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cine bird, related to the wrens: it seeks its food on the bottom of swift brooks. Species of this genus occur in both hemispheres.

Oval. 1. Re-entrant curve having two foci, the distances from which to any point in the curve have a constant relation. The noteworthy ovals are the Cartesian and Cassian, each having several peculiar specific forms. 2. Figure formed by intersecting arcs of circles.

Ovalo And Cavelto. Molding whose outline is the quadrant of a circle: when convex it is an ovalo, when concave a cavetto.

Ovampo, Bantu people of w. Africa, in the German territory, s. of the Cuanene.

Ovando, Nicolas De, 1460-1518. Governor of Hispaniola 1503-9. He refused shelter to Columbus in a storm, and nearly exterminated the natives.

Ovariotomy. Operation to remove an ovary. It is indicated when it is diseased (i.e. ovarian tumor) or when there is a reflex neurotic condition due to a hyper-sensitive condition without evidence of organic change in the organ. Ephraim M'Dowell, of Ky., first removed an ovarian tumor 1809. The removal of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes is now a frequent operation and is generally successful.

Ovary. Lowest portion of the pistil of flowers, containing the ovules.—Organ in animals which produces the eggs, or ova. In a woman there are two, 1J in. long, t in. wide, and i in. thick, on either side of the uterus, to which they are connected by the Fallopian tubes, through which the ova pass to the uterus. At the time of menstruation the ova pass into the ovary by the rupture of the Graafian follicle in the cortical coating of the ovary, in which they mature. This coating is estimated to contain 30,000 ova. The ovaries are analogous to the testes of the male, and the ova are impregnated in the uterus. They are endowed with a generous nerve supply, and are frequently the cause of obscure nervous affections.

Ovate. Leaves or other organs which resemble in outline the longitudinal section of an egg, being broadest below the middle and not more than twice longer than wide, as in the Apple leaf.

Ovation. The Romans honored a victorious general either with the TRIUMPH (q. v.), or by the Ovation, wherein the general entered the city on foot, clad in a magisterial robe ancT wearing a myrtle crown. A sacrifice closed the ceremonies.

Oven. Chambers in which objects are baked by artificial heat. The early Egyptian oven was a crock sunk in the ground and heated by a fire built inside. The old type of baker's oven was a brick chamber, domed. Fire was made inside, and when the oven was sufficiently heated the ashes were raked out and the dough put in with a long wooden spade. Now most ovens :ire heated by fires built in a flrespace, by superheated steam in pipes, or by gas. Loaves found in a Pompeiian bakery indicate that the name of the meal was stamped on bread.

Overbeck,FRlEDRlCH, 1789-1869. German religious painter, important historically but weak as an artist, although dis

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Overbers, Bernhard, 1754-1826. German R.C. theologian.

Overburden. In Mining, superficial waste rock that has to be removed in open workings.

Overbury, Sir Thomas, 1581-1613. English author, knighted 1608; imprisoned in the Tower, and poisoned there. Characters, 1614.

Overhand. Operations in which the miner stands under the rock he is excavating.

Overland Route. 1. From Europe to Asia, via Egypt, before opening of Suez Canal, as opposed to the voyage around Africa. 2. To California by the plains, prior to construction of Pacific R.R., as against the voyage around Cape Horn.

Overlap. In Geology, when the newer or more recent members of a formation extend beyond the beds below, of the same series, the former are said to overlap the latter.

Overproduction. Excess of production in certain lines, or production the ready distribution of which is prevented by some imperfection in the organization of exchange.

Overreaching. Said of a horse when he throws his hind foot against the heels or sole of the forefoot. Long hoofs or large toe-calks on the fore feet will cause the trouble.

Overshot Water Wheel. Water wheel or motor in which a wheel of large diameter is mounted on a horizontal axis, and the water is laid on without head at a point just below the upper end of the vertical diameter in the direction in which the wheel is to turn. The water acts therefore by its weight alone to turn the wheel, since it comes to it without shock. The buckets on the periphery of the wheel should

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nearly fill with water, and should be of such a shape as not to be emptied too soon on the lower part of the arc. The length of the wheel varies with the amount of power required and water available; the diameter depends on the height of the fall of water. This type of wheel is cumbrous and costly, and slowmoving. It has been largely replaced by the turbine wheels. Its efficiency is from 70 to 90 per cent. One at Laxey, England, is 72J ft. in diameter and furnishes ab. 150 H.P.

Overokou, Thomas, 1798-1873. Author of Danish comedies, and historian of the Danish Hieater, 7 vols., 1854-76.

Overstonc, Samuel Jones Loyd, Lord, 1796-1883. M. P. 1819. Baron 1850; writer on Bank of England. Overt Act. Attempt to commit a crime. Overtones. So-called partial tones which accompany the fundamental tone in the complex sensation known as a clang. They are caused by the partial vibrations of the body whose complete vibration gives the fundamental tone. The number and variety of the overtones <rive the distinguishing uality or timbre to tones, voices, or musical instruments, hey include the harmonic overtones or harmonics, and may include certain tones which are inharmonic.

Overture. Opening musical piece of a drama, especially a lyric drama or opera. Originally it was vocal, and the first instrumental introductions were written in the vocal style. In its perfection it adopted the sonata form, and this was maintained in the overtures whose themes were borrowed from the operas which they introduced. The best of the overtures of Beethoven, Wagner and others seek to convey the emotional contents of the dramas with which they are associated.

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Overweg, Adolf, 1822-1852. German explorer of central Africa.

Overyssel (transisulania). Dutch province e. of Zuyder Zee; formerly an independent state. Its coinage was abundant 1560-1770, as was that of its cities, Zwolle, Campen, and Deventer, in 17th century. Area 1,291 sq. m.; pop., 1893, 302,508.

Ovlcell. 1. Case containing ova, especially during development; e.g., ocecia of Bryozoa. 2. Synonym for ovum.

Ovid (publius Ovidius Naso), 43 B.C.-18. Latin poet of the court of Augustus. Here he associated with the writers of the Golden Age, and composed his chief works. Falling into disfavor with the Emperor, he was banished to Tomi on the Black Sea, where he died. While less dignified and reverent than Virgil, he had great versatility and recognition of outward beauty. The Metamorphoses and Heroides give many charming mythological stories, and the Amores, Tristia, Epistles, and other minor works are graceful and sensuous.

Ovidae. Sheep family of the Cavicorn Ruminants, including the Goat (Capra), Ibex, and Sheep (Oris).

Oviduct. Passage through which the ovum leaves the ovary; it leads to the uterus in mammals.

Oviedo. Ancient town of n.w. Spain. 20 m. from Bay of Biscay. It has a fine cathedral, begun 781, and a university, founded 1574. Pop. ab. 43,000.

Oviedo y Valdcz, Gonzalo Fernandez De, 1478-1557. Historian of the Spanish conquests in the New World, 1526-35, tr. 1555.

Ovipara. Group of Diptera, including Coarctatae, and Obtectce.

Ovipositor. Appendage at end of abdomen of female Insects, by which the eggs are deposited. It is often long and adapted for piercing into the tissues of plants and animals in which the larvae are parasitic; it is then called a terebra. Or it may be adapted for sawing (serra), or be a sting (aculeus).

Ovisac. Sac-like structure in which many Invertebrates carry their eggs after they are extruded.

Ovolo. Convex molding having an egg-shaped outline: especially applied to the Doric capital.

Ovotestls. Reproductive organ which produces both ova and spermatozoa, as in certain snails.

Ovovi viparous. Producing young alive which originally are derived from eggs; word now restricted, since all viviparous animals are also egg-producers. Oviparous indicates that the development of the young takes place outside the body, tineggs being laid or spawned before the young are hatched, as in Fishes and Reptiles. But in these groups there are exceptional species in which the young develop within the maternal body: to such the above term strictly applies.

Ovules. Embryonic seeds contained in ovary of flowers.

Ovillist. One who believed that the ovum is the essential germ and the spermatozoon merely stimulates this to development. Now we know that fertilization is the union within the egg (which is a cell enlarged by being filled with food for the embryo) of two similar and equal nuclei, one derived from the body of the female, the egg nucleus, and one from the male, the spermatozoon. See FERTILIZATION and POLAR Globules.

Ovum. The cell secreted by the ovary, consisting essentially of protoplasm and a nucleus.

Owen, David Dale, M.D.. 1807-1860. Son of Robert; in U. S. from 1828. He began 1837 the Geological Survey of Indiana; pub. 1839 a work on the mineral lands of Iowa; conducted 1848-50 a survev of Iowa, Wis., and Minn.; also of Ky. 1854-57 and Ark. 1857-60.

Owen, John, 1560-1622. English author of Latin Epigrams. 1606, tr. 1619.

Owen, John, D.D., 1616-1683. English Puritan of high repute; Chaplain to Cromwell 1649, Dean of Christ Ch., Oxford, 1651-60. Vice-Chancellor 1652-57; author of 80 books. He declined the presidency of Harvard 1670.

Owen, John, d. 189!S. English author. Evenings with Skeptics, 1881.

Owen, John Jason. D.D.. LL.D.. 1803-1869. Teacher in N.Y.; editor of Homer, Xenophon, and Thucydides.

Owen, Sir Ric Hard. LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 1804-1892. English comparative anatomist and paleontologist, knighted 1883. Besides Fossil Organic Remains. Odontography. 1840. Hist. British Fossils, Mammals. a>id Birds, 1846. and Fossil Reptiles, 1849-51, he wrote much on extinct animals of the principal British colonies.

Owen, Richard, LL.D., 1810-1890. Son of Robert; in U. S. from 1828; engaged in survey of N. W. Territory 1848; State

Geologist of Indiana 1860; prof. Univ. Indiana 1864-79. His chief geological work consisted in seismic investigations and speculations on the land masses of the globe.

Owen, Robert, 1771-1858. Welsh social reformer; cotton manufacturer in Scotland, where he introduced many reforms in the treatment of his employes. In his works, A'ew View of Society, 1812, and New Moral World, 1836, he advocated advanced socialistic views, which he endeavored to put into practice at New Harmony, Ind.,1824. He failed in this, and in subsequent attempts in England. His opinions were shared by his eldest son, Robert Dale, LL.D., 1800-1877, who remained in the U. S., became M.C. 1843-47, Minister to Naples 1855-58, and a prolific writer. Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World, 1859, and The Debatable Land, 1872, are in the Spiritualist interest.

Owens, John Edward, 1824-1886. Anglo-American actor and manager, best known from 1864 as "Solon Shingle."

Owens College. At Manchester; named from John Owens, its founder, who died 1846, bequeathing nearly £100,000 as endowment. It was opened 1851 for arts, science, law, and medicine, and imposes no religious tests. A local Workingmen's College was incorporated with it 1861. It affiliated with others in the Victoria Univ., chartered 1880.

Owen Sound. Town of Ontario, Canada, at the head of a long bay of the same name oft" Georgian Bav. Pop., 1890, 7,500.

Owen's River. In s.e. Cal., flowing through a desert valley, discharging into O. lake, whose water is strongly impregnated with salt and carbonate of soda. The lake has no visible outlet.

Owls. Raplatorial birds of family Strigida:, including 100 species and numerous genera. They have large eyes, looking forward, encircled by stiff feathers, and with vertical pupil. Most are nocturnal and see poorly by day, but Surnia. the Hawk Owl, and Nyctea, snowy owls of arctic regions, feed by day. Their food consists of rodents, insects, birds, vermin, and fish. The Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) attains a wt. of 8 lbs., and attacks poultry. Owls hear well; some, e.g. Asio otus, have a well developed feathered concha. The long ears, by which A. otns is known, refers to the horns of feathers, developed above the eyes. Owls fly noiselessly, owing to their soft plumage. The feet have usually a feathered tarsus; the outer toe is reversible, and in the Fishing Owl the toes are

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Osprey-like. The female is the larger. The size ranges from 6 in., Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium) of tropical forests, to 30 in.. Great Gray Owl (Syrnium) of northern regions. Reddish brown is predominant, but dark and light colors may be exhibited by a single brood. The eggs are spherical and pure white. Some species breed before the snow has gone, and their eggs hatch a few at a time. Athene noctua, the Little Owl of Europe, is the symbol of learning. Speotyto. the Burrowing Owl, lives in the burrows of Prairie-dogs of N. America. orCavies of S. America, on whose young it feeds, in part, while Rattlesnakes associate with both as a common enemy. Aluco flammeus, the Barn Owl, differs from other owls in lacking a manubrium to the

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sternum, and in having its clavicles joined as a furcula to the keel.

Ownership. Legal right to a thing, or interest therein, to the exclusion of all others. Ox. See Bovidje.

Oxalic Acid. COOH.COOH. Simplest organic dibasic acid, occurring in many plants, e.g. the oxalis, as potassium salt, and in others, e.g. rhubarb, as a calcium salt; white needles, which decompose on heating. The sodium salt is prepared by fusing together sawdust and caustic soda. The commercial acid is prepared from this salt. It is used in dyeing and calico printing, and is poisonous.

Oxalic Ether. (COO),(C,Ht),. Ethyl oxalate; liquid; bpt. 186.1° C. (cor), having an aromatic odor; prepared from oxalic acid and alcohol.

Oxalli. Wood-sorrel. Genus of small, showy-flowered herbs of the Geranium family, of wide geographical distribution. Some of them are cultivated for ornament.

Oxaluria. Name given to a supposed diseased condition in which calcium oxalate is present in the urine. A distinct disease is denied by many, and the abnormal condition of the urine is asserted to be but a symptom of some form of dyspepsia. As it occurs largely in the nervously depressed or gouty, this probably is the correct view.

Oxalyl. Group or radical. C,0,; derived from oxalic acid by the removal of two OH groups.

Oxamide. (CONH,),. White crystalline powder, which sublimes and partially decomposes on heating; made by treating oxalic ether with ammonium hydroxide.

Oxea. Spicule, which is a rhobdus pointed at both ends; found in the sponge genus Rosella.

Oxcnden, Ashton, D.D., b. 1808. Bp. of Montreal 1869-78, rural dean of Canterbury 1879-84; author of many popular devotional books.

Oxenford, John, 1812-1877. English dramatist and translator: dramatic critic of the London Times from 1846.

Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe. 1829-1888. English R. C. divine from 1857. Atonement, 1865-81; Esehatology. 1876.

Oxenstierna, Axel, Count, 1583-1654. Chancellor of Sweden 1611; powerful under Gustavus Adolphus; negotiator of several treaties; head of the Protestant League 1633; guardian of Queen Christina; ablest statesman of his time.

Ox-Eye. Yellow-flowered coarse herbs of the genus Heliopsis, of the Composite family, natives of e. N. America.

Ox-Eye, Sea. Shrubs of the j;enus Borrichia, natural family Compositce, growing on the seacoast of the s.e. U. S. and the W. Indies. .

Ox-Eye Daisy. See Daisy.

Oxford. City of Oxfordshire, on the Thames (or "Isis") and Cherwell. 52 m. w.n.w. of London; long famous for its university, chartered 1201. Here Latimer. Ridley, and Cranmer were burned 1555-56. Pop., 1891, 45,741.

Oxford, Robert Harley, Earl Of, 1661-1724. M.P. 1690; Speaker 1701; Sec. of State 1704; Chancellor of Exchequer 1710; Earl and High Treasurer 1711-14; impeached 1715, and in prison till 1717; at first a Whig, later a high Tory; founder of the Harleian library or collection.

Oxford University. There was an academy here in 802, but organized teaching cannot be traced back of 1133. It was

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chartered by Henry III. 1248, by Henry VIII. 1510, and incorporated by Elizabeth 1570. It has 23 colleges, of which 14 antedate the Reformation, and 6 halls. University Coll., founded 1249, is accounted the oldest, but Merton was the first to receive its statutes, 1264, and has the oldest library in England. 1858 saw many reforms in both Oxford and Cambridge; 1871, the abolition of religious tests, and 1877, the removal of nearly all remaining discriminations against dissenters. The number of undergraduates increased from 1,526 in 1862 to 3,365 in 1896; at the last date it had 95 on the teaching staff. Local examinations were initiated 1858; University extension began in Cambridge 1867.

Ox-gall. Bile or bitter fluid secreted by the liver of the ox. It is used for scouring cloth, cleansing carpets, and, when refined, by artists in mixing colors.

Oxidation. Union of oxygen with other substances. In a wider sense the term is applied to chemical changes resulting in the addition of negative radicles, simple or compound, to elements or compounds; or a decrease in the relative quantity of the positive radicle of a compound, whether or not accompanied by the substitution of negative radicles.

Oxide, Organic. (CH3)aO. Regarded as derived from water, HsO, by replacement of the two hydrogen atoms by two similar or different radicals. Other oxides are known as ethylene oxide. See Ethers.

Oxides. Compounds formed by the union of oxygen with some other element. Acid oxides are those which, when treated with water, yield acids (anhydrides); e.g., sulphur trioxide. Basic oxides, when treated with water, yield a base; c.;/.. sodium oxide.

Oxidizing Agent. Substance which will readily give up its oxygen to another substance.

Oxley, James Macdonald, b. 1855. Canadian author of law-books and stories for boys.

Ox-Lip. Primula elatior. Showy-flowered herb of the Primrose family, native of Europe; cultivated for ornament.

Oxus, or Amoo Daria. River of w. Asia. It heads in the Hindu Kush Mts., and flows n.w. to the sea of Aral. Length 1,600 m.

Oxyacids. See Hydroxyacids and Acid.

Oxydactylia. Tribe of Phaneroglossa, including forms with the toes pointed. Two groups are distinguished: Raniformia (Frogs), and Bufoniformia (Toads). The Ranidce are Water Frogs with webbed toes and hind feet formed for jump

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Brasenose College. Oxford—The Quadrangle (showing also Spire of St. Mary's and Dome of Radcliffe Library).

Yellow-bellied Frog (Bombina'.or pachypua).

ing. The Pelobatidce are Land Frogs, which resemble Toads, but have teeth on the maxillaries: Bombinator is an example. Toads (Bnfo) have no teeth, are of clumsy form, the legs nearly equal in length, and the skin warty.

Oxygen. O. At. wt. 16, sp. gr. 1.105, valence II. Discovered by Priestley 1774: colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, slightly soluble in water, forming eight-ninths of water, onefifth of the air, and almost half of the solid earth; first obtained by the decomposition of mercuric oxide by heat. This is a convenient way of preparing it in small quantities: a better and cheaper method consists in heating a mixture of one part of manganese dioxide and two of potassium chlorate. It is made in large quantities for use in the oxyliydrogen-blowpipe, Drummond Light, etc. It combines with all elements except fluorine, and is a constituent of almost all acids and all bases. It is liquefied at —118° C. and 50 atm.; the liquid is bright blue, sp. gr. .9.

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Oxygenated Water. See Hydrogen Dioxide.

Oxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin (q.v.) containing a definite quantity of oxygen in loose combination, giving it a bright red color. It is found normally in the red blood-corpuscle and more abundantly in the arterial blood. The change of color, after the blood has gone through the capillaries and entered the veins, is due to some of the oxyhemoglobin giving up its oxygen in the tissue for the various bio-chemical processes and becoming hemoglobin, which again changes to oxyhemoglobin in the lungs. It requires an amount of oxygen equivalent to 1.76 c.c. at 0" C. and bar. 760 mm. to change one gin, of hemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin, and this proportion is constant. See Circulation Of The Blood, Blood, and Respiration.

Oxyliydrogen Blowpipe. Apparatus for producing intense heat. The oxygen and hydrogen are led from two different sources to a jet consisting of a tube for the delivery of the oxygen, with a larger tube around it, the hydrogen being brought in through the annular space. Sometimes the gases are mixed in the body of the blowpipe. Invented by Dr. R. Hare in 1801. See Drummond Light.

Oxyrhyncha (majacea). See Crabs.

Oxystomata. See Crabs.

Oxytriclia. Genus of Hypotrieha. It has cilia and bristles on the under side, by which it can walk over the surface of submerged objects, as plant stems.

Oxyuris. Pin-worm infesting the rectum of children. The females are larger than the males. See Ascarid^e.

Oyer. Hearing an instrument read on which an action was brought.—Oyer And Terminer. Court of original jurisdiction over important crimes.

Oyster. See Ostreid^e.

Oyster-Catcher (h^mato Puspalliatus). Shore bird (see L1MICOL.1E) having short bright-colored legs, toes three-webbed at the base, a bill 3 in. long, and body 18 in. The upper parts are blackish, white beneath. It feeds on Crustacea, not on oysters.

Oyster Culture. Artificial rearing of oysters for the market dates from the Roman period or even earlier, but only in America has it assumed vast proportions; 28,263,847 bushels, worth $16,152,257, being marketed in 1892, four

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These beds are public, and any one can take oysters from them: the consequence is that they are fast being destroyed. At present the oysters taken from them are too small for market, being less than a year old. They are seed, which the oysterplanter procures and places upon designated areas to fatten for market. Large market oysters are four or five years old, and have been in the planter's care three or four years. The discovery by Brooks of the bisexuality of our oysters, makes it possible to breed them as we do fishes. See PISCICULTURE. The attempt to raise oysters from the eggs dates from the experiments of Coste in France 1858. although earlier experiments were known. As the French oyster, Oatrea edulis, is hermaphroditic and viviparous, it is possible to get a catch of spat on submerged sticks, tiles, or shells, only by planting this cultch near spawning oysters. A similar method of catching oyster spat is practiced on a large scale in the waters of Long Island Sound, oyster shells being planted as cultch. This method is resorted to as fast as the natural seed beds are depleted. It has been successfully introduced into Virginia waters. The American 03-ster, O. inrginiana, is dioecious and oviparous; the germs of both sexes being spawned into the water to shift for themselves, great loss of possible seed results, so that experiments have been made to utilize this spawn by more artificial methods (especially by Claire-culture). The experiments have been successful, but oystermen have not yet applied these methods on a commercial scale. Oyster-Plant. See Salsify.

Oyster-Shell Bark-Louse (mytilaspis Pomorum). Insect parasite of apple and other fruit trees, introduced into America from Europe. It lives under an oyster-shaped scale, J in. long, of same color as the bark. Eggs hatch in spring, when a wash of strong soapsuds or kerosene spray may be employed as a remedy.

Ozanam, Antoine Frederic, 1813-1853. French historical writer and critic; prof. Sorbonne 1841. Dante, 1839; Civilization in 5th Century, 1845, tr. 1868; German Studies, 1847-49.

Ozark Hills. Area of broken country, rising in places to ridges and hills of considerable height, in s. Mo., w. Ark., and s. Indian Territory; most important in Ark., where they consist mainly of abrupt e. and w. ridges of quartzite, 1,000 to 3,000 ft. high.

Ozena. Form of nasal catarrh accompanied by an offensive discharge. The disease is disagreeable to possess and difficult to cure. It is the form largely dwelt upon in the circulars and advertisements of the venders of nostrums for catarrh.

Ozcrof, Vladislas Alexandrovich, 1770-1816. Russian tragic dramatist. CEdipus and Athene, 1804; Fingal, 1805; Dimitri Donskoi, 1807; Polyxena, 1809.

Ozokerite. Mineral wax; natural paraffin: substance consisting of carbon and hydrogen, and resembling wax or spermaceti in appearance, being nearly white when pure, but usually darkened by foreign matter. It was found in Moldavia 1833. in a bed of coal. Boryslaw, in Galicia, has been since 1859 the chief source of supply. Large deposits exist in Utah. It is widely used in the arts as a substitute for bee's-wax and in the manufacture of electrical insulators and candles.

Ozone. Allotropic form of oxygen, the molecule of which has the formula 03; discovered by Schonbein 1840; blue gas of characteristic odor, occurring in minute quantities in the atmosphere, especially during electrical storms; made by passing a series of electric sparks through an atmosphere of oxygen; much more active than oxygen; strongly irritating to the throat membranes. At 270° C. it is converted into oxygen. It condenses to a blue liquid at —106° C.

Ozone Tests. Chemically prepared paper which, upon being exposed to the air, is changed in its tint if any ozone is present. Thallium hydroxide is turned brown, and faintly acid litmus paper with potassium iodide is turned blue.

Ozononietry. Art of measuring the quantity of ozone in the atmosphere.

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Paca, William, 1740-1799. Delegate to Congress 1774-79; signer of the Declaration of Independence; judge of Md. courts 1778-82; Gov. of Md. 1782-86; U. S. District Judge from 1789.

Pacchionian Bodle§. Little bodies formed in connection with the middle membrane covering the brain (Arachnoid), which frequently contain chalky concretions that produce little depressions on the under side of the skull by their pressure.

Pace. See Gaits.

Pachcco y Osorio, Rodrigo, Marquis Of Cerralvo, d. ab.1650. Viceroy of Mexico 1624-35.

Pacliomlus, ab. 292-348. Egyptian monk, founder of the first monastery, on Tabenna in the Nile, ab. 340, and of the first nunnery. Before his time each monk was solitary. 7,000 of both sexes were under his care.

Pachuca. Mining town of Mexico, 56 m. n.e. of Mexico. Here Medina in 1557 discovered and used the patio process for the extraction of silver. The silver mines here were worked before the Spanish conquest. Pop., 1889, 32,800.

Pachyderinata. See Diplarthra.

Pachyglossa. See Crassilikquia.

Pachymeres, Gioroios, 1242-ab.l310. Byzantine historian.

Pacificator, The. Name given to Paul Ferry (q.v.).

Pacific Ocean. Largest body of water on the globe, stretching from America to Asia and the E. India islands, a distance of 12,000 m., and from Bering Strait to the Antarctic Continent. Its area is ab. 67,500,000 sq. m., its mean depth ab. 2,500 fathoms, and maximum depth 5,000 fathoms. It contains vast numbers of small islands, some of which are volcanic in origin, others the work of coral polyps. It was first seen by Balboa at Darien 1513, and named bv Magalhaes, who first sailed it 1520.

Pacific Railways. See Railways.

Pacini, Giovanni, 1796-1867. Italian composer of ab. 90 operas, popular only at home.

Pacinottl, Antonio, b. 1841. Italian electrician. The inventor 1860 of a dynamo-electric machine similar to that used later by Gramme.

Pacioli, Lucas, d. 1510. Italian Franciscan, author of the earliest printed book on arithmetic and algebra. Summa Arithmetica Geometria proporzioiii e proporzionalita, 1494.

Pacinian Corpuscles. Oval bodies about two mm. long in which a nerve fiber terminates. They are found in greatest abundance in those parts of the body where the sense of touch is most developed.

Packard, Alpheus Sprino, M.D., b. 1889. Prof, of Zoology and Geology in Brown Univ. 1878; most eminent as an entomologist; prolific writer.—His father, Alpheus SPRING, D.D.. 1798-1884, was prof. Bowdoin Coll. from 1824, and its historian 1882.

Packer, Asa, 1806-1879. Builder and pres. Lehigh Valley Railroad; M.C. from Pa. 1853-57; founder of Lehigh Univ., to which he gave or bequeathed $2,500,000.

Packer, William Fisher, 1807-1870. Gov. of Pa. 1858-61.

Packing. In Mechanics, materials used to prevent leakage where a moving piece has different pressures on the two ends of its surfaces of contact. For packing of pistons and plungers see those titles. For rods and valve-stems some form of fibrous material made from cotton is usual, either by itself or in conjunction with rubber, which gives elasticity. This is pressed in upon the rod by conical surfaces (see Stuffing Box), with just pressure enough to give it a fluid tight contact with the moving rod, and yet without excessive friction. Metallic packings are also much used, and, when well taken care of, work satisfactorily. They are usually alloys of the type of Babbitt metal, and get pressure from springs and conical contacts. Cotton lamp-wick, canvas and rubber, paper and asbestos fiber, are bases of numerous packings.

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anthracite regions synonymously with the English term chocks or nogs.

Pact. In Roman Law, agreement: if so made as to be legally obligatory, it was a contract; otherwise it was nude or naked. In English Law, a nude pact is an agreement without a legal consideration.

Pactolus. Brook of Lydia, w. Asia Minor. Croesus was supposed to have been enriched by the gold-dust which it bore down from Mt. Tmolus.

Pacuvlus, Marcus, ab. 220-130 B.C. Roman dramatist, whose works were mostly adaptations from the Greek. Fragments remain.

Paddock, Algernon Sidney, b. 1830. U. S. Senator from

Nebraska 1875-81 and 1887-93.

Paddock, Benjamin Henry, D.D., 1828-1893. P.E. Bp. of Mass. from 1873, and historian of the diocese 1885.—His brother, John Adams, D.D., 1825-1894, was P.E. Bp. of Olympia, Wash., from 1880.

Padella. Shallow vessel of metal or earthenware used in illuminations.

Paderborn. Old town of Westphalia, 50 m. s.w. of Hanover. It lias a fine cathedral dating from 1163, and had a R. C. university 1614-1819. The coinage of its bishops was extensive ab.1600-1789. Pop., 1890, 17,986.

Paderewski, Ignace Jan, b. 1860. Polish piano-forte virtuoso and composer; known in Europe since 1887. He made concert tours in America in 1891-92, 1893, and 1895-96.

Padilla, Juan De, d. 1521. Gov. of Saragossa; leader of a revolt against governmental oppression; hero of Spanish legends and plays, with his wife, Maria, d. 1531.

Padishah. Title of Turkish and Persian sovereigns.

Padua. Ancient city of n. Italy, on the Brenta, 22 m. w. of Venice; birthplace of Livy; subject to Rome from 215 B.C.; twice sacked by Goths and Huns in 5th century; held by Venice 1405-1797, and then by Austria. Its university, founded 1221, has ab. 70 teachers, 1,400 students, and a library of 160,000 vols. The city has many old and fine buildings: its palace was completed 1219. Pop., 1892, 79,500.

Paducah. Capital of McCracken co., Ky., on the Ohio and Tennessee rivers; scene of battle, March 25, 1864, between Union troops with gunboats and 6,000 Confederates under Gen. Forrest. Pop., 1890, 13,076.

Piean. Joyful or triumphant song, originally a hymn to Apollo.

Psedobaptists. Those who practice infant baptism; i.e., the vast majority of Christians.

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