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black marks on the head, flanks, etc. The forequarters are strongly developed as compared with the hindquarters.

Orzeszkowa, Eliza, b. 1842, m. 1858. Polish novelist and essayist.

Osage Indians. Southern Sioux of Kansas; originally ab. 5,000. They sided with the Confederacy 1861, and are now ab. 1,000, on a reservation in n.e. Indian Territory.

Osage Orange. Toxylon pomiferttm. Thorny tree of the Mulberry family, native of the s. central U. S., bearing a large, yellow fruit, the color and size of a very large orange; also called Bow-wood, and entensively planted for hedges.

Osage River, or Marais Des Cyones. Right hand branch of the Missouri, rising in Kansas, and flowing e. through Mo.; navigable for 50 m. Drainage area 15,262 sq. m.

Osaka, or Ozaka. Seaport of Japan, on s.e. coast of Niphon at the mouth of Kamagawa River, which intersects it with streams and canals; important for its commerce; once



capital of the empire; site of the mint since 1871. Its castle, built ab. 1583 by Hidevoshi, is notable, and contained a line palace, burned 1868. Pop., 1893, 483,600.

Osborn, Lauohton, 1809-1878. American poet.

Osborn, Selleck, 1783-1826. American poet and journalist.

Osborn, Sherard, R. N., 1822-1875. Arctic explorer, in search of Franklin 1849 and 1852; prominent in the Crimean and Chinese wars; Admiral 1873. Arctic Journal, 1852; Sir John Franklin, 1860.

Osborne House. Marine residence of Queen Victoria, built 1845 by Cubitt, on the Isle of Wight, near Cowes.

Osbourne, Lloyd, b. ab. 1865. Stepson of R. L. Stevenson, and his collaborator in The Wrong Box, 1889, Tlie Wreckers, 1893, and The Ebb Tide, 1894.

Oscan. Italic dialect, spoken by Samnite and other tribes, and still important in the time of Ennius; represented only by inscriptions, which go back to 4th century B.C.

Oscan) an, Hatchik, b. 1818. Armenian novelist, resident in America from 1855. The Sultan and his People, 1857.

Oscar I., 1799-1859. Son of Bernadotte; King of Sweden and Norway 1844; publicist and musician.—His son, Oscar II., b. 1829, king 1872, is noted as a poet and orator. Works, 5 vols., 1875-94.

Osceola, 1804-1838. Chief of the Seminole tribe of Indians, who, in retaliation for the enslavement of his wife, began war in Fla. 1835; captured by treachery 1837.

Oscillarlaceae. Order of Cyanophycece, minute blue-green Alga: comprising forms with motile filaments, divided by septa? into numerous tabular pseudocysts.

Oscillating Engine. Steam engine in which the end of the piston-rod fits upon the crank-pin, and the excursion of the crank-pin on both sides of a given diameter of its circle is admitted by causing the cylinder to swing upon trunnions. There being no connecting-rod, the engine is much more compact. The live steam and exhaust pass in and out through the trunnions, and the valve is either moved by being linked to the fixed frame, or else the rocking of the trunnion surface causes ports to be properly opened and closed. Leakage at the

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Oscines. Singing birds; divided into Spizognatha, with conirostral beak, as the Weaver, Finch, Crossbill, and Sparrow, and the CoracognaUue, of which the Wagtail, Thrush, and Crow are dentirostral, the Lark and others conirostral, the Honey-eaters (Meliphagidce) tenuirostral, and the Swallow lissirostral. See Passeres.

Oscott. R. C. college near Birmingham, Eng., founded 1752, enlarged 1835; for education of priests only since 1889.

Osculating Circle. One having the highest order of contact with a curve at a given point. Its radius is called the radius of curvature.

Osculating Circle in Space. One which passes through three consecutive points of a curve in space. Its center is the point where the line of section of two consecutive normal planes cuts the osculating plane.

Osculating Conic. In coordinate geometry, the conditions under which the general conic osculates with a curve of given order can be established, and the specific character of the conic determined, by examining the (invariant) criterion of the general conic in connection with the coordinates of the point of osculation.

Osculating Plane. One coincident with three consecutive points of a curve.

Osculation. Highest order of curve contact.

Osculatrix. Curve having a higher order of contact with a given curve than any other of its kind.

Osculum. Exhalent opening of the sponge. Many of these are not the same as the oscule of the simpler sponges, which represents the exhalent opening of the embryo sponge. Sometimes this opening, simple or branched, becomes reduced to irregular canals that lead to a special set of small pores, secondarily developed in the cortex of the sponge. Such openings are pseudoscula or pseudoprocts.

Osgood, Emma Aline, b. ab.1852. American singer, known chiefly in England since 1876.

Osgood. Frances Saroent (locke), 1811-1850. American poet.

Osgood, Samuel, 1748-1813. Delegate to Congress 178084: Commissioner of Treasury 1785-89; U. S. Postmaster-gen. 1789-91.

Osgood, Samuel, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1880. Pastor in New York 1849-70. Milestones, 1855.

Osgoodites. Millenarian sect in N. H., now extinct.

O'Sliaiiglmcssy, Arthur William Edgar, 1846-1881. English poet.

Oslikosll. Capital of Winnebago CO.. Wis.; on Fox River,

at its mouth in Lake Winnebago. It has large manufactures, especially of lumber. Pop., 1890, 22,836.

Osiandcr, Andreas, 1498-1552. German reformer and theologian, prof. Konigsberg 1549. He modified the doctrine of justification by faith in a mystical direction, which was supposed to bring it nearer to the R. C. view. His followers were

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driven from Prussia 1567; their leader, his son-in-law, Funck, I beheaded for alleged treason 1556.

Osier. See Willow.

Osiris. Chief deity of ancient Egypt; brother and husband of Isis; slain by Set, and avenged by his son Horus; judge of the dead.

Osier, Edward. 1798-1863. English hymnist; ed. Church and King, 1836-37.

Osier, William, M.D., b. 1849. Prof. McGill Univ. 1874, Univ. Pa. 1884. and Johns Hopkins Univ. 1889; medical writer.

Osier's Anemometer. Square plate of metal exposed perpendicular to the wind, whose pressure upon it is resisted by springs.

Osman. See OthMan.

Osmanli. See Turks.

Osman Pasha, b. 1832. Turkish general, distinguished at Plevna, where he blocked the Russian advance Aug.-Dec. 1877.

Osmlc Acid. See Osmium Oxides.


Osmiridium. Alloy of osmium and iridium, found in nature and made artificially for tipping gold pens. See Osmium.

Osmium. Os. At.wt. 190.8, 22.477, sp. ht. .031, valence II., IV., VI., VIII. Infusible; discovered by Tennant 1803; heaviest of all metals; rare. It occurs in platinum ores as an alloy of iridium. When heated, or treated with nitric acid, it is converted into the peroxide, Os04, the vapors of which are poisonous. It is not used in the arts, but an alloy of osmiridium, which is not attacked by acids, is employed for tipping gold pens, and. since it is not oxidizable and nonmagnetic, is sometimes used for the bearings of the mariner's compass.

Osmium Chlorides. OsCU. Dichloride. Brownish-black powder, soluble in water, with a dark-violet color; made by heating powdered osmium in a current of dry, air-freed chlorine.—OsCl4. Tetrachloride. Red substance, soluble in water; made by heating the dichloride in a stream of chlorine.

Osmium Oxides. OsO. Osmium monoxide. Grayishblack, insoluble powder.—OsaO,. Osmium sesquioxide. Black powder, insoluble in acids.—Os03. Osmium dioxide. Masses, of a coppery luster.—Os04. Osmium tetroxide. Usually called osmic acid; formed by heating finely-divided osmium. It sublimes in transparent needles, which are readily soluble in water, yielding a colorless liquid, which does not affect litmus and possesses a burning and caustic taste. It has a powerful, penetrating odor suggestive of chlorine, is very poisonous, and acts violently and seriously upon the eyes.

under parts white. Bill sharply hooked: tarsus long, feet large, with outer toe reversible, and with strong equal claws, adapted

Osmium Sulphides.

precipitate, obtained on

OsS,. Disulphide. Yellowish brown

passing hydrogen sulphide into a le. Precipitated . sulphide from a hydrochloric acid solution of the


soluble osmium salt.—OsSt. Tetrasulphide. Precipitated by hydrogen tetroxide.

Osmosis, or Osmose. Diffusion of a liquid through a membrane. See Endosmosis and Exosmosis.

Osmundacea?. Order of Ferns, of a small number of species, growing mainly in bogs; including the common Royal fern or Flowering fern and the Cinnamon fern.

Osnabriick. Towd of Hanover, on the Hase, 75 m. s.s. w. of Bremen; founded 772; seat of a bishop from ab. 810. Here the peace of Westphalia was signed 1648: George I. of England died on the way to it 1727. It has some manufactures. Pop., 1890, 39.929.

Osorio, Manoel Luiz, Marquis Of Hf.rval, 1808-1879. Brazilian general, distinguished in wars with Uruguay and Paraguay; Senator 1877, Minister of War 1878.

Osphradium. Olfactory organ of Mollusks; patch of sensory cells near each gill.

Ospina, Manuel. 1803-1885. then in exile till 1872.

Osprey (pandion Haliaetus). Falconoid bird, widely distributed, abundant along U. S. Atlantic coast, where it nests in oil' trees. The rarer European Osprey prefers cliffs near inland waters. Length 2 ft., color dark brown, the head and

Pres. of Colombia 1856-61;


for holding fish; a strong flyer. Eggs 2-4, closely blotched with brown.

Ossa AND Pelioil. Mountains in Thessaly; the giants in their war with the gods attempted to scale heaven by piling them on Olympus.

Ossein. Organic material composing one-third of the substance of bone, identical with collagen. Collagen is the substance of which the white fibers of connective tissue are composed.

Ossetish. Iranic language spoken by the Ossetians of the Caucasus. The sound of h, common in Iranian, is absent.

Ossian. Gaelic bard of 3d or 4th century, to whom were ascribed many legends of much later date, probably 1100-1500. These were collected and expanded by James Macpherson (q.v.), 1760. Their origin was the subject of much discussion.

Ossification. Process by which bone-tissue is produced. A formation of cartilaginous substance precedes that of the bone, and in this the deposit of the lime-salts takes place making the bone. It is deposited from centers extending by additions in the various directions needed for the shape of the bone. Where there are cavities in the bones, these are formed by the absorption of bone-tissue, the process of ossification being continuous, and, when the individual has attained maturity and there is no further absorption, the proportion of bony material increases, rendering the bones brittle in age. Ossification is also applied to the deposit of calcareous matter in other tissues, as ossification of the arteries or of the heart.

Ossoli, Sarah Margaret (fuller), Marchioness, 18101850, m. 1847. American author, of much influence with the Boston transcendentalists.

Ostade, Adrian Van, 1610-1685. Dutch genre painter, who affected low life-subjects with great success.—His brother, Izaax, 1621-1649, was of less note.

Ostend. Seaport of Belgium, 14 m. w. of Bruges; wellknown watering-place. Pop., 1886, 22,602.

Ostend Manifesto. Drawn up Oct. 1854 by U.S. ministers to Britain. France, and Spain, J. Buchanan, J. Y. M;tson,

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and P. Soule, favoring the purchase or seizure of Cuba. It was ineffective. Ostensory. See Monstrance.

Osleolepis. Crossopterygian lepidoganoid, with smooth, rhomboidal scales; one of the first discovered armor-clad fish of the Old Red Sandstone (Devonian).

Osteollte. Ca,P,08. Bone-phosphate; earthy variety of calcium phosphate, allied mineralogicaily to apatite, but constant and definite in chemical composition.

Osteology. Branch of Anatomy which treats of the bones and skeleton. When the homologous bones of different animals are compared in asystematic manner, it is Comparative Osteology.

Osteostracl. Group of Cephalaspidian fishes (?) whose shields show true bony structure.

Osterwald, Jean Frederic, 1668-1747. Swiss theologian, pastor at Neuchatel.

Osthoff, Hermann, b. 1847. Prof. Comparative Philology at Heidelberg 1877.

Ostla. Openings in the walls of sponges, etc. Exhalent ostia pass water out of the system; inhalent ostia draw it in.

Ostla. Port of ancient Rome, at mouth of Tiber; once populous and important; supplied with a new harbor ab. SO; in

ruins by 830; excavated partially 1783, and more fully since 1855.

Ostlaks. Finnish and Mongolian tribes of n. Siberia, on the Obi and Yenesei Rivers, numbering ab. 27,000; some are mixed with the Sanioyedes. They are of medium stature, dark skinned and brachycephalic. They are gentle, honest, and skillful. A few are Christian, but Shamanism is prevalent.

Ostiole. Orifice of the sexual conceptacles in certain Algae and Fungi.

Ostrach And Stockach. Villages in Swabia, scenes of victories March 25, 1799, of Archduke Charles over the French under Jourdan.

Ostracion. See Plectognathi.

Ostracism. Provision in the Athenian constitution, devised ab. 509 B.C. by Cleisthenes, to prevent any citizen from becoming too powerful. The citizens first carried a popular decree directing its use; then, on an appointed day, cast their votes by tribes, each writing upon an oyster-shell the name of the person whom he considered most dangerous to the state. The man having the highest number of votes, if at least 6,000, was banished for ten years, or, later, for five. Confiscation was not involved.

Ostracoda (water-fleas). Entomostraca, completely inclosed in a bivalved shell, resembling the mussel. There are seven pairs of appendages, which function respectively as antenna;, jaws, creeping and swimming- legs. The body is short and unsegmented. A paired, median eye is present, and sometimes a heart also; this is wanting in Cypris.

Ostracostel. See Placodermi.

Ostreldne (oysters). Family of Lamellibranchs, belonging to the section Monomyaria. The right valve of the shell is smaller and flatter than the left, on which the animal rests. The adductor muscle is nearly central, and is called the heart or eye by oystermen; the heart lies just in front of this. Organs of vision are supposed to be rudimentary if present at all; certain pigment spots at the edge of the mantle may be

taken as such. The posterior end of the shell is the nib furthest from the hinge, which here is anterior, and not dorsal as in other groups. The French Oyster (Ostrea edulis) is hermaphrodite and viviparous, and produces as many as 2,000,000 young. The American Oyster (O. virginiana) is bisexual, the eggs being fertilized and undergoing development after being spawned. As many as 60,000,000 eggs may be produced from one female, only one or two of which ever reach the market as mature oysters. The mortality is great, especially in the early stages, when the young is biit the one-five-hundredth of an


French Oyster.

Oyster.lylng In left valve: a, hinge; &, lips, surrounding the mouth;
c, points Just below the region of heart: d. gills; e, dorsal edge of
mantle; /. muscle; g, posterior end of shell.

inch in diameter. The oyster spawns from May to August in waters n. of the Chesapeake; the spawning season is more prolonged in southern waters. Both sexes spawn together, so that the water becomes milky with suspended eggs and milt. The eggs sink at the rate of a foot per hour. The majority have settled into the mud by the time segmentation has begun, unless the flowing tides produce whirling currents. The best temperature for development is between 80° and 90° F. In ab. 12 hours the young embryo has advanced as far as the gastrula stage, swimming by means of cilia. This locomotor stage lasts for several days, and finally a shell of two equal valves is formed, and two muscles, anterior and posterior, are developed. The anterior adductor never comes to a further development. Then the young oyster, now resembling a clam, settles on a clean object and cements itself by its left side. In further development the body rotates so as to bring the front end under the back (hinge) area, and the two shell valves grow differently. See OYSTER CULTURE.

Ostrich (struthio). Three or four closely related species of large Ratite birds of African and w. Asiatic plains. S. came

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oped. It can outrun and exhaust a horse. The feathers are plumes, forming no true web. The wings are small, and cannot be used in flight. The syrinx is imperfectly developed, but the voice (seldom used) is a lion-like roar. The female and young are brownish-gray, the male black, with white wing and tail plumes. A ht. of 7 ft. and wt. of 300 lbs. are attained. They defend themselves by kicking. They are naturally monogamous. The eggs, 6 in. long and equal to 24 hen's eggs in capacity, are laid every other day. When ab. ten are laid, the sexes take turns at the incubation. Ostriches have been domesticated by African tribes from remote periods. The English began ostrich-farming in s. Africa 1865. This profitable branch of agriculture has been introduced into both Americas. See Rhea.

Ostrogoths. See Goths.

Ostrovskl, Alexander, 1824-1886. Russian dramatist.

Ostrowski, Tomas Adam Rawicz, Count, 1739-1817. Polish statesman.—His son, Antoni Joannes, 1783-1847, served under Napoleon, and bore part in the rising of 1830-31.

Oiuna, Pedro Tellez Giron, Duke Of, 1579-1624. Spanish general. Viceroy of Sicily 1611 and Naples 1616; imprisoned from 1620.

Oswald, St., ab. 605-642. King of Northumbria 632, which he Christianized; killed in battle with pagans.

Oswald, Heinrich Sieomund, 1751-1834. German hymnist.

Oitwcgo. Capital of O. co., N. Y., on Lake Ontario, at mouth of O. River; taken July 14, 1756, by Montcalm, and by the British May 6,1814; chartered 1848; site of a State Normal School. It has numerous flour mills, iron works and grain elevators. Pop., 1890, 21,842.

Oswego-Tca. Monarda didyma. Odorous herb of the Mint family, native of N. America, often cultivated; known as Bee-balm.

Otweo, or Oswy. King of Northumbria 642-670. He conquered Penda of Mercia 655, and called the council of Whitby 664, which committed England to Roman Christianity.

Otarladre. Family of Pinnipedia, including the Eared Seals or Sea Lions; e.g., the Alaskan Fur Seal (Callorhinus).

Ol fried. German poet of 9th century, author of a versified paraphrase of the Gospels.

Otliman, ab.575-655. Son-in-law of Mohammed; 3d caliph 644.

Othman, or 0§man. Al Ghasi, 1259-1326. Founder of Ottoman empire; commander under Sultan of Iconium 1280; ruler of Bithynia 1299. Conqueror of much of Asia Minor.

Otliman II., 1604-1622. Sultan 1617; deposed and slain by janissaries.

Othman III., 1700-1757. Sultan 1754.

Otho, Marcus Salvius, 32-69. Comrade of Nero; Gov. of Lusitania 58-68; noted for vigor and profligacy; sharer of Galba's revolt; Emperor for 95 days; defeated and slain by Vitellius.

Otho (or Otto) I., "the Great," 912-973. Son and successor of Henry I.; King of the Germans 936; crowned as Emperor at Rome 962. He waged many ware, extended his empire widely, and with it the nominal dominion of Christianity.—His son, Otho II., 955983, Emperor 973, was an active ruler and conqueror.—His son, Otho III., 980-1002, succeeded him.

Otho IV., 1175-1218. Son of Henry the Lion; emperor of Rome 1198-1212.


Otho, 1815-1867. Son of Louis of Bavaria; King of Greece 1832; deposed 1862. Otho of Frclnlng

(bavaria), ab. 1114-1158. Bp. 1137; grandson of Henry IV.; author of two Latin histories, Two States and Deeds of Frederick.

Otis. Fessenden Nott.m.d., LL.D.,b. 1825. Prof. New York Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons 1871; writer on urinary diseases.

Otis,George Alexander. M.D., 1830-1881. Surgeon U.S.A. from 1861; professional writer.

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Otis, James, 1725-1783. Patriot at Boston, eminent for oratory and resistance to search-warrants; permanently injured 1769 by British officers. Rights of the Colonies, 1764.—His nephew, Harrison Gray, 1765-1848, was M.C. from Mass. 17971801, U.S. Senator 1817-23, Mayor of Boston 1829, and a noted orator.

Otitis. Inflammation of the ear in any part. The most frequent seat of the disease is the middle ear, as the earache and gatherings in the ear so frequently noticed, especially in children. It frequently accompanies diphtheria and scarlet fever. The condition is always a serious one, apt to terminate in a chronic discharge (otorrhea) or in difficulty of hearing, and not infrequently will cause death. A disease of such danger cannot be safely left to domestic remedies. It is unwise to drop fluids in the ear, especially if one of the ingredients is a vegetable or animal oil. A douche of hot water, the application of cloths wrung out of hot water or a Japanese handstove to the external ear will usually relieve the intense pain. The discharge should be washed away by gentle syringing with a warm boric-acid solution. Further treatment than this is unsafe unless directed by a physician.

Otocardia. See Mollusca.

Otoconia. See Otolith.

Otocyst. Capsule, or spherical chamber, in Medusae, etc., containing otoliths.

Otolith. Calcareous nodule, usually lying loose in an otocyst, suspended in a fluid and in contact with certain hairs that connect with nerves. They serve both as organs of hearing, transmitting vibrations, and of equilibrium, by giving various stimuli of pressure according to the position of the body.

Otoporp. Meridional extension of nettle-cells from the bases of the tentaculicysts to the exumbrella of certain of the Scyphomedusa: (Jelly-fish).

Otsego Lake. Source of the Susquehanna, in O. co., N. Y.: celebrated in Cooper's novels. Length 8 m.

Ottawa. Capital of Canada, in Ontario, on s. bank of the O. River; founded 1826, and called Bytown till chartered


Canadian Parliament Buildings, Ottawa—The Main Building.

1854; seat of government since 1858; divided by the Rideau Canal. It has an extensive lumber trade. Pop., 1891, 44,154.

Ottawa Indians. Canadian Algonquin tribe, near Lake Huron; driven w. of Lake Superior by the Iroquois 1649-80, befriended by the Objibways and driven back e. by the Sioux. There are now ab. 1.000 in Canada, and a few with the Shawnees in Indian Territory.

Ottawa River. In Canada, rising in the highlands between the Great Lakes and Hudson's Bay, and flowing into the St. Lawrence near Montreal. Length ab. 800 m.

Ottcndorfer, Oswald, b. 1826 in Moravia. Partaker in German revolts 1848; in New York from 1850; ed. StaatsZeitung from ab. 1859; active in reform and beneficence.

Ottcroeiii, Philip William, 1726-1813. German Reformed missionarv in America 1752; founder of the United Brethren in Christ 1800.

Ottcrbein University. Founded 1847 at Westerville. Ohio, by United Brethren. It offers preparatory, classical, and philosophical courses, and has 15 teachers and ab. 300 students.

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Otter (Lutra vulgaris).

(L. vulgaris) is 2 ft. long, and has been trained to catch fish for man. The American otter is 4 ft. long, exclusive of the long, flattened tail. It is brown, and has a peculiar pad on the nose. Otto. See Otho.

Ottocar, 12th cent. German chronicler.

Ottocar II., ab.1230-1278. Son of Wenceslas I.; King of Bohemia 1253; conqueror of Prussia and Hungary; defeated and slain by Rudolph.

Ottoman Empire. See Turkey.

Otto or Roses. See Attar Of Roses.

Ottrelite. Hydrous aluminium iron silicate, occurring in the form of hard crystalline scales in many clay schists.

Ottumwa. Capital of Wapello co., Iowa, on the Des Moines, in a coal region. It has extensive manufactures. Pop., 1890, 14,001.

Otway, Thomas, 1651-1685. English dramatist, eminent in tragedv. Don Carlos, 1676; The Orphan, 1680; Venice Preserved, 1682.

Ouabain. C^H^O,,. Poisonous glucoside from the wood of Carissa shimperi, growing in Africa. It acts on the heart like digitalis. One of the arrow poisons.

Oubliette. Doorless duugeon, reached by ropes from above.

Oude, or OtJDH. Ancient state of n. India, long subject to Delhi; annexed by Gt. Britain 1856; prominent in the Sepoy mutiny 1857. Area 24,217 sq.m.; pop., 1891. 12,650,831.

Olldenarde. Belgian town, on the Scheldt; scene of a French defeat, July 11, 1708, by Marlborough and Prince Eugene.

Oudinot, Charles Nicolas, 1767-1847. French general, distinguished at Ostrolenka, Friedland. Waerram, and the Beresina; Marshal and Duke of Rejrgio 1809;'Peer 1815.— His son, Charles Nicolas Victor, 1791-1863, led the French expedition against Rome 1849.

Oudry, Jean Baptiste, 1686-1755. Painter of the French School. At first he painted historical subjects and portraits.

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Ouida. See De La Rame. Louisa.

Ouicm*, Walter William, b. 1848. Euglish portraitpainter; Academician 1881.

Ounce. Leopard-like animal of genus Felis. inhabiting the mountain heights and colder parts of Asia. It is 4 ft. long, besides the long tail. The color is yellowish gray, with black spots and rings. A mane is present.

Ounee. Twelfth of a pound in Troy weight, sixteenth in avoirdupois.

Ouray, 1820-1880. Chief of the Uncompahjjre Utes in Col.; civilized, pacific, friendly and useful to U. S. Government.

Olirique. Town of Portugal; scene of a defeat of five Saracen kings and a great Moorish army, July 25, 1139, by Alfonso, who became king.

Ouseley, Sir William, LL.D., 1769-1842. English Oriental scholar, who published a number of works upon Persian and Arabic literature and history. Travels in Persia. 1819-23.— His son. Sir William Gore, D.C.L.. 1797-1866, diplomatist and author, was long in S. America.—His cousin, Sir Frederick ARTHUR Gore. 1825-1889. Prof, of Music at Oxford 1855, founded a college for choristers, composed oratorios and anthems, edited several music books, and wrote on harmony, counterpoint, and fugues.—His rather, Sir Gore, 1770-1844, diplomatist and Orientalist, wrote on Persian Poets, 1846.

Outbye. Passage leading from a mine.

Outcrop. Ledge or mass of rock at the surface or above it, generally forming the edge of a stratum or mineral deposit, which from that point disappears beneath other formations.

Outlaw. One adjudged to be out of the law's protection. In the U. S. this punishment is confined to traitors.

Outlier. Outstanding mass of rocks resulting from circumdenudation.

Output. Yield of a mine, estimated by day, month, or year.

Oiitram, Sir James, 1803-1863. British officer, in India from 1819; defender of Hyderabad 1843; commander in Persian war 1856-57; associated with Havelock in relieving Lucknow Sept. 1857, and Sir Colin Campbell in its recapture March 1858; Lieut.-gen. and Knight 1858.

Outside, or Outer Edoe. Figure in skatinjr, in which the skater rolls on the outer edge of the runner, and thus describes curves and circles.

Ouvarovite, or Uvaravite. CaiC^SijO,,. Variety of garnet containing chromium; chrome-garnet.

Ouvrnrd, Gabriel Julien, 1770-1846. French contractor and financier, imprisoned 1808-13 and 1828-28. Memoires, 1826.

Ouvrard, Leon Francois. 1767-1826. French ethnologist.

Ouvrier, Pierre Gustave, 1765-1822. French traveler in America. Hist, des Etats-Unis, 1819.

Ouzel, or Ousel. Originally, European Blackbird (Merula). It has a yellow bill. The Ring-ouzel (Titrdus torqnatus) is a

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