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Palmer, Ray, D.D., 1808-1887. Pastor at Albany, N. Y., 1850-66; sec. Cong. Union 1866-78; author of My Faith Looks up to Thee, 1830, and many other favorite hymns.

Palmer, Roundell. See Selborne, Lord.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount, 1784-1865. M.P. 1806; Sec. of War 1809-28; Foreign Sec. 1830-41 and 184651; Home Sec. 1852-55; Premier 1855-58 and from 1859; Tory till 1828, then Whig. He was a plain but effective speaker, and one of the most popular of British ministers.

Palmetto. Several species of palms, natives of Florida and West Indies.

Palmetto Leaves. Leaves of the Palmyra palm, found in India. They are used in the manufacture of hats and mats.

Palmier!, Luigi, 1807-1896. Prof. Naples 1847; director Vesuvius Observatory 1854; writer on meteorology.

Palmistry, or Chiromancy. Art of divination by examining lines in the palm of the hand; said to have come from India. It is to be distinguished from chirognomy, which deals with

the supposed indications of the general shape of the hands. The principal lines of the palm are designated respectively as those of Life, the Head, the Heart, Saturn or Fate, the Liver, and Sun or Fortune. The prominences or depressions at the base of each finger also are regarded as highly significant, and are called by the names of the planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Apollo (the Sun), and the Moon. These are referred to the tastes or passions. The lines are interpreted according to their depth, color, and length, and their relations to the prominences or Mounts. The lines of the wrist, called Rascettes, or bracelets, are believed to indicate the duration of life, each line representing thirty years. A belief in palmistry exA.wiii; B, logic; c, mount of vera: ists in China and Japan, and is

L). mount of JuDlter: E. mount of, _ - T m ...

situm; F, mount at Apollo; a. known in Japan as Te-no-suii-mi, mount of Mercury; H, mount of or Hand's Line Looking. Great Mars; I. mount of the Moon; K, the ■ ;fl.9 , , .

rascette; a, a. line of life; £, b. line significance is there attached to or head; c.c, line of heart; d,d. line the fine lines at the inner joints

of Saturn or fate; e. e, line of liver . .1 1 . J . .,

or health: /, /, line of Apollo or and on the palmar surfaces of the fortune; g, g, the girdle of Venus; fingers. Those across the inside

R, the quadrangle; m,m.m, brace- * a t. n • _»• ± 1 >»i

lets of lire. Qf lne fjrsfc flnger indicate skill

and thrift; at the first joint of the thumb wealth, and on the palm below the thumb wisdom. Lines on the palm below the little flnger indicate children, as many as there are lines; the lines below these refer to success in matrimony. If the fine lines on the palmar surface of the middle finger are in the form of a circular spiral, it is a sign of skill in handwriting. These indications refer to the left hand; another series is supposed to apply to the right. The Line of Life receives the same name as in Europe, and is also known as the Line of Earth or Mother, while that of the Heart is thought to represent Heaven or Father, and that of Head, Man, or the individual himself. The relations of these lines, forming the cosmical Trinity, are believed to be of the highest importance. See Chiromancy.

Palmitic Acid. C„,H„0,. Mpt. 62° C. White, solid, crystalline acid, prepared by the decomposition of palmitin by water. Its sodium salt is one of the main constituents of soap, and is prepared by the action of caustic soda upon palmitin. It is also prepared from its soap. It occurs in palm oil, animal fats, olive oil, and Japanese beeswax.

Palmitin. CH^O-CH^O),. Tri-palmitin. Mpt. 66° C. Combination of the glyceryl group with palmitic acid; white plates; chief constituent of palm oil, and present in most animal and vegetable fats. Caustic alkalies decompose it, forming glycerin and palmitic acid salts or soaps.

Palm Oil. Semi-solid yellow fat, prepared by boiling the fruit of certain palms with water. It consists mainly of tripalmitin, but also contains palmitic and sebacic acids. It is used in soap-making. It is exported from Africa.

Palms. Aborescent endogens, chiefly inhabiting the tropics, distinguished by their fleshy, colorless, six-parted flowers inclosed within spat lies and rigid, pinnated, articulated leaves. They produce wine, oil, sugar, salt, thread, utensils, weapons, sago, etc. The most common species is the cocoanut. The


stems furnish a great variety of wood which is used for cabinet and marquetry work and for billiard cues. See Palmace^;.

Palm Sunday. Sunday before Easter, so called from the R. C. Ch. ordering palm branches to be carried in procession in imitation of those strewn before Christ when he entered Jerusalem. It is customary to consecrate palm branches, which are afterward distributed to the congregation, in R. C. churches on this day.

Palm Wine. Alcoholic beverage used in India, Africa, and Chili; prepared from the sap of the palm tree.

Palmyra, or Tadmor. City of e. Syria, in an oasis; said to have been built by Solomon. It attained its greatest splen


Triumphal Arch at Palmyra.

dor under Hadrian, who renamed it Adrianopolis, ab.130. Here Zenobia ruled 266-272, when Aurelian took the city and destroyed it. The ruins became known to Europeans 1678.

Palo Alto. Battlefield in s. Texas, where 2,300 Americans under Gen. Taylor defeated 6,000 Mexicans, May 8, 1846.

Palo Alto. In Cal., 30 m. e. of San Francisco; seat of Leland Stanford, Jr., University.

Palos. Seaport of s.w. Spain, whence Columbus sailed 1492. Pop. ab.1,200.

Palplcornia, or Hydrophilux*:. Swimming beetles with pentamerous tarsus and a pair of short, club-shaped antennae; the maxillary palps are often longer than the antennae. They feed on plants.

Palpitation of the Heart. A consciously rapidly beating heart. It may indicate disease of that organ, but is often caused by a disordered stomach.

Palpocil. Delicate hair-like process of a cell used for purposes of touch.

Palps, or Feelers. 1. Distal joints of the endopodite in the mandibles and maxillae of arthropods. 2. Certain tentacles on the heads of annelids.

Palsy. Loss of sensation or motion of any of the muscles of the body (see Paralysis). That form of paralysis accompanied by involuntary movements or shakings is frequently meant when this word is employed.

Paltock, Robert, ab. 1699-1767. English author of Peter Wilkins, 1750, a curious romance of flying islanders, anonymous till 1835.

Paludan-Muller, Freperik, 1809-1876. Danish poet, dramatist, and novelist. Adam Homo, 3 vols., 1841—19; Kalanus, 1854; lvar Lykke, 8 vols., 1866-73; Adonis, 1874.—His brother, Caspar Peter, 1805-1882, prof. Copenhagen 1872, was a historical writer.

Paludicolre (alectorides). Group of Grallat, including the Macrodactyli or Rallidae (Rails) and the Pressirostres or Gruidce (Cranes).

Palllll. Pillars in corals, surrounding the columella; independent of the septa.

Palustrinc. Plants and animals growing naturally in marshes.

Pambour's Theorem. "In a heat engine, moving with a uniform periodical motion, the mean effective pressure of the fluid is equal to the total resistance per unit of area of piston."

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Where the resistance is known, the mean velocity of the piston


of such an engine will be found from the formula: Ns— —.


In this, N — strokes using steam per min.; s — stroke length; r1 — apparent ratio of expansion, and r — the real ratio when clearances in the cylinder are allowed for; h — the available heat of combustion in foot-lbs. for one lb. of coal; W — the lbs. of coal burned per minute; A —area of piston in square inches, and p = pressure equivalent to the expenditure of heat, r and p have to be calculated from other formulae; the others are matters of observation. The principle was first applied by Count de Pambour in his Theory of the Steam Engine and On Locomotives.

Pamir. Plateau in w. Asia, ab.13,000 ft. above sea. On the south is the range of the Hindu Kush, and from it radiate the Karakorum and the Thian Shan. It is a desert region, sparsely populated, and controlled by Russia. The mountain ranges rise 4,000 to 5,000 ft. higher, and some reach an altitude

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Pampas Qrass (G. argenteum). decorating; much planted for ornament. The leaves are from 6 to 8 ft. long and the stem from 10 to 14 ft. The cultivation and preparation of the plant form a considerable industry.

Pampas Indians. Nomadic shepherds of s.w. Brazil, Paraguay, etc., formerly hunters. They are warlike, proud, and independent, despising agriculture and navigation. Some of the tribes practice polygamy. The s. Pamperos are darkskinned, strong, and skilled in throwing the bolas. They secure their wives by purchase. Infanticide is greatly practiced.

Pampero. Dry cool w. or s.w. wind, blowing over the plains of Argentina and of Brazil. The approaching change

from e. winds to the Pampero is announced by long arches of rolling cloud, followed by squalls of wind and rain. See Line Squalls.

Pamphilus, ab. 240-309. Presbyter at Caesarea; founder of a library there; author, with Eusebius, of an apology for Origen, whose writings he did much to disseminate. He was martyred.

Pamphlets. Tracts or small books, usually unbound; long important in political and theological controversies.

Pampliylia. Coast region of s. Asia Minor, with Mt. Taurus on the n.e.; anciently occupied by Greeks and barbarians, with a mixed language.

Pamplona, or Pampeluna. Town of n. Spain, on the Arga; founded 68 B.C. by Pompev; capital of Navarre907; held by French 1808-13. Pop. ab. 27,000.

Pamprodactylous. Bird having all the four toes turned forward, as in true Swifts. Their relatives, the Swiftlets, makers of the edible birds' nests, have the first toe directed backward, and are hence anisodactylous.

Pamunkey River. Virginia river full of sand bars, formed by the junction of the N. and S. Anne River flowing s.e., and with the Mattapony forms York River. Length 75 m.

Pan. Greek (especially Arcadian) god of forests and meadows; represented as man above, goat below; inventor of shep

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herd's flute; thought to suggest panic terrors, such as are felt in lonely places; afterward identified with The All, as in the words, "Great Pan is dead," an omen of the fall of Paganism.

Pan. 1. Shallow sheet-iron dish, used in prospecting for gold. The sand or gravel is stirred with water, the worthless matter is removed from the top, and the gold is found at the bottom, 2. Piece of gold-mining machinery, in which the rock is ground with mullers and the gold collected by amalgamation at the same time.

Panacea. Remedy vaunted to be able to cure a number of diseases; a cure all.

Panaesthetism. Doctrine that consciousness is or may be connected with other forms of matter besides protoplasm.

Panwtlus, 185-112 B.C. Roman stoic philosopher, author of a treatise on virtue, which influenced Cicero in the production of the De offieiis.

Panagia. In Eastern Ch., Virgin Mary; also Eucharistic bread.

Panama. City and seaport of Colombia, on s. coast of the Isthmus of P., at s. terminus of the P. R.R. and of the projected ship canal. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Panama, Bay Of. Small arm of the Pacific, washing s. shore of Isthmus of P.

Panama, Isthmus Of. Narrowest part of the American Continent, connecting link between N. and S. America, 32 m. wide, with a minimum elevation of 290 ft.; crossed by a railway, 47i m. long, opened 1855.

Panama Canal.


Panama Ship Canal.

Ship canal, 46 miles long, proposed across the Isthmus of P. and partially constructed 1880-88 at an expenditure of $178,000,000; abandoned owing to financial difficulties and improper management. It was originally designed to be a sea level canal, but later plans contemplated 4 locks of large size. The U. S. Government had made careful surveys at the isthmus 1873-75. A concession for constructing a canal was obtained by a Frenchman, Lieut. Wyse, 1877. A company was organized, the concession purchased, and the work of excavation begun 1881. The company failed 1889, after making a navigable channel for ab. one-fourth of the whole distance, and that the easier portion. See Lesseps, Ferdinand De.

Pan-A mcrican Congress. Proposed by J. G. Blaine; held at Washington Nov. 18,1889-April 19, 1890, by

representatives of various American countries, who discussed matters of international interest, and recommended reciprocity treaties and uniformity of coinage, weights, and measures. The gathering had no important results.

Pan-Anglican Synods. Conferences held at Lambeth Sept. 1867. July 1878. and June 1888; attended by English, Colonial, and American bishops, the Abp. of Canterbury presiding.

Panard, Charles FRANgois, 1694-1765. French author of many songs and vaudevilles, partly pub. 1764 and 1803.

Panas, Photinos, b. 1832. Greek surgeon in Paris, writer on diseases of the eye.

PaiiHthenrca. Quadrennial Attic festival in honor of Athena, the patron deity of Athens. Games were celebrated, and the sacred peplus or robe was carried in procession. This is represented in the frieze of the Parthenon.

Pancliatantra. Oldest collection of Sanskrit stories; extant in varying texts, whence translations have been made since 550 into sundry Oriental and European languages.

Pancoast, Joseph. M.D., 1805-1882. Prof. Jefferson Medical Coll., Phila., 1838-74. Anatomy, 1844: Operative Surgery, 1844-52.—His cousin, Seth, M.D., b. 1823, besides medical books, pub. Cabala, 1877.

Pan eras, St., 290-304. Phrygian boy, martyred at Rome; regarded as the avenger of false oaths.

Pancreas. Gland found in abdomen, connected with small intestines, secreting pancreatic fluid, which is complex in its composition and supplies the digestive ferment for intestinal digestion. It acts upon albumen, starch, and fat. The pancreas of ruminating animals is used as food, called sweetbread.

Pancreatin. Active elements of the pancreatic juice and more especially that separated from the pancreas of animals to be used to assist weak digestion or to peptonize food before it is eaten.

Panda (wah). Ailurus fulgens; one of the Proeyonidai,

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cat, but have larger ears and bushier tail. The fur is thick and soft, deep black beneath, faun color behind, and cinnamonred above, with white on the head; the tail is ringed alternately with red and yellow. It is plantigrade: the soles of the feet are covered with wool. It is bear-like in its feeding and habits.

Pandanacew. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera and ab. 80 species, mostly trees and shrubs, growing in the tropics of Asia, Africa, Oceanica, the Indian Archipelago, and Australia.

Pandean Pipe, or Pan Pipes. Survival of the Greek syrinx, and possibly of the Hebrew organ; series of tubes of various lengths, closed at the bottom and open at the top, lashed together side by side. The sounds are produced by blowing across the open ends.

Pandects. Digest of the writings of Roman jurisconsults, made by Justinian's direction; issued Dec. 533. From that time the citation of any passage in the juristic writings, not found in the Pandects, was forbidden. They contain over 9,000 excerpts from 39 authors, classified under 429 titles and grouped in 50 books.

Pander, Christian, 1794-1866. Russian geologist, founder of our knowledge of the Silurian formations of Russia; best known in connection with the discovery of the Conodonts. Geognosy.

Pandlones. Section of Raptatorial Birds, including the OSPREY (q.v.) or Fishing Eagle.

Pandit. See Pundit.

Pandora. In Greek Mythology, first woman, made of earth by Hephaestos, and gifted by each of the gods with some power by which to work the ruin of man. She opened a box containing all human ills, but shut it in time to prevent Hope from escaping also.

Pandorinere. Family of minute, green, multicellular, free swimming, fresh-water Alga of the order VolvocacefB, increasing by both propagative and reproductive processes.

Pandours. In 18th century, Austrian infantry of Servian descent, lawless and fierce; levied in Hungary.

Pandulf, d. 1226. Roman legate to England to negotiate with King John, whose homage as vassal of the Pope he received 1213; Bp. of Norwich 1218.

Panel. In Coal Mining, large rectangular block of coal, laid out for working independently of the rest of the mine.

Panel. Primarily, a piece of wood recessed and surrounded by projecting pieces in a door, wainscot ceiling, or piece of furniture, but applied also to all recessed parts similarly framed, whether in woodwork or masonry.

Panel. Space between two vertical posts of a truss; distance between two joints of a chord of a truss. Its length is usually slightly less than the depth of the truss. The floor beams which support the roadway are attached to the chords at the panel points.

Pange Lingua Gloriosl. First line of two famous Latin hymns, one on the Passion, by Venantius Fortunatus, 530-609; the other, Eucharistic, by Aquinas, 1225-1274.

Pangenesis. Theory of Darwin that the generative cells are collectors of spores (gemmules) thrown off from all the cells of the body throughout life. During development the gemmules produce their corresponding tissues again. Prof. W. K. Brooks has suggested certain modifications: 1. The generative cells are direct descendants from the egg which produced the body of the parent, and therefore the gemmules of each egg can develop a child resembling the parent. 2. New gemmules are received especially from tissues that are subjected to strain through ill adaptation to environment. 3. These gemmules hybridize the old gemmules of like kind, and so the resulting tissue receives an impulse to vary. 4. The male gametes are specially differentiated to receive new gemmules; hence the male leads in progress. Thus variations are produced when and where they are needed, and the very long period required for evolution, according to Darwin's theory, may be greatly shortened. See Natural Selection and La


Pangolin (manis). Scaly \nteaters; several species of Edentates of Africa and s.e. Asia. The hind feet are plantigrade; of the fore feet, the animal walks on its knuckles. On the back and tail the hairs of these mammals have become modified into broad overlapping scales, the whole resembling

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Their stomach is gizzard-like; even stones are swallowed to aid digestion.

Panlcale, Masolino Da. 1378-1415. Italian painter, chiefly at Florence.

Panicle. Compound flower-cluster, with loose and numerous branches, as in many grasses and Liliacece.

Panics. Severe commercial crises. Such have occurred in the U. S. 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893; in England 1793, 1814, 182526, 1847, 1866; in Australia 1892.

Panlni. Sanskrit grammarian, probably of 4th cent. B.C. His work was pub. at Leipzig 1886.

Panlpat. Town in the Punjab, n. India; scene of 3 decisive battles: defeat of the imperial forces of Delhi by Babar on his invasion of India 1526; overthrow of an Afghan army 1556 by Akbar, grandson of Babar; and defeat of the Mahrattas by Ahmed Shah Durani, Jan. 7, 1761. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Panlzzl, Sir Anthony, 1797-1879. Italian refugee, in British Museum 1831-61; chief librarian 1856; knighted 1869; ed. Ariosto 1834.

Panjab. See Punjab.

Pannini, Giovanni Paolo, ab.1695-1768. Italian painter, eminent for views of Roman ruins and historic architecture. Picturesque effect rather than literal accuracy was his aim.

Pannonia. Roman province ab. 8-430, s. and w. of the Danube, n. of Illyricum; now mainly in Hungary.

Pannoie. Surfaces of leaves and other organs when covered with felt-like, matted hairs.

Panopolll. Ancient Egyptian city on the Nile. Its metropolis was unearthed 1884.

Panorama. Kind of extended painting invented 1788 by R. Barker of Edinburgh, and long exhibited on movable cylinders. The diorama and cyclorama are varieties.

Panormltanu§. See Tudeschis.

Panormus. See Palermo.

Pan-Presbyterian Council*. Held at Edinburgh July 1877, Philadelphia 1880, Belfast 1884, London 1888, Toronto 1892.

Panslavism. Movement looking to the union in one confederacy of all the Slavic races. Panslavic congresses met at Prague 1848 and Moscow 1867.

Panspermy. Theory that all living forms have been produced only from pre-existent living forms.

Pansy. Large-flowered forms of Viola tricolor, plant of

the Violet family, native of Europe, widely cultivated as a garden flower. Garden pansies are not preserved or propagated

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without great difficulty, as they easily relapse to their wild form.

Pantaenus. Head of the Catechetical School at Alexandria 180-203. preceding Clement. Only fragments of his writings remain.

Paul hays. Mohammedan community occupying the s.w. of China, who asserted their independence in 1855. They are the descendants of Arab immigrants who settled here soon after the Hegira, and of Mongol soldiers led here ab.1250. The Chinese government recognized them 1866, but suppressed their empire 1872.

Pantheism. Theory which reduces all the phenomena of the universe, whether mental or physical, to modes or activities of the absolute, emanations from the substance of God; assumed to be incompatible with the immortality of the soul. Identification of God with the universe. It existed anciently in Indian and Greek philosophy, and was revived by Bruno (u. 1600) and Spinoza.

Pantheon. Only perfectly preserved building of ancient Rome. It is dome-shaped and fronted by a Corinthian portico, supporting a pediment. The interior dome is 142 ft. high, with the same diameter, and is lighted by an orifice at the center.

r — —~~ 1

Pantheon of Agrippa.

It is supposed to have been designed as part of the Baths of Agrippa, who began its erection 27 B.C.; after completion it was transformed into a temple for the gods of the conquered nations. It became a Christian church 610 as Santa Maria Rotonda. It is the burial-place of Raphael.

Pantheon. Of Paris; Church of Ste. Genevieve, built in form of a Greek cross, 276 by 370 ft., with a central dome 272 ft. high. It stands on the site of a church built by Clovis, was begun 1764, and dedicated by the Convention to the illustrious I men of France, but since restored to Christian worship.


Panther. See Leopard and Puma.

Pantodonta. See Amblypoda.

Pantograph. Instrument for copying a drawing, and at the same time enlarging or reducing its size.

Pantoja dc la Cruz, Juan, 16th cent. Spanish portraitpainter.

Pantomime. Dramatic representation conducted without spoken words. It began at Rome under Augustus, was popular and often objectionable during the Middle Ages, the players wearing masks: these being- removed, facial contortions were added to movement and gesture. In England it still has great attractions for children at Christmastide.

Pantopoda. See Podosomata.

Pnnyasis Of Halicarnassus, d. ab.457 B.C. Greek epic poet; uncle of Herodotus; put to death by Lygdamus, the tyrant of Halicarnassus.

Paoli, Pasquale, 1726-1807. Corsican patriot, who overthrew the Genoese 1755 and ruled the island wisely till 1769; expelled by the French, to whom it was sold 1768; thenceforth (except 1789-96, when he was Gov. of Corsica) in England, where he was pensioned and highly honored.

Paolo, Fra. See Sarpi, Pietro.

Paolo Veronese. See Veronese, Paolo.

Papacy. System under which the Pope is supreme head of R.C. Ch., involving till 1870 temporal as well as spiritual power.

Papal States, or States Of The Church. Former domain of the Pope, in central Italy, touching both seas, but of irregular form, bordering Naples on the s., and Tuscany and the Austrian territory on the w. and n. The boundaries have varied greatly, but at their greatest extent included ab.16,000 sq. m., with over 3,000,000 inhabitants. The claim of the Holy See was built on a grant of Pepi n the Short to Stephen II. 755, confirmed by Charlemagne. These states formed a part of France 1808-14. Most of their territory was added to the kingdom of Italy 1860, and Rome itself Sept. 1870, the Vatican and Lateran palaces only remaining under the Pope's direct control.

Paparrigopoulos, Constantin, b. 1815. Modern Greek historian. VHistoire dupeuple grec, 6 vols., 1862-77; I'Histoire de la civilisation hellenique. 1878.

Papaveracere. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiosperma} and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising ab.19 genera and 80 species of herbs, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the n. hemisphere; called the Poppy family.

Papaw. Carica papaya. Small soft-wooded tree of the natural family Caricacece, native of tropical America; cultivated in warm countries for its large, yellow, edible fruit.

Papaw, North American. Asimina triloba. Small tree of the natural family Anonacea, bearing large, edible fruits, native of the s.e. U. 8.

Papayotin. Amorphous hygroscopic powder precipitated by adding alcohol to the juice of Carica papaya. It transforms proteids into peptones.

Paper. Manufactured from Papyrus (q.v.); it was in use in Egypt 4,000 years ago, and in Europe till 12th century, when paper made from cotton began to take its place. The Romans made a stout brown paper from the bark of trees 800600. The Aztecs used the fibers of the maguey plant for the same purpose. The Arabs had paper-factories ab. 600, using raw cotton as the material, having learned the art from the Chinese. By the Arabs it was taken to Spain, whence it spread to other European countries. Italy started its first paper-mill 1250, Germany 1290, France 1340, England ab.1500, America 1690, at Roxborough, now in Philadelphia. The materials of which paper is made are numerous; the most important are linen and cotton rags, hemp, jute, straw, esparto and wood fibers. After cleansing by boiling with lime, the paper stock is reduced to fine fibers in water by the beating engine, consisting of a cylinder with knives revolving on a plate also furnished with knives, contained in a trough. The bleaching is done with chloride of lime, the excess being removed by washing and hyposulphite of soda. For sizing, a mixture of rosin, caustic soda, and alum is added to the pulp, and for colored papers the aniline colors are largely used. Much of the paper is loaded with mineral matter which is mixed with the pulp, the most common being china clay. The prepared pulp is suspended in water, strained, and run upon the paper machine.

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large extent. The finest writing paper is made from linen rags. It is estimated that three-fourths of the paper is used for printing. In 1890 Europe produced ab. 1.049,800 tons of paper, valued at $150,000,000, and the U. S. produced 1,200,000 tons.

Paper Car Wheel. Wheel having the main body of compressed cardboard, while the hub, tire, and sides are of cast iron or steel.

Paper Hangings. These were used in Holland and Spain for wall and ceiling decoration before 1555. They are made by cylinder printing; the finer kinds are printed from wooden blocks. Velvet paper is printed with varnish and flock shearings of woolen cloth dropped upon it.

Paper-Maehe. Paper pulp, paper in sheets with paste or glue, or pasteboard are pressed in molds. After drying, the articles are polished and ornamented. The art is ancient in the East.

Paper Money. Either certificates convertible on demand into coin, or inconvertible notes. The latter may be issued by the government as a fiscal measure, or may be notes originally intended to be convertible but which have lost that character through subsequent exigencies. First made by the Hollanders 1574.

Paper Shell. Spherical shell of cartridge paper containing a bursting charge of powder and combustible compositions for the production of pyrotechnic display; usually fired from an 8-in. smooth-bore mortar.

Paphlagonla. State of n. Asia Minor, on the Euxine; conquered by Croesus; under Roman rule, part of Gnlatia.

Paphos. Two towns on w. coast of Cyprus. One was a chief seat of the worship of Venus, who was said to have risen from the sea near it. At the other St. Paul preached before Sergius.

Paplas, d. ab.163. Supposed disciple of St. John; Bp. of Hierapolis in Phrygia; author of an Exposition of Oracles of the Lord, of which fragments remain. His doctrine was millenarian in character.

Papilionaceous. Irregular polypetalous flowers of plants of the Pea family (Leguminosai).

Papillonidae. Family of Lepidoptera, including Butterflies. They have knobbed antennae and erect wings when at rest. Their pupa is a chrysalis. They fly by day only. There are 5,000 species.

Papin, Denis, 1647-ab. 1712. French scientist, who invented the loaded safety-valve ab.1680, and in 1690 constructed a working model in which first appeared the idea of having steam move a piston in a cylinder. The safety-valve was an attachment to P.'s Digester (q.v.), in which he studied the effects of heat upon confined vapor, and of which the principle is retained in certain processes for treating animal matters in the arts.

Papineau Rebellion. 1837-38 in Canada; improperly named from Louis Joseph Papineau (1789-1871), leader of the French party. It was promptly suppressed: 180 were sentenced to be hanged; some were executed, some banished, and some pardoned. A general amnesty was declared 1840. Papineau came back frcm France 1847, and was later in the Canadian Parliament.

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