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Pedogenesis. Production of young, parthenogenetically by a larva; observed by Wagner 1860, with a species of Cecidomya, which lives under the bark of trees. During the summer eggs develop parthenogenetically within the body of the larva, and the young consume their mother. Several summergenerations of this sort are succeeded in the fall by wintergenerations, which attain sexual maturity. The cycle is begun again by the survivors the following spring.

Paeonlne. See Rosolic Acid.

Pamnius, probably 5th cent. B.C. Sculptor of the Victory found at Olympia 1875.

Paor, Ferdinando, 1771-1839. Italian composer of 43 operas; court conductor at Dresden 1803-6; imperial chapelmaster in Paris under Napoleon.

Paeslello, Giovanni, 1741-1816. Italian composer of over 100 operas.

Pvstura. City of Lucania. s. Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno; colonized as Posidonia by Sybarites ab. 624 B.C.; held by Rome from ab. 272 B.C.; famed for its roses in time of Augustus: destroyed by Saracens in 9th century. Now noted for its ruins

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of three Doric temples, first made known 1755; that of Neptune, so-called, is one of the oldest known, dating from 6th century B.C. These are the only remains of Greek temples in Italy in any fair state of preservation.

Pacz, Jose Antonio, 1790-1873. Pres. of Venezuela 1831-35 and 1839-43; imprisoned 1849-50; dictator 1861-63; long in U.S. Autobiografia, 1867.

Paganini, Niccolo, 1782-1840. Most famous of violinists; b. in Genoa. His life was full of adventure. His studies and concert-pieces are still the high-water mark of technical accomplishment on the violin.

Paganism. Aggregate of religions which do not, with Christianity, Judaism, and Mohammedanism, acknowledge a personal God as historically revealed in Israel.

Page. Juvenile attendant on a prince or noble; formerly in training for higher service; now infrequent and merely ornamental.

Page, David, 1814-1879. Scottish writer of popular and educational books on geology.

Page, David Perkins, 1810-1848. Principal of Albany Normal School, N. Y., 1844. Theory and Practice of Teaching, 1847.

Page, Thomas Nelson, LL.D., b. 1853. Virginia author, eminent for negro dialect stories, especially Marse Chan and Meh Lady. In Old Virginia, 1887; Two Little Confederates, 1889; Tlie Old South. 1892.—His great-grandfather, John, 17441808, was M.C. 1789-97 and Gov. of Va. 1802-5.

Page, William, 1811-1885. American painter of rare endowment and literary acumen. He did not wholly shake off Academic methods, and in these he lacked color harmony; but his work is always serious and masterly. He was an authority on portraits of Shakespeare, and his interest in the Kesselstadt death-mask brought it public appreciation.

Paget, Sir George Edward, M.D., LL.D., D.C L., F.R.S., b. 1809. Medical prof, at Cambridge 1872; knighted 1885.— His brother, Sir James, LL.D., b. 1814, was made Baronet 1871. and pres. College of Surgeons 1875. Surgical Pathology. 1853; Clinical Lectures, 1875.

Paget, Violet ("vernon Lee"), b. 1857. English author, living in Italy. Belcaro, 1882; Ottilie, 1883; Euphorion, 1884; Baldwin, 1886.

Paglna. Surfaces of leaves and other organs.

Pagoda. Indian form of temple, generally square below, with a tower-shaped top, consisting of a sequence of stones of diminishing size and somewhat resembling a slender pyramid. In India and adjacent countries of e. Asia it is frequently in

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Japan, where it has become an adjunct to certain native superstitions connected with geomancy. The pagoda at Tanjore is 182 ft. high.

Pahlavi, or Pehlevi. Dialect of the Iranian or Persian family, with many Semitic elements. A version of the Avesta is preserved in this tongue. Its literature dates from the 3d century.

Pailleron, Edouard Jules Henri, b. 1834. French dramatist and poet, Academician 1882. Le monde ou Von s'ennuie, 1881.

Pain, Barry, b. 1864. English humorist. Stories and Interludes, 1892.

Pain and Pleasure. Modifications of consciousness which defy accurate definition, but which, as some degree of feeling, probably accompany every state of mind and tend to produce characteristic volitional impulses. E.g., pain arouses a tendency to repel, get rid of, or move away from the object or state which causes it, while pleasure causes an impulse to retain the pleasurable object or state. Physiologically, pain and pleasure depend distinctly upon modifications of the nervous system. The more important conditions giving rise to pain are excessive stimulation of sense organs, inflammation, and interference with natural appetites and impulses, while moderate sense stimulation and activity within certain limits are, as a rule, distinctly pleasurable. Sudden cessation of pain must also be regarded as a cause of distinct pleasure. Intellectual pains and pleasures depend not so much on nervous adjustment as on the relation of the painful or pleasurable percept to the individual's previous experience.

Paine, Elijah, LL.D., 1757-1842. Judge Vt. Supreme Court 1791-95; U. S. Senator 179.5-1801; U. S. District Judge from 1801.—His son, Martyn, M.D., LL.D.. 1794-1877. prof. Univ. New York 1841-67, pub. Institutes of Medicine, 1847, and other works.—His brother, Elijah, 1796-1853. Judge N. Y. Superior Court from 1850, pub. U. S. Circuit Court Reports, 1827-56, and Practice in Civil Actions, 1830.

Paine, John Knowles, b. 1839. American musician, prof. Harvard 1876; composer of an oratorio, St. Peter, several symphonies, a mass, performed 1867, cantatas, overtures, symphonic poems, chamber music, organ music, and incidental music to QSdipus Rex, performed at Cambridge 1881.

Paine, Robert Treat, 1731-1814. Delegate to Congress 1774-78; signer of the Declaration of Independence; Atty.-gen. of Mass. 1780-90; Judge of Mass. Supreme Court 1790-1804.

Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809. Radical writer on politics and religion, who came from England to America 1774, and pub. Common Sense, a pamphlet advocating independence, 1776; The Crisis, a periodical widely influential, 1776-83, and The Rights of Man, 1791-92. He was elected to the French National Convention 1792; was imprisoned by the terrorists nearly a year; resumed his seat in Convention after his release; issued The Age of Reason, 1795, and returned to the U. S. 1802. His deistical opinions alienated the sympathies of the religious public, and his last daj*s were passed in obscurity. His memory has been rehabilitated by M. D. Conway, 1892, who has also edited his works, 4 vols., 1894-95.

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Paine, William H., 1838-1890. Captain of engineers 186165; resident engineer of construction of the Brooklyn suspension bridge.

Pains and Penalties. See Attainder.

Painted-Cup. Castilleia coccinea. Scarlet-bracted herb of the natural order Scrophulariacece, native of e. N. America.

Painter, William, ub.1535-ab.1595. English translator and compiler. His Palace of Pleasure, 1566-75, was taken from French and Italian sources, and was of use to Shakespeare.

Painter's Colic. Colic from lead poisoning; so called because frequently attacking painters. An Occupation Disease (q.v.).

Painter's Cream. Mixture applied to oil paintings to prevent drying during the interruption of the work, and afterward washed off with water. It consists of mastic, nut oil, lead acetate and water.

Painting. The historical decorations of the ancient Egyptians are the oldest examples of painting known. Their paints were water colors with added gum and included red, blue, yellow, green, brown, black and white. The Babylonian and Assyrian ornamentation was similar to the Egyptian; it was decorative, but entirely void of perspective. The Greek painters were skillful with the pencil, but their coloring was primitive. Their paints were ground in water, with glue or yolks of eggs added and their pictures were protected by subsequent varnishing. With the ancient Romans the art did not progress. Fresco painting with tempera or water colors on wet plaster in mural decoration was well done as the remains of Pompeii indicate. Jan Van Eyck and his brother Hubert first employed oil colors with a colorless varnish in the latter part of the 14th century. Antonello da Messina carried the art to Italy in 1465. From this time the use of oil colors extended both in the north and south of Europe, the Venetian school developing great technical skill and knowledge of coloring, though the most perfect works were produced by the Dutch painters. Water-color resembles fresco though it cannot be used for mural painting. From 700 to 1300 the art was religious and ornamental, with childish drawing and bright colors. In the next two centuries the drawing and coloring improved greatly and in the 16th century genre painting was more practiced. This was the era of the great Masters. In the 17th century genre painting reached perfection in the north of Europe. In the 18th century there was more portrait painting and pictures of cotemporary life, followed by the development of landscape painting, which in the present century has reached a high standard. Paris is now the great school of painting in the world, but the art has lost any national character and become cosmopolitan. See Enamel, Encaustic Painting, Fresco, and Art, Origin Of.

Paints. Mixtures of insoluble colors or pigments with some vehicle as oil or water, which permit it to be applied with a brush to the surface of the article to be painted. Paint is used to decorate, and to close the pores, thereby to protect the surface from air, water, and fire. See Luminous Paint.

Paired Bacteria. See Coccus Bacteria.

Palsiello, Giovanni, 1741-1816. Italian composer of numerous operas and masses.

Paisley. Town of Scotland, 7 m. w.s.w. of Glasgow. It has large manufactures of cotton, muslin, and silk, and more

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Paiute Indians. See Shoshones.
Palx des Dames. See Cambray.

Palxhans, Henri Joseph, 1783-1854. French officer, inventor of the Paixhans gun 1834; this was a cast-iron cannon for firing shell; military writer.

Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael, 1778-1815. Irish officer, distinguished in Spain; Major-gen. 1813; defeated and slain at New Orleans.

Pakfong. Alloy of copper and arsenic, made in China: formerly much used in Europe for philosophical instruments, now replaced by alloys of nickel.

Palacio, Raimundo, b. ab.1840. Pres. of Venezuela 189092; defeated by Crespo.

Palacky, Francis, 1798-1876. Historian of Bohemia, 5 vols., 1836-67.

Paladllhe, Emile, b. 1844. French composer of operas (Le Passant 1872, VAmour Africain 1874, Suzanne 1878, Diana 1885, Patrie 1886), symphonies, masses, etc.; most widely known by his trifle Mandolinata.

Palaearctic Province. Zoological region including n. Asia, Europe, and Africa n. of the Atlas Mts. Characteristic animals found are: Bears, Sheep, Goats, Catarrhine Monkeys, and Pheasants.

Palseaspls. Pteraspidian fish found 1883 by Claypole in the Onondaga shales of Pa. It is the only representative of this group of fishes yet known from America, and, except Onchus pensylvanicus, the oldest American fossil vertebrate.

Palremon. See ('akidid.e.

Palaemon, Quintus Remmius, 1st cent. Latin writer on grammar.

Paleobotany. Paleontology of the vegetable kingdom; study of fossil plants. Great progress has been made during recent years in the study and elucidation of their structure and succession in time. In this field the chief laborers have been Heer, Saporta, Williamson, Sohns-Laubach, Lesquereux, Newberry, Dawson, and Ward.

Palaeocarlda. See Gigantostraca.

Palaeocrlnoids. See Crinoidea.

Palwologus. Last Byzantine dynasty, 1260-1453. Another branch held Montferrat 1305-1533; a third governed Morea 1380-1460. See Lascaris.

Palwonemertea. Group of nemertean worms, characterized by absence of both the deep lateral fissure on the side of the head and the stylets on the proboscis. The mouth lies behind the brain.

Palreonlscus. Heterocercal lepidoganoid fish, chiefly Carboniferous and Permian, with highly ornamented rhomboid scales and a single dorsal fin.

Palaeophoneus. Scorpion recently found in the Upper Silurian rocks of Gothland, Sweden; oldest air-breather known.

Palreospondylus. Fossil found 1894 in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. It is only ab. 2 in. long, but is considered by Traquair to be an ancient representative of the lampreys.

Palaeotherldw. Family of Perissodactyla, comprising fossil Ungulates from the Eocene and Miocene Tertiary, varying in size from a sheep to a horse. All the feet are three-toed.

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Palaeozoic. All fossiliferous strata below the top of the

Permian. See Column.

Palaeozoology. Science of the distribution of animals in the strata of the earth's crust. The oldest strata (Archasan or Laurentian rocks) represent the Azoic period, when living things had not yet appeared, or if they lived, their remains have not been preserved. Next comes the Palaeozoic period, characterized by fossil forms most different from species now living. This age includes the following periods: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian (Old Red Sandstone), Carboniferous or coal-age, and Permian. The great classes of animals up to and including Ichthyopsida had become evolved in these periods. The next age is the Mesozoic (secondary period), including the Triassic. Jurassic, and Cretaceous rocks. The Sauropsida became established during-these periods. Finally, the Kainozoic (Tertiary) Age includes the Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Post-Pliocene (Post-Tertiary), including the present (Quaternary) period. During this age the Mavimalia became established. The most Synthetic Types (q.v.) are always found in the earlier formations. See Paleontology.

Palwphatus. Greek compiler of legends; probably of 2d century B.C.

Palafox y Melzi, Jose De, 1780-1847. Spanish officer, famous for his defense of Saragossa, 1808-9; prisoner iu France till 1813; Duke of Saragossa 1836.

Palagonite-TliiT. Fragments of palagonite intermixed with basaltic lava. It occurs in Sicily, Iceland, and Eifel, Germany.

Palaihnilian (or Pai.aik i Indians. Indians living along Pit River in Cal. They are very degraded, due to the inroads of the Modocs and their warfare with the whites. The women are purchased in marriage and polygamy is common. When persons die of unknown diseases they are cremated, otherwise buried in a sitting posture.

Palais Royal. In Paris, built by Richelieu, who bequeathed it to Louis XIII. Louis XIV. gave it to the Duke of Orleans, in whose family it remained until 1848. The Theatre Francais is at the s.w. angle.

Palainedes. Greek who, when Ulysses feigned madness, detected him by placing his infant son before his plow; in later times, said to have invented lighthouses, measures, scales, and dice.

Palanquin. Asiatic vehicle for conveyance of a single passenger by four bearers.

Palaprat, Jean, 1660-1721. French comic dramatist, collaborator of D. A. de Brueys.

Palate. In Botany, projection from the lower lip of the personate corolla of certain flowers.

Palate. Roof of the mouth, anteriorly of bone, bounded

by the gunis, the hard palate; posteriorly of a muscle membrane-like structure, the soft palate; terminating in the uvula, which is sometimes inaccurately called the palate.

Palatinate (pfalz). Former state of Germany, consisting of two sections. Upper and i Lower. From ab.1100 till 1648 I they were governed by an elector of the empire. By the treaty of Westphalia the Upper fell to Bavaria. The two were united 1777-1801, when the Lower was parceled out between several neighboring states, France getting the territory w. of the Rhine. This was restored to Germany 1814-15, Bavaria getting the greater portion.

Palatine. Officer at first attached to a sovereign's court; later, representing him in a district. In England, Cheshire was a county palatine ab.1080

Tl.e Mouth widely opened so as to 1540> Durhan} 1836> and

show the Palate: Lancaster 1451-1873.

I'.1Ath^'^peria.,"1?',tb.eKlowe,r."p;,3;s' Palatine Hill. Central

the hard palate; 4,4, the soft palate; L.., . , . ,

5, the uvula; 6, 6, the arches of the hill of the Seven On which

soft palate; 7, 7, the tonsils; 8, the Rome was built; supposed site

of the original cit}', and, in later days, of the residences of emperors and wealthy patricians.

Palato-Quaclrate Bar. Cartilaginous bar in the skull of embryo vertebrates, which is replaced by the different bones


that form the upper jaw, as the maxillaries and palatines. It represents, in part at least, the first visceral arch of the primitive vertebrates.

Pale. See English Pale.

Pale, Irish. See English Pale.

Pale, Jewish. In Russia, along the frontier from Baltic to Black Sea; established 1786. It lately contained over 3,500,000 Jews, who were forbidden to enter Great Russia.

Paleae. Flat seta? of Annelids.

Paleaceous. Organs resembling palets, or bearing palets or chaff.

Palcarlo, Aonio, 1500-1570. Italian humanist, twice accused of heresy; burned by the Inquisition. Immortality. 1526; Passion of Clirist, 1542; Actio in Pontificco Romanos, 1606.

Palenibang. Old city of s.e. Sumatra, on the Moesi. 50 m. from Java Sea; long commercially important; now capital of a Dutch residency. Pop. ab. 50,000.

Palenque. In the state of Chiapas, Mexico. It contains the ruins of five remarkable buildings, remains of a city supposed to have been abandoned before the coming of Cortez.

Paleography. See Diplomatics.

Paleolithic Man. The presence of rough stone implements in the early drift in caves and along river courses, associated with the remains of the Cave Bear, Hyena, Elephant, Mammoth, and Rhinoceros, in Europe, and similar remains in America, shows that man was widely distributed over the globe at the close of the glacial epoch, following the retreating ice northward, and perhaps living and hunting like the Eskimo, though there is doubt if the modern Eskimos are related directly to that race.

Paleontology. Science that treats of fossil remains, both animal and vegetable; now often restricted to the former. It has risen to so high a position for accuracy that it is the main dependence of the geologist in determining the age of strata. The fossil faunas of the different systems are so well known that the geologist in a new country need only collect its fossils and compare them, in order to ascertain their horizon. Much time and labor are thus saved. From Paleontology we learn that a regular gradation of organic life has existed among fossils, and that this gradation corresponds closely with that of the existing world of life, indicating a steady progress in development from the beginning. But it has not yet found any of the earliest forms. In the lowest Cambrian, from which the oldest intelligible fossils have been obtained, all the great subdivisions are present except the vertebrates. The first chapter in the evolution of the organic world is consequently yet unknown. See Palaeozoology.

Palermo. Seaport and largest city of Sicily, on the n. coast; anciently Panormus; held by Carthage till 254 B.C.: capital of the Saracens 830-1071. and of the Normans and their



successors till "1269. It has some fine old buildings, a good harbor, a large trade in fruit and wine, and a university, founded 1447, with ab. 65 instructors and 1,300 students. Pop. 1892, 273,000.

Palestine. Holy Land, the Promised Land of the Israelites; in w. Asia, between the Mediterranean and the deserts of Arabia. It measures ab.150 m. from n. to s., with an area w. of the Jordan of ab. 6.000 sq. m., and in all perhaps 11,000. The Jordan valley is greatly depressed below sea level: Lake Gennesaret is 682 ft., and the Dead Sea 1,292 ft., below the Mediterranean. The region was occupied by Canaanitish or Phenician tribes till conquered by the Hebrews ab.HOOB.C; 1121


from ab. 587 B.C. was held successively by Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks, and from 65 B.C. by Romans. Saracens conquered it 634. Crusaders held it 1098-1187, and portions of it till 1291. Since 1517 it has been a part of the Turkish empire. Present pop. perhaps 500,000, of whom 43,000 are Jews. A railway from Joppa to Jerusalem was opened Sept. 1892.

Palestrina. Italian town, 22 m. e. of Rome; anciently Praeneste; prominent in the Latin war 340 B.C.; sacked by Sulla 82 B.C.; long held by the Colonnas; notable for its remains of antiquity. Pop. ab. 6,000.

Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi Da, 1524-1594. Most illustrious of church music composers in the 16th century. His most famous work is the Missa Papce Marcelli.

Palets, Palea, or Pale. In Botany, bracts which occur in a capitate inflorescence on the axis or receptacle, as in Teasel; also inner scales or glumes of the flowers of grasses; chaff.

Paley, William, D.D., 1743-1805. Archdeacon of Carlisle 1782, prebendary of St. Paul's 1793, sub-dean of Lincoln 1795. Moral and Political Philosophy, 1785; Horai Paulence, 1790. His Evidences of Christianity. 1794, and Natural Theology, 1802, were long in general use as text-books, though their viewpoint was utilitarian. The latter applied the argument from design in Nature, and its adaptations, to prove the existence of God. —His grandson, Frederick Apthorp, LL.D., 1816-1888, entered the R. C. Ch. 1846, and edited sundry Greek classics.

Palfrey, John Gorham, D.D., LL.D., 1796-1881. Prof. Harvard 1831-39; ed. N. American Review, 1835-43; M.C. 184749. Evidences, 1843; Jewish Scriptures and Antiquities, 4 vols., 1833-52; Hist. New England, 4 vols., 1858-64.—His daughter, Sara Hammond ("E. Foxton"), b. 1823, pub. Herman, 1866, and several volumes of verse, especially Sir Pavon and St. Pavon, 1867.

Palgrave, Sir Francis, 1788-1861. English historian, of Jewish parentage (orig. Cohen), knighted 1832; keeper of records from 1838. English Commonwealth, 1832; Corporations, 1832; King's Council, 1834; History of Normandy and of England, 4 vols., 1851-64.—His son, Francis Turner, b. 1824, Prof, of Poetry at Oxford 1886, editor of the Golden Treasury of English Lyrics, 1861, has written Essays on Art, 1866, and several vols, of poetry.—His brother, William Gifpord, 1826-1888, was an officer in India 1847-53, a Jesuit priest till 1864, a consul in Asia and elsewhere, and Minister to Uruguay from 1884. His dangerous journey through Arabia was described in a Narrative, 1865. Hermann Agha, 1872; Dutch Guiana, 1876; Ulysses, 1887.

Pall. Calcareous and vertical rods encircling the columella in some corals. They are not united to the septa.

Palikao. In China, below Peking; scene of an AngloFrench victory 1860. For it the commander, Gen. CousinMontauban. 1796-1878, was made Count P. and Senator. He became Premier of France and Minister of War shortly before Napoleon Ill.'s fall.

Pall Language. Dialect derived from the older Sanskrit, becoming in time the sacred language of the Buddhists, and still used by Buddhist writers in Burmah, Siam and Ceylon.

Pall Literature. That of the Buddhist sacred texts, and all other works by Buddhist authors. It is still used in Ceylon, Burmah, and Siam. See Pali Language.

Palimpsest. Vellum or other material from which the writing had been erased, that it might be written on anew. Sometimes the erasure has been so imperfect that the original writing can be deciphered or restored, as in an old painting: this has led to the recovery of many mediaeval texts, especially MSS. of 600-900.

Palindrome. Sentence spelled the same, forward or back, as "Madam, I'm Adam"; common in Latin, unfamiliar in Greek and in modern languages.

Palingenesis. Parallel Variation(q.V.) without Ceno

GENY (q.v.).

Palinode. Song or poem repeated; thence, denying or retracting a previous one.

Palinurus. Eneas' helmsman, who fell into the Tyrrhenian Sea; thence a promontory of Lucania, s. Italy.

Palisa, Johann, b. 1848. Astronomer at Vienna, discoverer of 66 asteroids. Aug. 1889.

Palisade-Cells. Layer or layers of cells, placed, with their longer diameters vertical, immediately under the upper epidermis of leaves. They contain much chlorophyll, and so cause the upper surface of most leaves to be greener than the lower.

Palisades. Cliffs on w. bank of Hudson, in N. J., extending 20 m.: ht. ab. 300 ft. They are outcrops of trap-rock.

Palisot de Beauvols, Ambroise Marie Francois JoSeph, Baron, 1752-1820. French botanist. Flore d'Oware et

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are those decorated with snakes and lizards in relief, colored to closely resemble nature, and were probably molded from the animals themselves.

Palladic Chloride. PdCl,. Made by dissolving the metal in aqua regia. similar to platinic chloride; unstable, decomposing into palladous chloride, PdCU, and chlorine.

Palladlo, Andrea, 1518-1580. Italian architect, chiefly at Vicenza and Venice. His book. Dell' Architettura, 1570, had wide circulation and great influence.

Palladium. Pd. At. wt. 106.6, sp. gr. 11.8. sp. ht. .058, nipt. 1,500° C, valence III.. IV., VI. Rare metal, discovered by Wollaston 1803. Its chief source is a Brazilian gold-ore, from which it is obtained by melting it together with silver, then treating with nitric acid, which dissolves the silver and palladium; the latter is precipitated as the cyanide, which upon ignition yields palladium. It resembles iridium and platinum in appearance. The most characteristic property is its power to absorb hydrogen (see Palladium Hydrogen). It is soluble in nitric and hot concentrated sulphuric acids, is not affected by air and is used for graduated scales and, alloyed with silver, for tooth-fillings.

Palladium. Image of Pallas Athene, supposed to have fallen from heaven, on which the safety of Troy depended; stolen by Ulysses and Diomed; said to have been preserved in the Acropolis at Athens. The Romans claimed that it was taken to Italy by ^Eneas and kept in the temple of Vesta.

Palladium Bromides. PdBr,. Brown substance, soluble in aqueous hydrobromic acid; made by dissolving palladium in a mixture of bromine hydrate and nitric acid. A tetrabromide occurs in double salts, but has not been isolated.

Palladium Cyanides. Pd(CN),. Palladous cyanide. Yellowish-white, slimy substance, soluble in ammonium hydroxide; made by precipitating a palladous salt with potassium cyanide.—Pd(CN)4. Palladic cyanide. Present in the blood-red solution obtained by shaking finely divided potassium palladium chloride with a solution of mercuric cyanide.

Palladium Hydrogen. If metallic palladium be placed in an atmosphere of hydrogen, it absorbs 960 times its volume of the gas. This substance acts as an alloy, and is an excellent reducing agent.

Palladium Hydroxide. Pd(OH),. Dark-brown precipitate, obtained by adding sodium carbonate to a palladium salt, and heating.

Palladium Iodide. Pdl,. Horn-like substance, soluble in ammonium hydroxide and potassium iodide; made by precipitating a palladous salt with potassium iodide.

Palladium Nitrate. Pd(N03)2. Long brownish-yellow rhombic prisms, obtained from a solution of the oxide in nitric acid.

Palladium Oxides. PdaO. Suboxide. Black powder, obtained by igniting palladium carbonate.—PdO. Palladous oxide. Gray to black powder of metallic luster, soluble with difficulty in acids; made by gently heating palladium nitrate. —Pd^O,. Hexoxide. Bright-brown powder, obtained by heat1122


\ag palladium sulphosalts with potassium nitrate and hydroxide.—PdOa. Dioxide. Black powder, obtained by precipitating the chloride with hot caustic potash.

Palladium Sulphides. Pd,S. Subsulphide. Whitishgray substance, not attacked by acids; obtained by heating the higher sulphides.—PdS. Palladous sulphide. Bluish-black powder, obtained by heating the metal with sulphur, or by precipitating a palladic salt with hydrogen sulphide.—PdSa. Disulphide. Crystalline powder, made by decomposing sodium sulphopalladate with hydrochloric acid.

Palladium ab.368-431. Bp. in Bithynia and Galatia. His Hist. Lausiaca (Lives of Monks) was pub. 1616.

Palladlus, 7th cent. Greek medical writer.

Palladlus, St. Traditional Irish or Scottish bishop ab. 430.

Palladlu§, Rutilius Taurus ^milianus, 4th cent. Latin writer, whose De Re Rustica was tr. 1803. Book 14 is in verse.

Pallas. See Athena and Minerva.

Pallas. Second asteroid, discovered 1802 by Olbers.

Pallas, Peter Simon, 1741-1811. German naturalist, who traveled in Asia 1768-74 under Russian auspices. Reise, 177176; Flora Rossica, 1781-88; Southern Provinces, tr. 1812. He lived in the Crimea from 1796.

Pallaslte. Meteorite consisting largely of iron, but also containing interspersed grains of chrysolite or some similar mineral.

Pallavlclno, Ferrante, 1618-1644. Italian satiric poet, executed at Avignon.

Pallavlclno, Sforza, 1607-1667. Italian Jesuit, prof, at Rome 1639, Cardinal 1659. Of his many works the most noted is a Hist. Council of Trent, 1656-57, offered as a substitute for the too liberal one of Sarpi.

Pallial Line. Line on interior of clam's shell, along which the mantle is attached by means of muscle fibers.

Pall lata. See Tectibranchia.

Pallice. French harbor outside Rochelle, opened 1889.

Palliobranchlata. See Brachiopoda.

Palliser, Sir William, 1830-1882. Irish officer, inventor of projectiles and of methods of improving guns; M.P. 1872; knighted 1873.—His brother, John, b. 1817, explored wild parts of n.w. Canada 1857-60. Solitai-y Hunter, 1853; Report, 1861.

Pallium. Mantle of Mollusks.

Pallium. Woolen stole, adorned with black crosses, worn by the pope, and sent to a new archbishop, as necessary to his complete investiture and institution.

Pall Mall. Street in London, near St. James's Park; named from a game formerly much played there, which con

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den and the Saint Barbara in Venice are his best known works.—His great-nephew, Giovane, 1544-1628, was an inferior painter.

Palma, Ricardo, b. 1833. Peruvian author.

Palmacene. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermo? and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising ab.129 genera and 1,100 species, mostly trees and shrubs, widely distributed throughout tropical and warm regions; called the Palm family.

Palma Chrtsti. See Castor-oil Bean.

Palmate, or Digitate. Arrang-ement of principal veins of a simple leaf or leaflets of a compound leaf in a radiating manner from a point, as in the Geranium and Horse Chestnut.

Palmatl. Swimming legs of birds, having a posterior toe and three anterior ones, the latter united to their tips by a web.

Palmatlped. Palmately cleft leaves or other organs.

Palmblad, Wilhelm Fredrik, 1788-1852. Swedish novelist, geographer, historian, and compiler; prof. Upsala 1835. Diet, of Biography, 23 vols., 1835-59.

Palmellin. Red pigment contained in certain minute organisms of Palmellacea:.

Palmer. Pilgrim in crusading times, returned with palms from the Holy Land; later, any pilgrim.

Palmer, Benjamin Morgan, D.D., LL.D., b. 1818. Pastor at New Orleans from 1856; ed. Southern Presb. Review from 1847. The Family, 1876.

Palmer, Edward Henry. 1840-1882. Explorer in Palestine 1868-70; prof. Cambridge 1871-81; killed by Arabs in the Sinaitic peninsula. Desert of the Exodus, 1871; Arabic Grammar, 1874; Persian Dictionary, 1876-83; tr. Koran, 1880.

Palmer, Erastus Dow, b. 1817. American sculptor, distinguished for reliefs of ideal and allegorical subjects. His bronze statue of Robert R. Livingston is in the old Hall of Representatives in Washington.

Palmer, James Shedden, U.S.N., 1810-1867. Captain 1862, Commodore 1863. Rear-admiral 1866; distinguished at Vicksburg, New Orleans, and Mobile.

Palmer, John Mccauley, b. 1817. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861; Major-gen. 1862-66, serving chieflv in Tenn. and Ga.; Gov. of 111. 1869-73; U. S. Senator 1891-97; National Democratic candidate for Pres. 1896.

Palmer, John Williamson, b. 1825. American author, as is his wife, Henrietta (lee), b. 1834.

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