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sternum, and in having its clavicles joined as a furcula to the keel.
Ownership. Legal right to a thing, or interest therein, to the exclusion of all others. Ox. See Bovidje.
Oxalic Acid. COOH.COOH. Simplest organic dibasic acid, occurring in many plants, e.g. the oxalis, as potassium salt, and in others, e.g. rhubarb, as a calcium salt; white needles, which decompose on heating. The sodium salt is prepared by fusing together sawdust and caustic soda. The commercial acid is prepared from this salt. It is used in dyeing and calico printing, and is poisonous.
Oxalic Ether. (COO),(C,Ht),. Ethyl oxalate; liquid; bpt. 186.1° C. (cor), having an aromatic odor; prepared from oxalic acid and alcohol.
Oxalli. Wood-sorrel. Genus of small, showy-flowered herbs of the Geranium family, of wide geographical distribution. Some of them are cultivated for ornament.
Oxaluria. Name given to a supposed diseased condition in which calcium oxalate is present in the urine. A distinct disease is denied by many, and the abnormal condition of the urine is asserted to be but a symptom of some form of dyspepsia. As it occurs largely in the nervously depressed or gouty, this probably is the correct view.
Oxalyl. Group or radical. C,0,; derived from oxalic acid by the removal of two OH groups.
Oxamide. (CONH,),. White crystalline powder, which sublimes and partially decomposes on heating; made by treating oxalic ether with ammonium hydroxide.
Oxea. Spicule, which is a rhobdus pointed at both ends; found in the sponge genus Rosella.
Oxcnden, Ashton, D.D., b. 1808. Bp. of Montreal 1869-78, rural dean of Canterbury 1879-84; author of many popular devotional books.
Oxenford, John, 1812-1877. English dramatist and translator: dramatic critic of the London Times from 1846.
Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe. 1829-1888. English R. C. divine from 1857. Atonement, 1865-81; Esehatology. 1876.
Oxenstierna, Axel, Count, 1583-1654. Chancellor of Sweden 1611; powerful under Gustavus Adolphus; negotiator of several treaties; head of the Protestant League 1633; guardian of Queen Christina; ablest statesman of his time.
Ox-Eye. Yellow-flowered coarse herbs of the genus Heliopsis, of the Composite family, natives of e. N. America.
Ox-Eye, Sea. Shrubs of the j;enus Borrichia, natural family Compositce, growing on the seacoast of the s.e. U. S. and the W. Indies. .
Ox-Eye Daisy. See Daisy.
Oxford. City of Oxfordshire, on the Thames (or "Isis") and Cherwell. 52 m. w.n.w. of London; long famous for its university, chartered 1201. Here Latimer. Ridley, and Cranmer were burned 1555-56. Pop., 1891, 45,741.
Oxford, Robert Harley, Earl Of, 1661-1724. M.P. 1690; Speaker 1701; Sec. of State 1704; Chancellor of Exchequer 1710; Earl and High Treasurer 1711-14; impeached 1715, and in prison till 1717; at first a Whig, later a high Tory; founder of the Harleian library or collection.
Oxford University. There was an academy here in 802, but organized teaching cannot be traced back of 1133. It was
chartered by Henry III. 1248, by Henry VIII. 1510, and incorporated by Elizabeth 1570. It has 23 colleges, of which 14 antedate the Reformation, and 6 halls. University Coll., founded 1249, is accounted the oldest, but Merton was the first to receive its statutes, 1264, and has the oldest library in England. 1858 saw many reforms in both Oxford and Cambridge; 1871, the abolition of religious tests, and 1877, the removal of nearly all remaining discriminations against dissenters. The number of undergraduates increased from 1,526 in 1862 to 3,365 in 1896; at the last date it had 95 on the teaching staff. Local examinations were initiated 1858; University extension began in Cambridge 1867.
Ox-gall. Bile or bitter fluid secreted by the liver of the ox. It is used for scouring cloth, cleansing carpets, and, when refined, by artists in mixing colors.
Oxidation. Union of oxygen with other substances. In a wider sense the term is applied to chemical changes resulting in the addition of negative radicles, simple or compound, to elements or compounds; or a decrease in the relative quantity of the positive radicle of a compound, whether or not accompanied by the substitution of negative radicles.
Oxide, Organic. (CH3)aO. Regarded as derived from water, HsO, by replacement of the two hydrogen atoms by two similar or different radicals. Other oxides are known as ethylene oxide. See Ethers.
Oxides. Compounds formed by the union of oxygen with some other element. Acid oxides are those which, when treated with water, yield acids (anhydrides); e.g., sulphur trioxide. Basic oxides, when treated with water, yield a base; c.;/.. sodium oxide.
Oxidizing Agent. Substance which will readily give up its oxygen to another substance.
Oxley, James Macdonald, b. 1855. Canadian author of law-books and stories for boys.
Ox-Lip. Primula elatior. Showy-flowered herb of the Primrose family, native of Europe; cultivated for ornament.
Oxus, or Amoo Daria. River of w. Asia. It heads in the Hindu Kush Mts., and flows n.w. to the sea of Aral. Length 1,600 m.
Oxyacids. See Hydroxyacids and Acid.
Oxydactylia. Tribe of Phaneroglossa, including forms with the toes pointed. Two groups are distinguished: Raniformia (Frogs), and Bufoniformia (Toads). The Ranidce are Water Frogs with webbed toes and hind feet formed for jump
Brasenose College. Oxford—The Quadrangle (showing also Spire of St. Mary's and Dome of Radcliffe Library).
Yellow-bellied Frog (Bombina'.or pachypua).
ing. The Pelobatidce are Land Frogs, which resemble Toads, but have teeth on the maxillaries: Bombinator is an example. Toads (Bnfo) have no teeth, are of clumsy form, the legs nearly equal in length, and the skin warty.
Oxygen. O. At. wt. 16, sp. gr. 1.105, valence II. Discovered by Priestley 1774: colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, slightly soluble in water, forming eight-ninths of water, onefifth of the air, and almost half of the solid earth; first obtained by the decomposition of mercuric oxide by heat. This is a convenient way of preparing it in small quantities: a better and cheaper method consists in heating a mixture of one part of manganese dioxide and two of potassium chlorate. It is made in large quantities for use in the oxyliydrogen-blowpipe, Drummond Light, etc. It combines with all elements except fluorine, and is a constituent of almost all acids and all bases. It is liquefied at —118° C. and 50 atm.; the liquid is bright blue, sp. gr. .9.
Oxygenated Water. See Hydrogen Dioxide.
Oxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin (q.v.) containing a definite quantity of oxygen in loose combination, giving it a bright red color. It is found normally in the red blood-corpuscle and more abundantly in the arterial blood. The change of color, after the blood has gone through the capillaries and entered the veins, is due to some of the oxyhemoglobin giving up its oxygen in the tissue for the various bio-chemical processes and becoming hemoglobin, which again changes to oxyhemoglobin in the lungs. It requires an amount of oxygen equivalent to 1.76 c.c. at 0" C. and bar. 760 mm. to change one gin, of hemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin, and this proportion is constant. See Circulation Of The Blood, Blood, and Respiration.
Oxyliydrogen Blowpipe. Apparatus for producing intense heat. The oxygen and hydrogen are led from two different sources to a jet consisting of a tube for the delivery of the oxygen, with a larger tube around it, the hydrogen being brought in through the annular space. Sometimes the gases are mixed in the body of the blowpipe. Invented by Dr. R. Hare in 1801. See Drummond Light.
Oxyrhyncha (majacea). See Crabs.
Oxystomata. See Crabs.
Oxytriclia. Genus of Hypotrieha. It has cilia and bristles on the under side, by which it can walk over the surface of submerged objects, as plant stems.
Oxyuris. Pin-worm infesting the rectum of children. The females are larger than the males. See Ascarid^e.
Oyer. Hearing an instrument read on which an action was brought.—Oyer And Terminer. Court of original jurisdiction over important crimes.
Oyster. See Ostreid^e.
Oyster-Catcher (h^mato Puspalliatus). Shore bird (see L1MICOL.1E) having short bright-colored legs, toes three-webbed at the base, a bill 3 in. long, and body 18 in. The upper parts are blackish, white beneath. It feeds on Crustacea, not on oysters.
Oyster Culture. Artificial rearing of oysters for the market dates from the Roman period or even earlier, but only in America has it assumed vast proportions; 28,263,847 bushels, worth $16,152,257, being marketed in 1892, four
These beds are public, and any one can take oysters from them: the consequence is that they are fast being destroyed. At present the oysters taken from them are too small for market, being less than a year old. They are seed, which the oysterplanter procures and places upon designated areas to fatten for market. Large market oysters are four or five years old, and have been in the planter's care three or four years. The discovery by Brooks of the bisexuality of our oysters, makes it possible to breed them as we do fishes. See PISCICULTURE. The attempt to raise oysters from the eggs dates from the experiments of Coste in France 1858. although earlier experiments were known. As the French oyster, Oatrea edulis, is hermaphroditic and viviparous, it is possible to get a catch of spat on submerged sticks, tiles, or shells, only by planting this cultch near spawning oysters. A similar method of catching oyster spat is practiced on a large scale in the waters of Long Island Sound, oyster shells being planted as cultch. This method is resorted to as fast as the natural seed beds are depleted. It has been successfully introduced into Virginia waters. The American 03-ster, O. inrginiana, is dioecious and oviparous; the germs of both sexes being spawned into the water to shift for themselves, great loss of possible seed results, so that experiments have been made to utilize this spawn by more artificial methods (especially by Claire-culture). The experiments have been successful, but oystermen have not yet applied these methods on a commercial scale. Oyster-Plant. See Salsify.
Oyster-Shell Bark-Louse (mytilaspis Pomorum). Insect parasite of apple and other fruit trees, introduced into America from Europe. It lives under an oyster-shaped scale, J in. long, of same color as the bark. Eggs hatch in spring, when a wash of strong soapsuds or kerosene spray may be employed as a remedy.
Ozanam, Antoine Frederic, 1813-1853. French historical writer and critic; prof. Sorbonne 1841. Dante, 1839; Civilization in 5th Century, 1845, tr. 1868; German Studies, 1847-49.
Ozark Hills. Area of broken country, rising in places to ridges and hills of considerable height, in s. Mo., w. Ark., and s. Indian Territory; most important in Ark., where they consist mainly of abrupt e. and w. ridges of quartzite, 1,000 to 3,000 ft. high.
Ozena. Form of nasal catarrh accompanied by an offensive discharge. The disease is disagreeable to possess and difficult to cure. It is the form largely dwelt upon in the circulars and advertisements of the venders of nostrums for catarrh.
Ozcrof, Vladislas Alexandrovich, 1770-1816. Russian tragic dramatist. CEdipus and Athene, 1804; Fingal, 1805; Dimitri Donskoi, 1807; Polyxena, 1809.
Ozokerite. Mineral wax; natural paraffin: substance consisting of carbon and hydrogen, and resembling wax or spermaceti in appearance, being nearly white when pure, but usually darkened by foreign matter. It was found in Moldavia 1833. in a bed of coal. Boryslaw, in Galicia, has been since 1859 the chief source of supply. Large deposits exist in Utah. It is widely used in the arts as a substitute for bee's-wax and in the manufacture of electrical insulators and candles.
Ozone. Allotropic form of oxygen, the molecule of which has the formula 03; discovered by Schonbein 1840; blue gas of characteristic odor, occurring in minute quantities in the atmosphere, especially during electrical storms; made by passing a series of electric sparks through an atmosphere of oxygen; much more active than oxygen; strongly irritating to the throat membranes. At 270° C. it is converted into oxygen. It condenses to a blue liquid at —106° C.
Ozone Tests. Chemically prepared paper which, upon being exposed to the air, is changed in its tint if any ozone is present. Thallium hydroxide is turned brown, and faintly acid litmus paper with potassium iodide is turned blue.
Ozononietry. Art of measuring the quantity of ozone in the atmosphere.
Paca, William, 1740-1799. Delegate to Congress 1774-79; signer of the Declaration of Independence; judge of Md. courts 1778-82; Gov. of Md. 1782-86; U. S. District Judge from 1789.
Pacchionian Bodle§. Little bodies formed in connection with the middle membrane covering the brain (Arachnoid), which frequently contain chalky concretions that produce little depressions on the under side of the skull by their pressure.
Pace. See Gaits.
Pachcco y Osorio, Rodrigo, Marquis Of Cerralvo, d. ab.1650. Viceroy of Mexico 1624-35.
Pacliomlus, ab. 292-348. Egyptian monk, founder of the first monastery, on Tabenna in the Nile, ab. 340, and of the first nunnery. Before his time each monk was solitary. 7,000 of both sexes were under his care.
Pachuca. Mining town of Mexico, 56 m. n.e. of Mexico. Here Medina in 1557 discovered and used the patio process for the extraction of silver. The silver mines here were worked before the Spanish conquest. Pop., 1889, 32,800.
Pachyderinata. See Diplarthra.
Pachyglossa. See Crassilikquia.
Pachymeres, Gioroios, 1242-ab.l310. Byzantine historian.
Pacificator, The. Name given to Paul Ferry (q.v.).
Pacific Ocean. Largest body of water on the globe, stretching from America to Asia and the E. India islands, a distance of 12,000 m., and from Bering Strait to the Antarctic Continent. Its area is ab. 67,500,000 sq. m., its mean depth ab. 2,500 fathoms, and maximum depth 5,000 fathoms. It contains vast numbers of small islands, some of which are volcanic in origin, others the work of coral polyps. It was first seen by Balboa at Darien 1513, and named bv Magalhaes, who first sailed it 1520.
Pacific Railways. See Railways.
Pacini, Giovanni, 1796-1867. Italian composer of ab. 90 operas, popular only at home.
Pacinottl, Antonio, b. 1841. Italian electrician. The inventor 1860 of a dynamo-electric machine similar to that used later by Gramme.
Pacioli, Lucas, d. 1510. Italian Franciscan, author of the earliest printed book on arithmetic and algebra. Summa Arithmetica Geometria proporzioiii e proporzionalita, 1494.
Pacinian Corpuscles. Oval bodies about two mm. long in which a nerve fiber terminates. They are found in greatest abundance in those parts of the body where the sense of touch is most developed.
Packard, Alpheus Sprino, M.D., b. 1889. Prof, of Zoology and Geology in Brown Univ. 1878; most eminent as an entomologist; prolific writer.—His father, Alpheus SPRING, D.D.. 1798-1884, was prof. Bowdoin Coll. from 1824, and its historian 1882.
Packer, Asa, 1806-1879. Builder and pres. Lehigh Valley Railroad; M.C. from Pa. 1853-57; founder of Lehigh Univ., to which he gave or bequeathed $2,500,000.
Packer, William Fisher, 1807-1870. Gov. of Pa. 1858-61.
Packing. In Mechanics, materials used to prevent leakage where a moving piece has different pressures on the two ends of its surfaces of contact. For packing of pistons and plungers see those titles. For rods and valve-stems some form of fibrous material made from cotton is usual, either by itself or in conjunction with rubber, which gives elasticity. This is pressed in upon the rod by conical surfaces (see Stuffing Box), with just pressure enough to give it a fluid tight contact with the moving rod, and yet without excessive friction. Metallic packings are also much used, and, when well taken care of, work satisfactorily. They are usually alloys of the type of Babbitt metal, and get pressure from springs and conical contacts. Cotton lamp-wick, canvas and rubber, paper and asbestos fiber, are bases of numerous packings.
anthracite regions synonymously with the English term chocks or nogs.
Pact. In Roman Law, agreement: if so made as to be legally obligatory, it was a contract; otherwise it was nude or naked. In English Law, a nude pact is an agreement without a legal consideration.
Pactolus. Brook of Lydia, w. Asia Minor. Croesus was supposed to have been enriched by the gold-dust which it bore down from Mt. Tmolus.
Pacuvlus, Marcus, ab. 220-130 B.C. Roman dramatist, whose works were mostly adaptations from the Greek. Fragments remain.
Paddock, Algernon Sidney, b. 1830. U. S. Senator from
Nebraska 1875-81 and 1887-93.
Paddock, Benjamin Henry, D.D., 1828-1893. P.E. Bp. of Mass. from 1873, and historian of the diocese 1885.—His brother, John Adams, D.D., 1825-1894, was P.E. Bp. of Olympia, Wash., from 1880.
Padella. Shallow vessel of metal or earthenware used in illuminations.
Paderborn. Old town of Westphalia, 50 m. s.w. of Hanover. It lias a fine cathedral dating from 1163, and had a R. C. university 1614-1819. The coinage of its bishops was extensive ab.1600-1789. Pop., 1890, 17,986.
Paderewski, Ignace Jan, b. 1860. Polish piano-forte virtuoso and composer; known in Europe since 1887. He made concert tours in America in 1891-92, 1893, and 1895-96.
Padilla, Juan De, d. 1521. Gov. of Saragossa; leader of a revolt against governmental oppression; hero of Spanish legends and plays, with his wife, Maria, d. 1531.
Padishah. Title of Turkish and Persian sovereigns.
Padua. Ancient city of n. Italy, on the Brenta, 22 m. w. of Venice; birthplace of Livy; subject to Rome from 215 B.C.; twice sacked by Goths and Huns in 5th century; held by Venice 1405-1797, and then by Austria. Its university, founded 1221, has ab. 70 teachers, 1,400 students, and a library of 160,000 vols. The city has many old and fine buildings: its palace was completed 1219. Pop., 1892, 79,500.
Paducah. Capital of McCracken co., Ky., on the Ohio and Tennessee rivers; scene of battle, March 25, 1864, between Union troops with gunboats and 6,000 Confederates under Gen. Forrest. Pop., 1890, 13,076.
Piean. Joyful or triumphant song, originally a hymn to Apollo.
Psedobaptists. Those who practice infant baptism; i.e., the vast majority of Christians.
Pedogenesis. Production of young, parthenogenetically by a larva; observed by Wagner 1860, with a species of Cecidomya, which lives under the bark of trees. During the summer eggs develop parthenogenetically within the body of the larva, and the young consume their mother. Several summergenerations of this sort are succeeded in the fall by wintergenerations, which attain sexual maturity. The cycle is begun again by the survivors the following spring.
Paeonlne. See Rosolic Acid.
Pamnius, probably 5th cent. B.C. Sculptor of the Victory found at Olympia 1875.
Paor, Ferdinando, 1771-1839. Italian composer of 43 operas; court conductor at Dresden 1803-6; imperial chapelmaster in Paris under Napoleon.
Paeslello, Giovanni, 1741-1816. Italian composer of over 100 operas.
Pvstura. City of Lucania. s. Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno; colonized as Posidonia by Sybarites ab. 624 B.C.; held by Rome from ab. 272 B.C.; famed for its roses in time of Augustus: destroyed by Saracens in 9th century. Now noted for its ruins
of three Doric temples, first made known 1755; that of Neptune, so-called, is one of the oldest known, dating from 6th century B.C. These are the only remains of Greek temples in Italy in any fair state of preservation.
Pacz, Jose Antonio, 1790-1873. Pres. of Venezuela 1831-35 and 1839-43; imprisoned 1849-50; dictator 1861-63; long in U.S. Autobiografia, 1867.
Paganini, Niccolo, 1782-1840. Most famous of violinists; b. in Genoa. His life was full of adventure. His studies and concert-pieces are still the high-water mark of technical accomplishment on the violin.
Paganism. Aggregate of religions which do not, with Christianity, Judaism, and Mohammedanism, acknowledge a personal God as historically revealed in Israel.
Page. Juvenile attendant on a prince or noble; formerly in training for higher service; now infrequent and merely ornamental.
Page, David, 1814-1879. Scottish writer of popular and educational books on geology.
Page, David Perkins, 1810-1848. Principal of Albany Normal School, N. Y., 1844. Theory and Practice of Teaching, 1847.
Page, Thomas Nelson, LL.D., b. 1853. Virginia author, eminent for negro dialect stories, especially Marse Chan and Meh Lady. In Old Virginia, 1887; Two Little Confederates, 1889; Tlie Old South. 1892.—His great-grandfather, John, 17441808, was M.C. 1789-97 and Gov. of Va. 1802-5.
Page, William, 1811-1885. American painter of rare endowment and literary acumen. He did not wholly shake off Academic methods, and in these he lacked color harmony; but his work is always serious and masterly. He was an authority on portraits of Shakespeare, and his interest in the Kesselstadt death-mask brought it public appreciation.
Paget, Sir George Edward, M.D., LL.D., D.C L., F.R.S., b. 1809. Medical prof, at Cambridge 1872; knighted 1885.— His brother, Sir James, LL.D., b. 1814, was made Baronet 1871. and pres. College of Surgeons 1875. Surgical Pathology. 1853; Clinical Lectures, 1875.
Paget, Violet ("vernon Lee"), b. 1857. English author, living in Italy. Belcaro, 1882; Ottilie, 1883; Euphorion, 1884; Baldwin, 1886.
Paglna. Surfaces of leaves and other organs.
Pagoda. Indian form of temple, generally square below, with a tower-shaped top, consisting of a sequence of stones of diminishing size and somewhat resembling a slender pyramid. In India and adjacent countries of e. Asia it is frequently in
Japan, where it has become an adjunct to certain native superstitions connected with geomancy. The pagoda at Tanjore is 182 ft. high.
Pahlavi, or Pehlevi. Dialect of the Iranian or Persian family, with many Semitic elements. A version of the Avesta is preserved in this tongue. Its literature dates from the 3d century.
Pailleron, Edouard Jules Henri, b. 1834. French dramatist and poet, Academician 1882. Le monde ou Von s'ennuie, 1881.
Pain, Barry, b. 1864. English humorist. Stories and Interludes, 1892.
Pain and Pleasure. Modifications of consciousness which defy accurate definition, but which, as some degree of feeling, probably accompany every state of mind and tend to produce characteristic volitional impulses. E.g., pain arouses a tendency to repel, get rid of, or move away from the object or state which causes it, while pleasure causes an impulse to retain the pleasurable object or state. Physiologically, pain and pleasure depend distinctly upon modifications of the nervous system. The more important conditions giving rise to pain are excessive stimulation of sense organs, inflammation, and interference with natural appetites and impulses, while moderate sense stimulation and activity within certain limits are, as a rule, distinctly pleasurable. Sudden cessation of pain must also be regarded as a cause of distinct pleasure. Intellectual pains and pleasures depend not so much on nervous adjustment as on the relation of the painful or pleasurable percept to the individual's previous experience.
Paine, Elijah, LL.D., 1757-1842. Judge Vt. Supreme Court 1791-95; U. S. Senator 179.5-1801; U. S. District Judge from 1801.—His son, Martyn, M.D., LL.D.. 1794-1877. prof. Univ. New York 1841-67, pub. Institutes of Medicine, 1847, and other works.—His brother, Elijah, 1796-1853. Judge N. Y. Superior Court from 1850, pub. U. S. Circuit Court Reports, 1827-56, and Practice in Civil Actions, 1830.
Paine, John Knowles, b. 1839. American musician, prof. Harvard 1876; composer of an oratorio, St. Peter, several symphonies, a mass, performed 1867, cantatas, overtures, symphonic poems, chamber music, organ music, and incidental music to QSdipus Rex, performed at Cambridge 1881.
Paine, Robert Treat, 1731-1814. Delegate to Congress 1774-78; signer of the Declaration of Independence; Atty.-gen. of Mass. 1780-90; Judge of Mass. Supreme Court 1790-1804.
Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809. Radical writer on politics and religion, who came from England to America 1774, and pub. Common Sense, a pamphlet advocating independence, 1776; The Crisis, a periodical widely influential, 1776-83, and The Rights of Man, 1791-92. He was elected to the French National Convention 1792; was imprisoned by the terrorists nearly a year; resumed his seat in Convention after his release; issued The Age of Reason, 1795, and returned to the U. S. 1802. His deistical opinions alienated the sympathies of the religious public, and his last daj*s were passed in obscurity. His memory has been rehabilitated by M. D. Conway, 1892, who has also edited his works, 4 vols., 1894-95.
Paine, William H., 1838-1890. Captain of engineers 186165; resident engineer of construction of the Brooklyn suspension bridge.
Pains and Penalties. See Attainder.
Painted-Cup. Castilleia coccinea. Scarlet-bracted herb of the natural order Scrophulariacece, native of e. N. America.
Painter, William, ub.1535-ab.1595. English translator and compiler. His Palace of Pleasure, 1566-75, was taken from French and Italian sources, and was of use to Shakespeare.
Painter's Colic. Colic from lead poisoning; so called because frequently attacking painters. An Occupation Disease (q.v.).
Painter's Cream. Mixture applied to oil paintings to prevent drying during the interruption of the work, and afterward washed off with water. It consists of mastic, nut oil, lead acetate and water.
Painting. The historical decorations of the ancient Egyptians are the oldest examples of painting known. Their paints were water colors with added gum and included red, blue, yellow, green, brown, black and white. The Babylonian and Assyrian ornamentation was similar to the Egyptian; it was decorative, but entirely void of perspective. The Greek painters were skillful with the pencil, but their coloring was primitive. Their paints were ground in water, with glue or yolks of eggs added and their pictures were protected by subsequent varnishing. With the ancient Romans the art did not progress. Fresco painting with tempera or water colors on wet plaster in mural decoration was well done as the remains of Pompeii indicate. Jan Van Eyck and his brother Hubert first employed oil colors with a colorless varnish in the latter part of the 14th century. Antonello da Messina carried the art to Italy in 1465. From this time the use of oil colors extended both in the north and south of Europe, the Venetian school developing great technical skill and knowledge of coloring, though the most perfect works were produced by the Dutch painters. Water-color resembles fresco though it cannot be used for mural painting. From 700 to 1300 the art was religious and ornamental, with childish drawing and bright colors. In the next two centuries the drawing and coloring improved greatly and in the 16th century genre painting was more practiced. This was the era of the great Masters. In the 17th century genre painting reached perfection in the north of Europe. In the 18th century there was more portrait painting and pictures of cotemporary life, followed by the development of landscape painting, which in the present century has reached a high standard. Paris is now the great school of painting in the world, but the art has lost any national character and become cosmopolitan. See Enamel, Encaustic Painting, Fresco, and Art, Origin Of.
Paints. Mixtures of insoluble colors or pigments with some vehicle as oil or water, which permit it to be applied with a brush to the surface of the article to be painted. Paint is used to decorate, and to close the pores, thereby to protect the surface from air, water, and fire. See Luminous Paint.
Paired Bacteria. See Coccus Bacteria.
Palsiello, Giovanni, 1741-1816. Italian composer of numerous operas and masses.
Paisley. Town of Scotland, 7 m. w.s.w. of Glasgow. It has large manufactures of cotton, muslin, and silk, and more
Paiute Indians. See Shoshones.
Palxhans, Henri Joseph, 1783-1854. French officer, inventor of the Paixhans gun 1834; this was a cast-iron cannon for firing shell; military writer.
Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael, 1778-1815. Irish officer, distinguished in Spain; Major-gen. 1813; defeated and slain at New Orleans.
Pakfong. Alloy of copper and arsenic, made in China: formerly much used in Europe for philosophical instruments, now replaced by alloys of nickel.
Palacio, Raimundo, b. ab.1840. Pres. of Venezuela 189092; defeated by Crespo.
Palacky, Francis, 1798-1876. Historian of Bohemia, 5 vols., 1836-67.
Paladllhe, Emile, b. 1844. French composer of operas (Le Passant 1872, VAmour Africain 1874, Suzanne 1878, Diana 1885, Patrie 1886), symphonies, masses, etc.; most widely known by his trifle Mandolinata.
Palaearctic Province. Zoological region including n. Asia, Europe, and Africa n. of the Atlas Mts. Characteristic animals found are: Bears, Sheep, Goats, Catarrhine Monkeys, and Pheasants.
Palseaspls. Pteraspidian fish found 1883 by Claypole in the Onondaga shales of Pa. It is the only representative of this group of fishes yet known from America, and, except Onchus pensylvanicus, the oldest American fossil vertebrate.
Palremon. See ('akidid.e.
Palaemon, Quintus Remmius, 1st cent. Latin writer on grammar.
Paleobotany. Paleontology of the vegetable kingdom; study of fossil plants. Great progress has been made during recent years in the study and elucidation of their structure and succession in time. In this field the chief laborers have been Heer, Saporta, Williamson, Sohns-Laubach, Lesquereux, Newberry, Dawson, and Ward.
Palaeocarlda. See Gigantostraca.
Palaeocrlnoids. See Crinoidea.
Palwologus. Last Byzantine dynasty, 1260-1453. Another branch held Montferrat 1305-1533; a third governed Morea 1380-1460. See Lascaris.
Palwonemertea. Group of nemertean worms, characterized by absence of both the deep lateral fissure on the side of the head and the stylets on the proboscis. The mouth lies behind the brain.
Palreonlscus. Heterocercal lepidoganoid fish, chiefly Carboniferous and Permian, with highly ornamented rhomboid scales and a single dorsal fin.
Palaeophoneus. Scorpion recently found in the Upper Silurian rocks of Gothland, Sweden; oldest air-breather known.
Palreospondylus. Fossil found 1894 in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. It is only ab. 2 in. long, but is considered by Traquair to be an ancient representative of the lampreys.
Palaeotherldw. Family of Perissodactyla, comprising fossil Ungulates from the Eocene and Miocene Tertiary, varying in size from a sheep to a horse. All the feet are three-toed.