of humanity. Chirurgie, 1562.
Paredes, Jose Gregorio, 1779-1839. and statesman.
Paredes y Arrillaga general and revolutionist.
Paregoric. Camphorated tincture of opium of the Pharmacopoeia, containing 0.4 per cent of opium; a soothing medicine.
Parenchyma. Proper substance of a tissue after differentiated parts are excluded. Its cells are usually numerous, and quite similar.—In Botany, vegetable tissue composed of cells but little longer than broad, and with thin cell-walls, forming the softer portions of plants, such as leaf-pulp, pith, and certain layers of the bark. Algce are entirely composed
Mariano, 1797-1849. Mexican
Parenchymula. Mouthless planula, whose segmentation cavity has become filled with endoderm cells.
Parent and Child. The parent has a legal right to the custody, discipline, and services of his unmarried minor child, and is under a legal duty to maintain, protect, and educate him.
Parepa-Rosa, Euphrosyne De Boyesku, 1836-1874. Concert and opera singer in Great Britain and the U. S. Her father was a Wallachian, her mother English. She was married to Carl Rosa 1867.
Paresis. See General Paralysis.
Paresthesia. Abnormal sensation, as formication, a feeling as if ants were crawling over a person; also produced by aconite poisoning.—Also abnormal sensations of cold or heat.
Parfltit, Noel, 1814-1896. French author and deputy.
Parga. Albanian town, opposite Corfu; connected with Venice 1401-1797; then held by Turkey. Its people revolted, and in 1819 most of them removed.
Pargeting. Decoration of plaster work by stamping before the material has dried and set.
Parhelion. Bright spots right and left of the certical plane through the observer and sun as seen in complete halos; due to the reflection of the sunlight from a number of small
Parhelion, or Mock-Sim, in the Polar Seas.
planes. They are usually seen at angular azimuths from the sun of ab. 20°, 25°, 46°, 50°, 90°, or 120°; that which occurs at 180° is the Anthelia.
Pariahs. Lowest caste in s. India, with whom members of the higher castes refuse intercourse.
Paridigitata. See Artiodactyla.
Parietal. In Botany, ovules or placentae borne on the wall of the ovary.
Parietal Rones. Two upper bones of the skull of vertebrates.
Parleto-Splanehnlc. Ganglion in bivalve Mollusks, on the posterior adductor muscle.
Parieu, Esquirou De, b. 1815. French economist, Minister of Public Instruction 1849; writer on taxation, finance, and currency.
Parima. 1. Branch of the Rio Negro, in n. Brazil. 2. Mountains of Guiana and e. Venezuela.
Parini, Giuseppe, 1729-1799. Italian poet. prof, at Milan from 1773. II Giorno, Part I., 1763; II., 1765; III., IV., 1801.
Paripinnate. Pinnate leaves with an even number of leaflets, arranged in pairs, as in the wild Senna.
Paris. Capital of France, on the Seine, 110 m. from the sea. After London and New York, it is the largest city in the world. It is regularly laid out, with many broad and wellpaved avenues and numerous public parks. Its sewage system and water supply are excellent. It contains many magnificent public buildings and institutions of learning and arts. It was mentioued by Caesar; was long confined to an island of the Seine, but was extended by Romans to either bank. It was occupied by Clovis 506; decayed under Carlovingians; was besieged by Northmen 885; became the residence of Hugh Capet 987; was enlarged and greatly improved under later kings; was the scene of the massacre of St. Bartholomew 1572, of several sieges and many revolutions. The university was founded ab. 1200, the Sorbo'nne 1252. the Academy 1666. Louis XIV. changed the old ramparts into boulevards, established drainage and sewerage, and various public institutions. The Reign of Terror, 1793-94, was most terrible here.
After the Revolu