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Palmer, Ray, D.D., 1808–1887. Pastor at Albany, N. Y., stems furnish a great variety of wood which is used for cabinet 1850-66; sec. Cong. Union 1866–78; author of My Faith Looks and marquetry work and for billiard cues. See PALMACEÆ. up to Thee, 1830, and many other favorite hymns.

Palm Sunday, Sunday before Easter, so called from the Palmer, ROUNDELL. See SELBORNE, LORD.

R. C. Ch. ordering palm branches to be carried in procession

in imitation of those strewn before Christ when he entered Palmerston, HENRY JOHN TEMPLE, VISCOUNT, 1784-1865.

Jerusalem. It is customary to consecrate palm branches, M.P. 1806; Sec. of War 1809-28; Foreign Sec. 1830–41 and 184651; Home Sec. 1852–55; Premier 1855–58 and from 1859; Tory

which are afterward distributed to the congregation, in R. C.

churches on this day. till 1828, then Whig. He was a plain but effective speaker, and one of the most popular of British ministers.

Palm Wine. Alcoholic beverage used in India, Africa, Palmetto. Several species of palms, natives of Florida and unin; prepared from the sap of the palm tree. and West Indies.

Palmyra, or TADMOR. City of e. Syria, in an oasis; said Palmetto Leaves. Leaves of the Palmyra palm, found

to have been built by Solomon. It attained its greatest splenin India. They are used in the manufacture of hats and mats.

Palmieri, LUIGI, 1807-1896. Prof. Naples 1847; director Vesuvius Observatory 1854; writer on meteorology.

Palmistry, or CHIROMANCY. Art of divination by examining lines in the palm of the hand; said to have come from India. It is to be distinguished from chirognomy, which deals with

the supposed indications of the
general shape of the hands. The
principal lines of the palm are
designated respectively as those
of Life, the Head, the Heart,
Saturn or Fate, the Liver, and
Sun or Fortune. The promi-
nences or depressions at the base
of each finger also are regarded
as highly significant, and are
called by the names of the plan-
ets: Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Mer-
cury, Venus, Apollo (the Sun),
and the Moon. These are re-
ferred to the tastes or passions.
The lines are interpreted accord-
ing to their depth, color, and

Triumphal Arch at Palmyra.
length, and their relations to the
prominences or Mounts. The dor under Hadrian, who renamed it Adrianopolis, ab. 130. Here
lines of the wrist, called Ras- | Zenobia ruled 266-272, when Aurelian took the city and de-
cettes, or bracelets, are believed stroyed it. The ruins became known to Europeans 1678.
to indicate the duration of life,

Palo Alto. Battlefield in s. Texas, where 2,300 Americans each line representing thirty

under Gen. Taylor defeated 6,000 Mexicans, May 8, 1846. years. A belief in palmistry exA, will; B, logic; C, mount of Venus;

Palo Alto. In Cal., 30 m. e. of San Francisco; seat of D, mount of Jupiter; E, mount o

of known in Japan as Te-no-suji-mi, Leland Stanford, Jr., University. Saturn; F, mount of Apollo; G, mount of Mercury; H, mount of Mars; I, mount of the Moon; K, the

Palos. Seaport of s.w. Spain, whence Columbus sailed rascette; a, a, line of life; b, b, line

1492. Pop. ab.1,200. of head; c, c, line of heart; d, d, line of Saturn or fate; e, e, line of liver or health; f. f, line of Apollo or and on the palmar surfaces of the Palpicornia, or HYDROPHILIDÆ. Swimming beetles with fortune; g, ğ, the girdle of Venus; fingers. Those across the inside pentamerous tarsus and a pair of short, club-shaped antennæ; R, the quadrangle; m, m, m, bracelets of life.

of the first finger indicate skill the maxillary palps are often longer than the antennæ. They

and thrift; at the first joint of feed on plants. the thumb wealth, and on the palm below the thumb wisdom. Lines on the palm below the little finger indicate children, as

Palpitation of the Heart. A consciously rapidly beatmany as there are lines; the lines below these refer to success

ing heart. It may indicate disease of that organ, but is often in matrimony. If the fine lines on the palmar surface of the

caused by a disordered stomach. middle finger are in the form of a circular spiral, it is a sign of Palpocil. Delicate hair-like process of a cell used for purskill in handwriting. These indications refer to the left hand; poses of touch. another series is supposed to apply to the right. The Line of Life receives the same name as in Europe, and is also known

Palps, or FEELERS. 1. Distal joints of the endopodite in the as the Line of Earth or Mother, while that of the Heart is

mandibles and maxillæ of arthropods. 2. Certain tentacles on

the heads of annelids. thought to represent Heaven or Father, and that of Head, Man, or the individual himself. The relations of these lines, Palsy. Loss of sensation or motion of any of the muscles forming the cosmical Trinity, are believed to be of the highest of the body (see PARALYSIS). That form of paralysis accomimportance. See CHIROMANCY.

panied by involuntary movements or shakings is frequently Palmitic Acid. C, H,,O, Mpt. 62° C. White, solid,

meant when this word is employed. crystalline acid, prepared by the decomposition of palmitin Paltock, ROBERT, ab,1699-1767. English author of Peter by water. Its sodium salt is one of the main constituents of Wilkins, 1750, a curious romance of flying islanders, anonysoap, and is prepared by the action of caustic soda upon pal | mous till 1835. mitin. It is also prepared from its soap. It occurs in palm

Paludan-Müller, FREDERIK, 1809–1876. Danish poet, oil, animal fats, olive oil, and Japanese beeswax.

dramatist, and novelist. Adam Homo, 3 vols., 1841–49; KaPalmitin. C.H.O.C6H2,0). Tri-palmitin. Mpt. 66° C. lanus, 1854; Ivar Lykke, 3 vols., 1866–73; Adonis, 1874.-His Combination of the glyceryl group with palmitic acid; white brother, CASPAR PETER, 1805–1882, prof. Copenhagen 1872, was plates; chief constituent of palm oil, and present in most ani a historical writer. mal and vegetable fats. Caustic alkalies decompose it, form

Paludicolæ (ALECTORIDES). Group of Grallæ, including ing glycerin and palmitic acid salts or soaps.

the Macrodactyli or Rallidæ (Rails) and the Pressirostres or Palm Oil. Semi-solid yellow fat, prepared by boiling the Gruido (Cranes). fruit of certain palms with water. It consists mainly of tri

Paluli. Pillars in corals, surrounding the columella; indepalmitin, but also contains palmitic and sebacic acids. It is used in soap-making. It is exported from Africa.

pendent of the septa. Palms. Aborescent endogens, chiefly inhabiting the trop

Palustrine. Plants and animals growing naturally in ics, distinguished by their fleshy, colorless, six-parted flowers

marshes. inclosed within spathes and rigid, pinnated, articulated leaves. Pambour's Theorem. "In a heat engine, moving with They produce wine, oil, sugar, salt, thread, utensils, weapons, a uniform periodical motion, the mean effective pressure of the sago, etc. The most common species is the cocoanut. The I fluid is equal to the total resistance per unit of area of piston."

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Where the resistance is known, the mean velocity of the piston from e. winds to the Pampero is announced by long arches of


rolling cloud, followed by squalls of wind and rain. See LINE of such an engine will be found from the formula: Ns.

rpA In this, N = strokes using steam per min.; S – stroke length; Pamphilus, ab. 240–309. Presbyter at Cæsarea; founder ri – apparent ratio of expansion, and r — the real ratio when of a library there; author, with Eusebius, of an apology for clearances in the cylinder are allowed for; h = the available Origen, whose writings he did much to disseminate. He was heat of combustion in foot-lbs, for one lb. of coal; W – the lbs. martyred. of coal burned per minute; A = area of piston in square inches, and p= pressure equivalent to the expenditure of heat. r and

Pamphlets. Tracts or small books, usually unbound; long p have to be calculated from other formulæ; the others are

important in political and theological controversies. matters of observation. The principle was first applied by Pamphylia. Coast region of s. Asia Minor, with Mt. Count de Pambour in his Theory of the Steam Engine and on Taurus on the n.e.; anciently occupied by Greeks and barLocomotives.

barians, with a mixed language. Pamir. Plateau in w. Asia, ab. 13,000 ft. above sea. On Pamplona, or PAMPELUNA. Town of n. Spain, on the the south is the range of the Hindu Kush, and from it radiate | Arga; founded 68 B.C. by Pompey; capital of Navarre 907; held the Karakorum and the Thian Shan. It is a desert region, by French 1808–13. Pop. ab. 27,000. sparsely populated, and controlled by Russia. The mountain ranges rise 4,000 to 5,000 ft. higher, and some reach an altitude

Pamprodactylous. Bird having all the four toes turned forward, as in true Swifts. Their relatives, the Swiftlets, makers of the edible birds' nests, have the first toe directed backward, and are hence anisodactylous.

Pamunkey River. Virginia river full of sand bars, formed by the junction of the N. and S. Anne River flowing s.e., and with the Mattapony forms York River. Length 75 m.

Pan. Greek (especially Arcadian) god of forests and meadows, represented as man above, goat below; inventor of shep

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View in the Little Pamir. of 25,000 ft. The valleys vary in length from 10 to 80 m., and from 1 to 6 m. in width. G. N. Curzon (1894) holds them to be of glacial origin. This region covers ab. 37,000 sq. m., and is sometimes called the Roof of the World.

Pamlico Sound. On coast of N. C.; ab. 75 m. long and 20 ft. deep.

Pampas. Plains of S. America, especially Argentina. See LLANOS.

Pampas Grass. Gynerium argenteum. Large grass of s. S. America, forming plumes ab. 2 ft. long which are used in


Pan with the Tibia Vasca, herd's flute; thought to suggest panic terrors, such as are felt in lonely places; afterward identified with The All, as in the words, "Great Pan is dead," an omen of the fall of Paganism.

Pan. 1. Shallow sheet-iron dish, used in prospecting for gold. The sand or gravel is stirred with water, the worthless matter is removed from the top, and the gold is found at the bottom. 2. Piece of gold-mining machinery, in which the rock is ground with mullers and the gold collected by amalgamation at the same time.

Panacea. Remedy vaunted to be able to cure a number of diseases; a cure all.

Panæsthetism. Doctrine that consciousness is or may be connected with other forms of matter besides protoplasm.

Panætius, 185–112 B.C. Roman stoic philosopher, author of a treatise on virtue, which influenced Cicero in the produc

tion of the De officiis. Pampas Grass (G. argenteum). decorating; much planted for ornament. The leaves are from

Panagia. In Eastern Ch., Virgin Mary; also Eucharistic

bread. 6 to 8 ft. long and the stem from 10 to 14 ft. The cultivation and preparation of the plant form a considerable industry. Panama City and seaport of Colombia, on s. coast of the Pampas Indians. Nomadic shepherds of s.w. Brazil,

Isthmus of P., at s. terminus of the P. R.R. and of the proParaguay, etc., formerly hunters. They are warlike, proud,

jected ship canal. Pop. ab. 25,000. and independent, despising agriculture and navigation. Some Panama, BAY OF. Small arm of the Pacific, washing s. of the tribes practice polygamy. The s. Pamperos are dark- / shore of Isthmus of P. skinned, strong, and skilled in throwing the bolas. They se

Panama, ISTHMUS OF. Narrowest part of the American cure their wives by purchase. Infanticide is greatly practiced.

Continent, connecting link between N. and S. America, 32 m. Pampero. Dry cool w, or s.w. wind, blowing over the wide, with a minimum elevation of 290 ft.; crossed by a railway, plains of Argentina and of Brazil. The approaching change 474 m. long, opened 1855.



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Panama Canal. Ship canal, 46 miles long, proposed cat, but have larger ears and bushier tail. The fur is thick

across the Isthmus of P. and and soft, deep black beneath, faun color behind, and cinnamon-
partially constructed 1880–88 red above, with white on the head; the tail is ringed alter-
at an expenditure of $178,- | nately with red and yellow. It is plantigrade: the soles of the
000,000; abandoned owing to feet are covered with wool. It is bear-like in its feeding and
financial difficulties and im- habits.
proper management. It was

Pandanaceæ. Natural family of flowering plants, of the
originally designed to be a sea
level canal, but later plans

class Angiospermo and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 2 contemplated 4 locks of large

genera and ab. 80 species, mostly trees and shrubs, growing in size. The U. S. Government !

| the tropics of Asia, Africa, Oceanica, the Indian Archipelago,

and Australia. had made careful surveys at the isthmus 1872–75. A con- | Pandean Pipe, or PAN PIPES. Survival of the Greek cession for constructing a syrinx, and possibly of the Hebrew organ; series of tubes of canal was obtained by a various lengths, closed at the bottom and open at the top, Frenchman, Lieut. Wyse, 1877. lashed together side by side. The sounds are produced by A company was organized, the blowing across the open ends. concession purchased, and the

Pandects. Digest of the writings of Roman jurisconsults, work of excavation begun 1881. The company failed

made by Justinian's direction; issued Dec. 533. From that

time the citation of any passage in the juristic writings, not 1889, after making a navigable channel for ab, one-fourth

found in the Pandects, was forbidden. They contain over 9,000 of the whole distance, and

excerpts from 39 authors, classified under 429 titles and grouped that the easier portion. See


Pander, CHRISTIAN, 1794–1866. Russian geologist, founder
Pan-A merican Con- | of our knowledge of the Silurian formations of Russia; best
PACC Ocean gress. Proposed by J. G. | known in connection with the discovery of the Conodonts.

Blaine; held at Washington | Geognosy.
Panama Ship Canal.
Nov. 18, 1889-April 19, 1890, by

Pandiones. Section of Raptatorial Birds, including the representatives of various American countries, who discussed

OSPREY (q.v.) or Fishing Eagle. matters of international interest, and recommended reciprocity treaties and uniformity of coinage, weights, and measures.

Pandit. See PUNDIT. The gathering had no important results.

Pandora. In Greek Mythology, first woman, made of Pan-Anglican Synods. Conferences held at Lambeth earth by Hephæstos, and gifted by each of the gods with some Sept. 1867, July 1878, and June 1888; attended by English, Colo power by which to work the ruin of man. She opened a box nial, and American bishops, the Abp. of Canterbury presiding

containing all human ills, but shut it in time to prevent Hope

from escaping also. Panard. CHARLES FRANÇOIS, 1694-1765. French author of many songs and vaudevilles, partly pub. 1764 and 1803.

Pandorineæ. Family of minute, green, multicellular,

free swimming, fresh-water Algæ of the order VolvocaPanas, PHOTINOS, b. 1832. Greek surgeon in Paris, writer

cece, increasing by both propagative and reproductive procon diseases of the eye.

esses, Panathenæa. Quadrennial Attic festival in honor of Pandours. In 18th century, Austrian infantry of Servian Athena, the patron deity of Athens. Games were celebrated, descent, lawless and fierce; levied in Hungary. and the sacred peplus or robe was carried in procession. This

Pandulf, d. 1226. Roman legate to England to negotiate is represented in the frieze of the Parthenon.

with King John, whose homage as vassal of the Pope he rePanchatantra. Oldest collection of Sanskrit stories; ex- ceived 1213; Bp. of Norwich 1218. tant in varying texts, whence translations have been made

Panel. In Coal Mining, large rectangular block since 550 into sundry Oriental and European languages.


coal, laid out for working independently of the rest of the Pancoast, JOSEPH, M.D., 1805–1882. Prof. Jefferson Medi- mine. cal Coll., Phila., 1838–74. Anatomy, 1844; Operative Surgery, Panel Primarily ar

Panel. Primarily, a piece of wood recessed and surrounded 1844–52.-His cousin, SETH, M.D., b. 1823, besides medical

by projecting pieces in a door, wainscot ceiling, or piece of furbooks, pub. Cabala, 1877.

niture, but applied also to all recessed parts similarly framed, Pancras, St., 290–304. Phrygian boy, martyred at Rome; whether in woodwork or masonry. regarded as the avenger of false oaths.

Panel. Space between two vertical posts of a truss; disPancreas. Gland found in abdomen, connected with tance between two joints of a chord of a truss. Its length is small intestines, secreting pancreatic fluid, which is complex usually slightly less than the depth of the truss. The floor in its composition and supplies the digestive ferment for intes beams which support the roadway are attached to the chords tinal digestion. It acts upon albumen, starch, and fat. The at the panel points. pancreas of ruminating animals is used as food, called sweet

Pange Lingua Gloriosi. First line of two famous bread.

Latin hymns, one on the Passion, by Venantius Fortunatus, Pancreatin. Active elements of the pancreatic juice and 530-609; the other, Eucharistic, by Aquinas, 1225–1274. more especially that separated from the pancreas of animals

Pangenesis. Theory of Darwin that the generative cells to be used to assist weak digestion or to peptonize food before

are collectors of spores (gemmules) thrown off from all the it is eaten.

cells of the body throughout life. During development the Panda (Wah). Ailurus fulgens; one of the Procyonido, gemmules produce their corresponding tissues again. Prof.

W. K. Brooks has suggested certain modifications: 1. The generative cells are direct descendants from the egg which produced the body of the parent, and therefore the gemmules of each egg can develop a child resembling the parent. 2. New gemmules are received especially from tissues that are subjected to strain through ill adaptation to environment. 3. These gemmules hybridize the old gemmules of like kind, and so the resulting tissue receives an impulse to vary. 4. The male gametes are specially differentiated to receive new gemmules; hence the male leads in progress. Thus variations are produced when and where they are needed, and the very long period required for evolution, according to Darwin's theory, may be greatly shortened. See NATURAL SELECTION and LAMARCKIANISM.

Pangolin (MANIS). Scaly Anteaters; several species of

Edentates of Africa and s.e. Asia. The hind feet are plantiPanda (Ailurus fuyens.

grade; of the fore feet, the animal walks on its knuckles. On inhabiting the mountain heights of the Himalayas; called by the back and tail the hairs of these mammals have become Cuvier "the most beautiful of quadrupeds.” They resemble a modified into broad overlapping scales, the whole resembling

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a pine cone. When alarmed they roll into a ball, like the the Violet family, native of Europe, widely cultivated as a hedge-hog. They burrow rapidly, and lie concealed by day. | garden flower. Garden pansies are not preserved or propagated

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Pansy (Viola tricolor and V. odorata). without great difficulty, as they easily relapse to their wild form.

Pantænus. Head of the Catechetical School at Alexan

dria 180-203. preceding Clement. Only fragments of his writWhite-bellied Pangolin (Manis tricuspis).

ings remain. Their stomach is gizzard-like; even stones are swallowed to Panthays. Mohammedan community occupying the s.w. aid digestion.

of China, who asserted their independence in 1855. They are

the descendants of Arab immigrants who settled here soon Panicale, MASOLINO DA. 1378-1415. Italian painter, chiefly

after the Hegira, and of Mongol soldiers led here ab.1250. The at Florence.

Chinese government recognized them 1866, but suppressed Panicle. Compound flower-cluster, with loose and numer their empire 1872. ous branches, as in many grasses and Liliacece.

Pantheism. Theory which reduces all the phenomena of Panics. Severe commercial crises. Such have occurred | the universe, whether mental or physical, to modes or activiin the U. S. 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893; in England 1793, 1814, 1825– ties of the absolute, emanations from the substance of God; 26, 1847, 1866; in Australia 1892.

assumed to be incompatible with the immortality of the soul.

Identification of God with the universe. It existed anciently Panini. Sanskrit grammarian, probably of 4th cent. B.C. in Indian and Greek philosophy, and was revived by Bruno (d. His work was pub, at Leipzig 1886.

1600) and Spinoza. Panipat. Town in the Punjab, n. India; scene of 3 decisive Pantheon. Only perfectly preserved building of ancient battles: defeat of the imperial forces of Delhi by Bábar on his Rome. It is dome-shaped and fronted by a Corinthian portico, invasion of India 1526; overthrow of an Afghan army 1556 by supporting a pediment. The interior dome is 142 ft. high, with Akbar, grandson of Bábar; and defeat of the Mahrattas by the same diameter, and is lighted by an orifice at the center. Abmed Shah Durání, Jan. 7, 1761. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Panizzi, SIR ANTHONY, 1797-1879. Italian refugee, in British Museum 1831-61; chief librarian 1856; knighted 1869; ed. Ariosto 1834.

Panjab. See PUNJAB.

Pannini, GIOVANNI Paolo, ab.1695–1768. Italian painter, eminent for views of Roman ruins and historic architecture. Picturesque effect rather than literal accuracy was his aim.

Pannonia. Roman province ab. 8-430, s. and w. of the Danube, n. of Illyricum; now mainly in Hungary.

Pannose. Surfaces of leaves and other organs when covered with felt-like, matted hairs.

Panopolis. Ancient Egyptian city on the Nile. Its metropolis was unearthed 1884.

Panorama. Kind of extended painting invented 1788 by R. Barker of Edinburgh, and long exhibited on movable cylinders. The diorama and cyclorama are varieties.

Panormitanus. See TUDESCHIS.
Panormus. See PALERMO.
Pan-Presbyterian Councils. Held at Edinburgh July

Pantheon of Agrippa.
1877, Philadelphia 1880, Belfast 1884, London 1888, Toronto

It is supposed to have been designed as part of the Baths of

Agrippa, who began its erection 27 B.C.; after completion it Panslavism. Movement looking to the union in one con

was transformed into a temple for the gods of the conquered federacy of all the Slavic races. Panslavic congresses met at

nations. It became a Christian church 610 as Santa Maria Prague 1848 and Moscow 1867.

Rotonda. It is the burial-place of Raphael. Panspermy. Theory that all living forms have been pro

Panthéon. Of Paris; Church of Ste. Geneviève, built in duced only from pre-existent living forms.

form of a Greek cross, 276 by 370 ft., with a central dome 272 Pansy. Large-flowered forms of Viola tricolor, plant of | ft. high. It stands on the site of a church built by Clovis, was




begun 1764, and dedicated by the Convention to the illustrious In the preparation of pulp from straw or wood, the material is men of France, but since restored to Christian worship.

subjected to the action of caustic soda in hot water under

pressure, which dissolves the silica and interfibrous matter; Panther. See LEOPARD and PUMA.

for wood pulp sulphite of lime is used, in the same manner, to a Pantodonta. See AMBLYPODA.

Pantograph. Instrument for copying a drawing, and at the same time enlarging or reducing its size.

Pantoja de la Cruz, JUAN, 16th cent. Spanish portraitpainter.

Pantomime. Dramatic representation conducted without spoken words. It began at Rome under Augustus, was popular and often objectionable during the Middle Ages, the players wearing masks: these being removed, facial contortions were added to movement and gesture. In England it still has great attractions for children at Christmastide.

Pantopoda. See PODOSOMATA.

Panyasis OF HALICARNASSUS, d. ab.457 B.C. Greek epic poet; uncle of Herodotus; put to death by Lygdamus, the tyrant of Halicarnassus.

Paoli, PASQUALE, 1726–1807. Corsican patriot, who overthrew the Genoese 1755 and ruled the island wisely till 1769; expelled by the French, to whom it was sold 1768; thenceforth (except 1789–96, when he was Gov. of Corsica) in England,

Paper Making in China. where he was pensioned and highly honored.

large extent. The finest writing paper is made from linen

rags. It is estimated that three-fourths of the paper is used Paolo, FRA. See SARPI, PIETRO.

for printing. In 1890 Europe produced ab. 1,049,800 tons of Paolo Veronese. See VERONESE, PAOLO.

paper, valued at $150,000,000, and the U. S. produced 1,200,000

tons. Papacy. System under which the Pope is supreme head of R... Ch., involving till 1870 temporal as well as spiritual

Paper Car Wheel. Wheel having the main body of power.

compressed cardboard, while the hub, tire, and sides are of

cast iron or steel. Papal States, or STATES OF THE CHURCH. Former domain

Paper Hangings. These were used in Holland and Spain of the Pope, in central Italy, touching both seas, but of irregular form, bordering Naples on the s., and Tuscany and the Aus

for wall and ceiling decoration before 1555. They are made by trian territory on the w, and n. The boundaries have varied

cylinder printing; the finer kinds are printed from wooden greatly, but at their greatest extent included ab.16,000 sq. m.,

blocks. Velvet paper is printed with varnish and flock shearwith over 3,000,000 inhabitants. The claim of the Holy See

ings of woolen cloth dropped upon it. was built on a grant of Pepin the Short to Stephen II. 755, con Paper-Mache. Paper pulp, paper in sheets with paste firmed by Charlemagne. These states formed a part of France or glue, or pasteboard are pressed in molds. After drying, the 1808–14. Most of their territory was added to the kingdom of articles are polished and ornamented. The art is ancient in Italy 1860, and Rome itself Sept. 1870, the Vatican and Lateran the East. palaces only remaining under the Pope's direct control.

Paper Money. Either certificates convertible on demand Paparrigopoulos, CONSTANTIN, b. 1815. Modern Greek into coin, or inconvertible notes. The latter may be issued by historian. L'Histoire du peuple grec, 6 vols., 1862–77; l'Histoire the government as a fiscal measure, or may be notes originally de la civilisation hellénique, 1878.

intended to be convertible but which have lost that character Papaveraceæ. Natural family of flowering plants, of

through subsequent exigencies. First made by the Hollanders the class Angiospermce and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising

1574. ab. 19 genera and 80 species of herbs, distributed throughout

Paper Shell. Spherical shell of cartridge paper containthe temperate and subtropical regions of the n. hemisphere; ing a bursting charge of powder and combustible compositions called the Poppy family.

for the production of pyrotechnic display; usually fired from

í an 8-in. smooth-bore mortar. Papaw. Carica papaya. Small soft-wooded tree of the natural family Caricacea, native of tropical America; culti

Paphlagonia. State of n. Asia Minor, on the Euxine; vated in warm countries for its large, yellow, edible fruit. conquered by Cresus; under Roman rule, part of Galatia. Papaw, NORTH AMERICAN. Asimina triloba. Small tree

Paphos. Two towns on w. coast of Cyprus. One was a of the natural family Anonacece, bearing large, edible fruits, chief seat of the worship of Venus, who was said to have risen native of the s.e. U. S.

from the sea near it. At the other St. Paul preached before

Sergius. Papayotin. Amorphous hygroscopic powder precipitated by adding alcohol to the juice of Carica papaya. It transforms

Papias, d. ab.163. Supposed disciple of St. John; Bp. of

Hierapolis in Phrygia; author of an Exposition of Oracles of proteids into peptones.

the Lord, of which fragments remain. His doctrine was milPaper. Manufactured from PAPYRUS (q.v.); it was in use lenarian in character. in Egypt 4,000 years ago, and in Europe till 12th century, when paper made from cotton began to take its place. The

| Papilionaceous. Irregular polypetalous flowers of plants Romans made a stout brown paper from the bark of trees 300

of the Pea family (Leguminosce). 600. The Aztecs used the fibers of the maguey plant for the Papilionidæ. Family of Lepidoptera, including Buttersame purpose. The Arabs had paper-factories ab. 600, using flies. They have knobbed antennæ and erect wings when at raw cotton as the material, having learned the art from the rest. Their pupa is a chrysalis. They fly by day only. There Chinese. By the Arabs it was taken to Spain, whence it spread are 5,000 species. to other European countries. Italy started its first paper-mill

Papin, DENIS, 1647-ab. 1712. French scientist, who in1250, Germany 1290, France 1340, England ab. 1500, America 1690, at Roxborough, now in Philadelphia. The materials of

vented the loaded safety-valve ab.1680, and in 1690 constructed

a working model in which first appeared the idea of having which paper is made are numerous; the most important are linen and cotton rags, hemp, jute, straw, esparto and wood

steam move a piston in a cylinder. The safety-valve was an fibers. After cleansing by boiling with lime, the paper stock

attachment to P.'s DIGESTER (q.v.), in which he studied the is reduced to fine fibers in water by the beating engine, consist

effects of heat upon confined vapor, and of which the principle ing of a cylinder with knives revolving on a plate also fur

is retained in certain processes for treating animal matters in nished with knives, contained in a trough. The bleaching is

the arts. done with chloride of lime, the excess being removed by wash- Papineau Rebellion. 1837-38 in Canada; improperly ing and hyposulphite of soda. For sizing, a mixture of rosin, named from Louis Joseph Papineau (1789-1871), leader of the caustic soda, and alum is added to the pulp, and for colored French party. It was promptly suppressed: 180 were senpapers the aniline colors are largely used. Much of the paper | tenced to be hanged; some were executed, some banished, and is loaded with mineral matter which is mixed with the pulp, some pardoned. A general amnesty was declared 1840. Papithe most common being china clay. The prepared pulp is sus- neau came back from France 1847, and was later in the Canapended in water, strained, and run upon the paper machine.dian Parliament.

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