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cine bird, related to the wrens: it seeks its food on the bottom Overberg, BERNHARD, 1754-1826. German R.C. theologian. of swift brooks. Species of this genus occur in both bemi

Overburden. In Mining, superficial waste rock that has spberes.

to be removed in open workings. Oval. 1. Re-entrant curve having two foci, the distances

Overbury, SIR THOMAS, 1581-1613. English author, from which to any point in the curve have a constant relation.

knighted 1608; imprisoned in the Tower, and poisoned there. The noteworthy ovals are the Cartesian and Cassian, each hay

Characters, 1614. ing several peculiar specific forms. 2. Figure formed by inter

Overhand. Operations in which the miner stands under secting arcs of circles.

the rock he is excavating. Ovalo AND Cavetto. Molding whose outline is the

Overland Route. 1. From Europe to Asia, via Egypt, quadrant of a circle: when convex it is an ovalo, when con

before opening of Suez Canal, as opposed to the voyage around cave a cavetto.

Africa. 2. To California by the plains, prior to construction Ovampo. Bantu people of w. Africa, in the German terri- i of Pacific R.R., as against the voyage around Cape Horn. tory, s. of the Cuanene.

Overlap. In Geology, when the newer or more recent Ovando, NICOLAS DE, 1460–1518. Governor of Hispaniola

members of a formation extend beyond the beds below, of the 1502–9. He refused shelter to Columbus in a storm, and nearly i same series, the former are said to overlap the latter. exterminated the natives.

Overproduction. Excess of production in certain lines, Ovariotomy. Operation to remove an ovary. It is indi

or production the ready distribution of which is prevented by cated when it is diseased i.e. ovarian tumor) or when there is

some imperfection in the organization of exchange. a reflex neurotic condition due to a hyper-sensitive condition without evidence of organic change in the organ. Ephraim

Overreaching. Said of a horse when he throws his hind M.Dowell, of Ky., first removed an ovarian tumor 1809. The

foot against the heels or sole of the forefoot. Long hoofs or removal of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes is now a frequent

large toe-calks on the fore feet will cause the trouble. operation and is generally successful.

Overshot Water Wheel. Water wheel or motor in Ovary. Lowest portion of the pistil of flowers, containing

which a wheel of large diameter is mounted on a horizontal

axis, and the water is laid on without head at a point just bethe ovules.-Organ in animals which produces the eggs, or ova. In a woman there are two, 14 in. long, 4 in. wide, and į in.

low the upper end of the vertical diameter in the direction in

which the wheel is to turn. The water acts therefore by its thick, on either side of the uterus, to which they are connected by the Fallopian tubes, through which the ova pass to the

weight alone to turn the wheel, since it comes to it without uterus. At the time of menstruation the ova pass into the ov

he ova | shock. The buckets on the periphery of the wheel should ary by the rupture of the Graafian follicle in the cortical coating of the ovary, in which they mature. This coating is estimated to contain 30,000 ova. The ovaries are analogous to the testes of the male, and the ova are impregnated in the uterus. They are endowed with a generous nerve supply, and are frequently the cause of obscure nervous affections.

Ovate. Leaves or other organs which resemble in outline the longitudinal section of an egg, being broadest below the middle and not more than twice longer than wide, as in the Apple leaf.

Ovation. The Romans honored a victorious general either with the TRIUMPH (q.v.), or by the Ovation, wherein the general entered the city on foot, clad in a magisterial robe and wearing a myrtle crown. A sacrifice closed the ceremonies.

Oven. Chambers in which objects are baked by artificial heat. The early Egyptian oven was a crock sunk in the ground and heated by a fire built inside. The old type of baker's oven was a brick chamber, domed. Fire was made inside, and when the oven was sufficiently heated the ashes were raked out and the dough put in with a long wooden spade. Now most ovens are heated by fires built in a firespace, by superheated steam in pipes, or by gas. Loaves found in a Pompeiian bakery indicate that the name of the meal was stamped on bread.

Overbeck, FRIEDRICH, 1789–1869. German religious painter, important historically but weak as an artist, although dis

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Overshot Water Wheel. nearly fill with water, and should be of such a shape as not to be emptied too soon on the lower part of the arc. "The length of the wheel varies with the amount of power required and water available; the diameter depends on the height of the fall of water. This type of wheel is cumbrous and costly, and slowmoving. It has been largely replaced by the turbine wheels. Its efficiency is from 70 to 90 per cent. One at Laxey, England, is 727 ft. in diameter and furnishes ab. 150 H.P.

Overskou, THOMAS, 1798-1873. Author of Danish comedies, and historian of the Danish Theater, 7 vols., 1854–76.

Overstone, SAMUEL JONES LOYD, LORD, 1796–1883. M. P. 1819, Baron 1850; writer on Bank of England.

Overt Act. Attempt to commit a crime.

Overtones. So-called partial tones which accompany the fundamental tone in the complex sensation known as a clang. They are caused by the partial vibrations of the body whose complete vibration gives the fundamental tone. The number and variety of the overtones give the distinguishing quality or timbre to tones, voices, or musical instruments.

They include the harmonic overtones or harmonics, and may mm

include certain tones which are inbarmonic. Christ Blessing Little Children, by Overbeck.

Overture. Opening musical piece of a drama, especially a tinguished for beauty of composition, simplicity of expression,

lyric drama or opera. Originally it was vocal, and the first ingrace, and deep religious feeling.

strumental introductions were written in the vocal style. In its

perfection it adopted the sonata form, and this was maintained Overbeck, JOHANN ADOLF, b. 1826 at Antwerp. Prof.

in the overtures whose themes were borrowed from the operas Leipzig 1858; writer on Greek art and antiquities.

which they introduced. The best of the overtures of BeeOverbeek de Meijer, GILLIS VAN, b. 1831. Prof. Utrecht thoven, Wagner and others seek to convey the emotional con1877; medical writer.

| tents of the dramas with which they are associated.

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Overweg, ADOLF, 1822–1852. German explorer of central Geologist of Indiana 1860; prof. Univ. Indiana 1864–79. His Africa.

chief geological work consisted in seismic investigations and Overyssel (TRANSISULANIA). Dutch province e. of Zuyder

speculations on the land masses of the globe. Zee; formerly an independent state. Its coinage was abun

Owen, ROBERT, 1771-1858. Welsh social reformer; cotton dant 1560-1770, as was that of its cities, Zwolle, Campen, and manufacturer in Scotland, where he introduced many reforms Deventer, in 17th century. Area 1,291 sq. m.; pop., 1893, in the treatment of his employés. In his works, New View of 302,508.

Society, 1812, and New Moral World, 1836, he advocated adOvicell. 1. Case containing ova, especially during devel

vanced socialistic views, which he endeavored to put into prac

tice at New Harmony, Ind., 1824. He failed in this, and in opment; e.g., occia of Bryozoa. 2. Synonym for ovum.

subsequent attempts in England. His opinions were shared by Ovid (PUBLIUS OVIDIUS Naso), 43 B.C.-18. Latin poet of his eldest son, ROBERT DALE, LL.D., 1800–1877, who remained the court of Augustus. Here he associated with the writers in the U. S., became M.C. 1843–47, Minister to Naples 1855–58, of the Golden Age, and composed his chief works. Falling and a prolific writer. Footfalls on the Boundary of Another into disfavor with the Emperor, he was banished to Tomi on World, 1859, and The Debatable Land, 1872, are in the Spirituthe Black Sea, where he died. While less dignified and rev alist interest. erent than Virgil, he had great versatility and recognition of

Owens, JOHN EDWARD, 1824-1886. Anglo-American actor outward beauty. The Metamorphoses and Heroides give many

and manager, best known from 1864 as "Solon Shingle." charming mythological stories, and the Amores, Tristia, Epis

Owens College. At Manchester; named from John tles, and other minor works are graceful and sensuous.

Owens, its founder, who died 1846, bequeathing nearly £100,000 Ovidæ. Sheep family of the Cavicorn Ruminants, includ as endowment. It was opened 1851 for arts, science, law, and ing the Goat (Capra), Ibex, and Sheep (Ovis).

medicine, and imposes no religious tests. A local Working. Oviduct. Passage through which the ovum leaves the

men's College was incorporated with it 1861. It affiliated with ovary; it leads to the uterus in mammals.

others in the Victoria Univ., chartered 1880. Oviedo. Ancient town of n.w. Spain, 20 m. from Bay of

Owen Sound. Town of Ontario, Canada, at the head of Biscay. It has a fine cathedral, begun 781, and a university, a long bay of the same name off Georgian Bay. Pop., 1890, founded 1574. Pop. ab. 43,000.

7,500. Oviedo y Valdez, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE, 1478–1557. Owen's River. In s.e. Cal., flowing through a desert Historian of the Spanish conquests in the New World, 1526-35, valley, discharging into 0. lake, whose water is strongly imtr. 1555.

pregnated with salt and carbonate of soda. The lake has no Ovipara. Group of Diptera, including Coarctatoe and

visible outlet. Obtectæ.

Owls. Raptatorial birds of family Strigidæ, including 100 Ovipositor. Appendage at end of abdomen of female in

species and numerous genera. They have large eyes, looking

forward, encircled by stiff feathers, and with vertical pupil. sects, by which the eggs are deposited. It is often long and

Most are nocturnal and see poorly by day, but Surnia, the adapted for piercing into the tissues of plants and animals in which the larvæ are parasitic; it is then called a terebra. Or

Hawk Owl, and Nyctea, snowy owls of arctic regions, feed by

day. Their food consists of rodents, insects, birds, vermin, and it may be adapted for sawing (serra), or be a sting (aculeus).

fish. The Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) attains a wt. Ovisac. Sac-like structure in which many Invertebrates

of 8 lbs., and attacks poultry. Owls hear well; some, e.g. carry their eggs after they are extruded.

Asio otus, have a well developed feathered concha. The long Ovolo. Convex molding having an egg-shaped outline: ears, by which A. otus is known, refers to the horns of feathers, especially applied to the Doric capital.

developed above the eyes. Owls fly noiselessly, owing to their Ovotestis. Reproductive organ which produces both ova

soft plumage. The feet have usually a feathered tarsus; the and spermatozoa, as in certain snails.

outer toe is reversible, and in the Fishing Owl the toes are Ovoviviparous. Producing young alive which originally are derived from eggs; word now restricted, since all viviparous animals are also egg-producers. Oviparous indicates that the development of the young takes place outside the body, the eggs being laid or spawned before the young are hatched, as in Fishes and Reptiles. But in these groups there are exceptional species in which the young develop within the maternal body; to such the above term strictly applies.

Ovules. Embryonic seeds contained in ovary of flowers.

Ovulist. One who believed that the ovum is the essential germ and the spermatozoon merely stimulates this to development. Now we know that fertilization is the union within the egg (which is a cell enlarged by being filled with food for the embryo) of two similar and equal nuclei, one derived from the body of the female, the egg nucleus, and one from the male, the spermatozoon. See FERTILIZATION and POLAR GLOBULES.

Ovum. The cell secreted by the ovary, consisting essentially of protoplasm and a nucleus.

Owen, DAVID DALE, M.D., 1807-1860. Son of Robert; in U.S. from 1828. He began 1837 the Geological Survey of Indiana; pub. 1839 a work on the mineral lands of Iowa; conducted 1848–50 a survey of Iowa, Wis., and Minn.; also of Ky. 1854-57 and Ark. 1857-60.

Owen, John, 1560-1622. English author of Latin Epigrams, 1606, tr. 1619.

Owen, JOHN, D.D., 1616–1683. English Puritan of high repute; Chaplain to Cromwell 1649, Dean of Christ Ch., Oxford, 1651-60, Vice-Chancellor 1652–57; author of 80 books. He declined the presidency of Harvard 1670.

Shows Owl (Vyctea scandiaca) and Bearded Owl (Syrnium lapponicum). Owen, John, d. 1898. English author. Evenings with Skeptics, 1881.

Osprey-like. The female is the larger. The size ranges from Owen, JOHN JASON. D.D., LL.D., 1803-1869. Teacher in

6 in., Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium) of tropical forests, to 30 in., N.Y.; editor of Homer, Xenophon, and Thucydides.

Great Gray Owl(Syrnium) of northern regions. Reddish brown

is predominant, but dark and light colors may be exhibited by Owen, Sir RICHARD, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 1804-1892. En

a single brood. The eggs are spherical and pure white. Some glish comparative anatomist and paleontologist, knighted

species breed before the snow has gone, and their eggs hatch a 1883. Besides Fossil Organic Remains, Odontography, 1840, few at a time. Athene noctua, the Little Owl of Europe, is the Hist. British Fossils, Mammals, and Birds, 1846, and Fossil

symbol of learning. Speotyto, the Burrowing Owl, lives in the Reptiles, 1849–51, he wrote much on extinct animals of the

burrows of Prairie-dogs of N. America, or Cavies of S. America, principal British colonies.

on whose young it feeds, in part, while Rattlesnakes associate Owen, RICHARD, LL.D., 1810-1890. Son of Robert; in U.S. | with both as a common enemy. Aluco flammeus, the Barn from 1828; engaged in survey of N. W. Territory 1848; State | Owl, differs from other owls in lacking a manubrium to the

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sternum, and in having its clavicles joined as a furcula to the chartered by Henry III. 1248, by Henry VIII. 1510, and incorkeel.

porated by Elizabeth 1570. It has 23 colleges, of which 14 Ownership. Legal right to a thing, or interest therein,

antedate the Reformation, and 6 halls. University Coll., to the exclusion of all others.

founded 1249, is accounted the oldest, but Merton was the

first to receive its statutes, 1264, and has the oldest library in Ox. See BOVIDÆ.

England. 1858 saw many reforms in both Oxford and CamOxalic Acid, COOH.COOH. Simplest organic dibasic bridge; 1871, the abolition of religious tests, and 1877, the reacid, occurring in many plants, e.g. the oxalis, as potassium moval of nearly all remaining discriminations against dissalt, and in others, e.g. rhubarb, as a calcium salt; white senters. The number of undergraduates increased from 1,526 needles, which decompose on heating. The sodium salt is pre- in 1862 to 3,365 in 1896; at the last date it had 95 on the teachpared by fusing together sawdust and caustic soda. The com- Ting staff. Local examinations were initiated 1858; University mercial acid is prepared from this salt. It is used in dyeing and extension began in Cambridge 1867. calico printing, and is poisonous.

Ox-gall. Bile or bitter fluid secreted by the liver of the ox. Oxalic Ether. (COO),(C,H.). Ethyl oxalate; liquid; bpt. It is used for scouring cloth, cleansing carpets, and, when re186.1° C. (cor), having an aromatic odor; prepared from oxalic fined, by artists in mixing colors. acid and alcohol.

Oxidation. Union of oxygen with other substances. In Oxalis. Wood-sorrel. Genus of small, showy-flowered herbs

a wider sense the term is applied to chemical changes resulting of the Geranium family, of wide geographical distribution. in the addition of negative radicles, simple or compound, to Some of them are cultivated for ornament.

elements or compounds; or a decrease in the relative quantity Oxaluria. Name given to a supposed diseased condition of the positive radicle of a compound, whether or not accomin which calcium oxalate is present in the urine. A distinct panied by the substitution of negative radicles. disease is denied by many, and the abnormal condition of the Oxide, ORGANIC. (CH,)20. Regarded as derived from urine is asserted to be but a symptom of some form of dyspep-water, H,O, by replacement of the two hydrogen atoms by sia. As it occurs largely in the nervously depressed or gouty, two similar or different radicals. Other oxides are known as this probably is the correct view.

ethylene oxide. See ETHERS. Oxalyl. Group or radical. C,0,; derived from oxalic acid Oxides. Compounds formed by the union of oxygen with by the removal of two OH groups.

some other element. Acid oxides are those which, when Oxamide. (CONH,)g. White crystalline powder, which treated with water, yield acids (anhydrides); e.g., sulphur sublimes and partially decomposes on heating; made by treat trioxide. Basic oxides, when treated with water, yield a base; ing oxalic ether with ammonium hydroxide.

e.g., sodium oxide. Oxea. Spicule, which is a rhobdus pointed at both ends; | Oxidizing Agent. Substance which will readily give up found in the sponge genus Rosella.

its oxygen to another substance. Oxenden, ASHTON, D.D., b. 1808. Bp. of Montreal 1869–78, Oxley, JAMES MACDONALD, b. 1855. Canadian author of rural dean of Canterbury 1879-84; author of many popular de- | law-books and stories for boys. votional books.

Ox-Lip. Primula elatior. Showy-flowered herb of the Oxenford, JOHN, 1812–1877. English dramatist and trans Primrose family, native of Europe; cultivated for ornament. lator; dramatic critic of the London Times from 1846.

Oxus, or AMOO DARIA. River of w. Asia. It heads in the Oxenham, HENRY NUTCOMBE, 1829–1888. English R. C.

Hindu Kush Mts., and flows n.w. to the sea of Aral. Length divine from 1857. Atonement, 1865–81; Eschatology, 1876. 1,600 m.

Oxenstierna, AXEL, COUNT, 1583–1654. Chancellor of Oxyacids. See HYDROXYACIDS and ACID.
Sweden 1611; powerful under Gustavus Adolphus; negotiator

Oxydactylia. Tribe of Phaneroglossa, including forms of several treaties; head of the Protestant League 1633; guard

with the toes pointed. Two groups are distinguished: Raniian of Queen Christina; ablest statesman of his time.

formia (Frogs), and Bufoniformia (Toads). The Ranido are Ox-Eye. Yellow-flowered coarse herbs of the genus Heli

Water Frogs with webbed toes and bind feet formed for jumpopsis, of the Composite family, natives of e. N. America.

Ox-Eye, SEA. Shrubs of the genus Borrichia, natural family Compositre, growing on the seacoast of the s.e. U. S. and the W. Indies.

Ox-Eye Daisy. See Daisy.

Oxford. City of Oxfordshire, on the Thames (or “ Isis ") and Cherwell, 52 m. w.n.w. of London; long famous for its university, chartered 1201. Here Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer were burned 1555–56. Pop., 1891, 45,741.

Oxford, ROBERT HARLEY, EARL OF, 1661–1724. M.P. 1690; Speaker 1701; Sec. of State 1704; Chancellor of Exchequer 1710; Earl and High Treasurer 1711-14; impeached 1715, and in prison till 1717; at first a Whig, later a high Tory; founder of the Harleian library or collection.

Oxford University. There was an academy here in 802, but organized teaching cannot be traced back of 1133. It was


Yellow-bellied Frog (Bombinator pachypus). ing. The Pelobatido are Land Frogs, which resemble Toads, but have teeth on the maxillaries: Bombinator is an example. Toads (Bufo) have no teeth, are of clumsy form, the legs nearly equal in length, and the skin warty.

Oxygen. 0. At. wt. 16, sp. gr. 1.105, valence II. Discovered by Priestley 1774; colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, slightly soluble in water, forming eight-ninths of water, onefifth of the air, and almost half of the solid earth; first obtained by the decomposition of mercuric oxide by heat. This is a convenient way of preparing it in small quantities; a better and cheaper method consists in heating a mixture of one part of manganese dioxide and two of potassium chlorate. It is made in large quantities for use in the oxyhydrogen-blowpipe, Drummond Light, etc. It combines with all elements except fluorine, and is a constituent of almost all acids and all bases. It is liquefied at -118° C. and 50 atm.; the liquid is bright blue, sp. gr. .9.

Brasenose College, Oxford-The Quadrangle (showing also Spire of St.

Mary's and Dome of Radcliffe Library).



Oxygenated Water. See HYDROGEN DIOXIDE.

These beds are public, and any one can take oysters from them: Oxyhemoglobin. HEMOGLOBIN (av.) containing a defi. | the consequence is that they are fast being destroyed. At nite quantity of oxygen in loose combination, giving it a bright

present the oysters taken from them are too small for market, red color. It is found normally in the red blood-corpuscle and

being less than a year old. They are seed, which the oystermore abundantly in the arterial blood. The change of color,

| planter procures and places upon designated areas to fatten after the blood has gone through the capillaries and entered

for market. Large market oysters are four or five years old, the veins, is due to some of the oxyhemoglobin giving up its

and have been in the planter's care three or four years. The oxygen in the tissue for the various bio-chemical processes and

discovery by Brooks of the bisexuality of our oysters, makes it becoming hemoglobin, which again changes to oxyhemoglobin

possible to breed them as we do fishes. See PISCICULTURE. in the lungs. It requires an amount of oxygen equivalent to

The attempt to raise oysters from the eggs dates from the ex1.76 c.c. at 0° C. and bar. 760 mm. to change one gm, of hemo

periments of Coste in France 1858, although earlier experiments globin to oxyhemoglobin, and this proportion is constant. See

were known. As the French oyster, Ostrea edulis, is hermaphCIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, BLOOD, and RESPIRATION.

roditic and viviparous, it is possible to get a catch of spat

on submerged sticks, tiles, or shells, only by planting this Oxyhydrogen Blowpipe. Apparatus for producing

cultch near spawning oysters. A similar method of catchintense heat. The oxygen and hydrogen are led from two

ing oyster spat is practiced on a large scale in the waters of different sources to a jet consisting of a tube for the delivery

Long Island Sound, oyster shells being planted as cultch. of the oxygen, with a larger tube around it, the hydrogen

This method is resorted to as fast as the natural seed beds are being brought in through the annular space. Sometimes the

depleted. It has been successfully introduced into Virginia gases are mixed in the body of the blow pipe. Invented by Dr.

waters. The American oyster, O. virginiana, is diæcious and R. Hare in 1801. See DRUMMOND LIGHT.

oviparous; the germs of both sexes being spawned into the Oxyrhyncha (MAJACEA). See CRABS.

water to shift for themselves, great loss of possible seed reOxystomata. See CRABS.

sults, so that experiments have been made to utilize this spawn Oxytricha. Genus of Hypotricha. It has cilia and bris

by more artificial methods (especially by Claire-culture). The tles on the under side, by which it can walk over the surface

experiments have been successful, but oystermen have not yet of submerged objects, as plant stems.

applied these methods on a commercial scale. Oxyuris. Pin-worm infesting the rectum of children. The

Oyster-Plant. See SALSIFY. females are larger than the males. See ASCARIDÆ.

Oyster-Shell Bark-Louse (MYTILASPIS POMORUM). InOyer. Hearing an instrument read on which an action was

sect parasite of apple and other fruit trees, introduced into brought.-OYER AND TERMINER. Court of original jurisdiction

America from Europe. It lives under an oyster-shaped scale, over important crimes.

in. long, of same color as the bark. Eggs hatch in spring,

when a wash of strong soapsuds or kerosene spray may be Oyster. See OSTREIDÆ.

employed as a remedy. Oyster-Catcher (HÆMATO PUSPALLIATUS). Shore bird (see

Ozanam, ANTOINE FRÉDÉRIC, 1813–1853. French historiLIMICOLÆ) having short bright-colored legs, toes three-webbed

cal writer and critic; prof. Sorbonne 1841. Dante, 1839; Civiliat the base, a bill 3 in. long, and body 18 in. The upper parts

zation in 5th Century, 1845, tr. 1868; German Studies, 1847–49. are blackish, white beneath. It feeds on crustacea, not on

Ozark Hills. Area of broken country, rising in places to oysters.

ridges and hills of considerable height, in s. Mo., w. Ark., and Oyster Culture. Artificial rearing of oysters for the

s. Indian Territory; most important in ark., where they conmarket dates from the Roman period or even earlier, but

sist mainly of abrupt e, and w. ridges of quartzite, 1,000 to 3,000 only in America has it assumed vast proportions; 28,263,847

ft. high. bushels, worth $16,152,257, being marketed in 1892, four

Ozena. Form of nasal catarrh accompanied by an offensive discharge. The disease is disagreeable to possess and difficult to cure. It is the form largely dwelt upon in the circulars and advertisements of the venders of nostrums for catarrh.

Ozerof, VLADISLAS ALEXANDROVICH, 1770-1816. Russian tragic dramatist. (Edipus and Athene, 1804; Fingal, 1805; Dimitri Donskoi, 1807; Polyxena, 1809.

Ozokerite. Mineral wax; natural paraffin ; substance consisting of carbon and hydrogen, and resembling wax or spermaceti in appearance, being nearly white when pure, but usually darkened by foreign matter. It was found in Moldavia 1833, in a bed of coal. Boryslaw, in Galicia, has been since 1859 the chief source of supply. Large deposits exist in Utah. It is widely used in the arts as a substitute for bee's-wax and in the manufacture of electrical insulators and candles.

Ozone. Allotropic form of oxygen, the molecule of which has the formula 0,; discovered by Schönbein 1840; blue gas of characteristic odor, occurring in minute quantities in the atmosphere, especially during electrical storms; made by passing a series of electric sparks through an atmosphere of oxygen; much more active than oxygen; strongly irritating to the throat membranes. At 270° C. it is converted into oxygen. It

condenses to a blue liquid at —106° C. Dredging for Oysters.

Ozone Tests. Chemically prepared paper which, upon sevenths from Maryland and Virginia. The natural bed where being exposed to the air, is changed in its tint if any ozone is the oyster matures of itself is a bottom containing shells or present. Thallium hydroxide is turned brown, and faintly acid gravel to which the young can attach themselves, and is so litmus paper with potassium iodide is turned blue. situated as to receive the washings of rivers at every low tide, Ozonometry. Art of measuring the quantity of ozone bringing food (principally diatoms) into the sea, for the oysters in the atmosphere.

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Paca, WILLIAM, 1740-1799. Delegate to Congress 1774-79; Pack Wall. In Coal Mining, wall of stone or rubble, signer of the Declaration of Independence; judge of Md. courts built along a gob road to hold up the roof; also used in the 1778–82; Gov. of Md. 1782-86; U. s. District Judge from 1789.

Pacchionian Bodies. Little bodies formed in connection with the middle membrane covering the brain (Arachnoid), which frequently contain chalky concretions that produce little depressions on the under side of the skull by their pressure.

Pace. See GAITS.

Pacheco y Osorio, RODRIGO, MARQUIS OF CERRALVO, d. ab.1650. Viceroy of Mexico 1624–35.

Pachomius, ab, 292–348. Egyptian monk, founder of the first monastery, on Tabenna in the Nile, ab. 340, and of the first nunnery. Before his time each monk was solitary. 7,000 of both sexes were under his care.

Pachuca. Mining town of Mexico, 56 m. n.e. of Mexico. Here Medina in 1557 discovered and used the patio process for the extraction of silver. The silver mines here were worked before the Spanish conquest. Pop., 1889, 32,800.

Pachydermata. See DIPLARTHRA.
Pachyglossa. See CRASSILINGUIA.
Pachymeres, GIORGIOS, 1242-ab. 1310. Byzantine histo-

Pack Wall. rian.

anthracite regions synonymously with the English term chocks Pacificator, THE. Name given to PAUL FERRY (q.v.). or nogs.

Pacific Ocean. Largest body of water on the globe, | Pact. In Roman Law, agreement: if so made as to be stretching from America to Asia and the E. India islands, a legally obligatory, it was a contract; otherwise it was nude or distance of 12,000 m., and from Bering Strait to the Antarctic | naked. In English Law, a nude pact is an agreement without Continent. Its area is ab. 67,500,000 sq. m., its mean depth ab. a legal consideration. 2,500 fathoms, and maximum depth 5,000 fathoms. It contains Pactolus. Brook of Lydia, w. Asia Minor. Croesus was vast numbers of small islands, some of which are volcanic in supposed to have been enriched by the gold-dust which it bore origin, others the work of coral polyps. It was first seen by

| down from Mt. Tmolus. Balboa at Darien 1513, and named by Magalhaes, who first

Pacuvius, MARCUS, ab. 220–130 B.C. Roman dramatist, sailed it 1520.

whose works were mostly adaptations from the Greek. FragPacific Railways. See RAILWAYS.

ments remain. Pacini, GIOVANNI, 1796–1867. Italian composer of ab. 90 Paddock, ALGERNON SIDNEY, b. 1830. U.S. Senator from operas, popular only at home.

Nebraska 1875-81 and 1887–93. Pacinotti, ANTONIO, b. 1841. Italian electrician. The in Paddock, BENJAMIN HENRY, D.D., 1828–1893. P.E. Bp. of ventor 1860 of a dynamo-electric machine similar to that used Mass. from 1873, and historian of the diocese 1885.—His brother, later by Gramme.

JOHN ADAMS, D.D., 1825–1894, was P.E. Bp. of Olympia, Wash., Pacioli, LUCAS, d. 1510. Italian Franciscan, author of the from 1880. earliest printed book on arithmetic and algebra. Summa Padella. Shallow vessel of metal or earthenware used in Arithmetica Geometria proporzioni e proporzionalita, 1494. illuminations.

Pacinjan Corpuscles. Oval bodies about two mm. long Paderborn. Old town of Westphalia, 50 m. s.w. of Hanin which a nerve fiber terminates. They are found in greatest over. It has a fine cathedral dating from 1163, and had a R. C. abundance in those parts of the body where the sense of touch university 1614–1819. The coinage of its bishops was extensive is most developed.

ab. 1600–1789. Pop., 1890, 17,986. Packard, ALPHEUS SPRING, M.D., b. 1839. Prof. of Zool Paderewski, IGNACE JAN, b. 1860. Polish piano-forte ogy and Geology in Brown Univ. 1878; most eminent as an

virtuoso and composer; known in Europe since 1887. He made entomologist; prolific writer.-His father, ALPHEUS SPRING,

concert tours in America in 1891-92, 1893, and 1895–96. D.D., 1798–1884, was prof. Bowdoin Coll. from 1824, and its

Padilla, JUAN DE, d. 1521. Gov. of Saragossa; leader of historian 1882.

a revolt against governmental oppression; hero of Spanish Packer, Asa, 1806-1879. Builder and pres. Lehigh Valley legends and plays, with his wife, Maria, d. 1531. Railroad; M.C. from Pa. 1853–57; founder of Lebigh Univ., to

| Padishah. Title of Turkish and Persian sovereigns. which he gave or bequeathed $2,500,000.

Padua. Ancient city of n. Italy, on the Brenta, 22 m. w. Packer, WILLIAM FISHER, 1807-1870. Gov. of Pa. 1858–61. i

of Venice; birthplace of Livy; subject to Rome from 215 B.C.; Packing. In Mechanics, materials used to prevent leak twice sacked by Goths and Huns in 5th century; held by Venice age where a moving piece bas different pressures on the two 1405–1797, and then by Austria. Its university, founded 1221, ends of its surfaces of contact. For packing of pistons and | has ab. 70 teachers, 1,400 students, and a library of 160,000 vols. plungers see those titles. For rods and valve-stems some form The city has many old and fine buildings: its palace was comof fibrous material made from cotton is usual, either by itself

pleted 1219. Pop., 1892, 79,500. or in conjunction with rubber, which gives elasticity. This is pressed in upon the rod by conical surfaces (see STUFFING Box),

Paducah. Capital of McCracken co., Ky., on the Ohio with just pressure enough to give it a fluid tight contact with

and Tennessee rivers; scene of battle, March 25, 1864, between

Union troops with gunboats and 6,000 Confederates under Gen. the moving rod, and yet without excessive friction. Metallic packings are also much used, and, when well taken care of,

Forrest. Pop., 1897, 13,076. work satisfactorily. They are usually alloys of the type of

Pæan. Joyful or triumphant song, originally a hymn to Babbitt metal, and get pressure from springs and conical con

Apollo. tacts. Cotton lamp-wick, canvas and rubber, paper and as- | Pædobaptists. Those who practice infant baptism; i.e., bestos fiber, are bases of numerous packings.

the vast majority of Christians.

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