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stuffing box and trunnions is a great source of annoyance. These engines have been used for marine practice, especially

black marks on the head, flanks, etc. The forequarters are strongly developed as compared with the hindquarters.

Orzeszkowa, ELIZA, b. 1842, m. 1858. Polish novelist and essayist.

Osage Indians. Southern Sioux of Kansas; originally ab. 5,000. They sided with the Confederacy 1861, and are now ab. 1,000, on a reservation in n.e. Indian Territory.

Osage Orange. Toxylon pomiferum. Thorny tree of the Mulberry family, native of the s. central U.S., bearing a large, yellow fruit, the color and size of a very large orange; also called Bow-wood, and entensively planted for hedges.

Osage River, or MARAIS DES CYGNES. Right hand branch of the Missouri, rising in Kapsas, and flowing e. through Mo.; navigable for 50 m. Drainage area 15,262 sq. m.

Osaka, or OZAKA. Seaport of Japan, on s.e. coast of Niphon at the mouth of Kamagawa River, which intersects it with streams and canals; important for its commerce; once


Oscillating Engine. in side-wheel vessels, where the cylinder can be under the shaft. See MARINE ENGINES.

Oscines. Singing birds; divided into Spizognathæe, with conirostral beak, as the Weaver, Finch, Crossbill, and Sparrow, and the Coracognathce, of which the Wagtail, Thrush, and Crow are dentirostral, the Lark and others conirostral, the Honey-eaters (Meliphagidæ) tenuirostral, and the Swallow fissirostral. See PASSERES.

Oscott. R. C. college near Birmingham, Eng., founded 1752, enlarged 1835; for education of priests only since 1889.

Osculating Circle. One having the highest order of contact with a curve at a given point. Its radius is called the radius of curvature.

Osculating Circle in Space. One which passes through

three consecutive points of a curve in space. Its center is the Osaka.

point where the line of section of two consecutive normal capital of the empire; site of the mint since 1871. Its castle,

planes cuts the osculating plane. built ab. 1583 by Hideyoshi, is notable, and contained a fine Osculating Conic. In coördinate geometry, the condipalace, burned 1868. Pop., 1893, 483,600.

tions under which the general conic osculates with a curve of

given order can be established, and the specific character of Osborn, LAUGHTON, 1809-1878. American poet.

the conic determined, by examining the invariant) criterion Osborn, SELLECK, 1783–1826. American poet and journalist. | of the general conic in connection with the coördinates of the Osborn, SHERARD, R. N., 1822–1875. Arctic explorer, in

point of osculation. search of Franklin 1849 and 1852; prominent in the Crimean Osculating Plane. One coincident with three consecuand Chinese wars; Admiral 1873. Arctic Journal, 1852; Sir tive points of a curve. John Franklin, 1860.

Osculation. Highest order of curve contact. Osborne House. Marine residence of Queen Victoria,

Osculatrix. Curve having a higher order of contact with built 1845 by Cubitt, on the Isle of Wight, near Cowes.

a given curve than any other of its kind. Osbourne, LLOYD, b. ab. 1865. Stepson of R. L. Stevenson,

Osculum. Exbalent opening of the sponge. Many of these and his collaborator in The Wrong Box, 1889, The Wreckers,

are not the same as the oscule of the simpler sponges, which 1893, and The Ebb Tide, 1894.

represents the exhalent opening of the embryo sponge. SomeOscan. Italic dialect, spoken by Samnite and other tribes, times this opening, simple or branched, becomes reduced to and still important in the time of Ennius; represented only by irregular canals that lead to a special set of small pores, seconinscriptions, which go back to 4th century B.C.

darily developed in the cortex of the sponge. Such openings Oscanyan, HATCHIK, b. 1818. Armenian novelist, resident

are pseudoscula or pseudoprocts. in America from 1855. The Sultan and his People, 1857.

Osgood, EMMA ALINE, b. ab.1852. American singer, known

chiefly in England since 1876. Oscar I., 1799-1859. Son of Bernadotte; King of Sweden and Norway 1844; publicist and musician.-His son, OSCAR II.,

Osgood, FRANCES SARGENT (LOCKE), 1811-1850. American b. 1829, king 1872, is noted as a poet and orator. Works, 5 poet. vols., 1875-94.

Osgood, SAMUEL, 1748-1813. Delegate to Congress 1780– Osceola, 1804–1838. Chief of the Seminole tribe of Indians,

84: Commissioner of Treasury 1785–89; U. S. Postmaster-gen. who, in retaliation for the enslavement of his wife, began war

1789-91. in Fla. 1835; captured by treachery 1837.

Osgood, SAMUEL, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1880. Pastor in New Oscillariaceæ. Order of Cyanophycece, minute blue-green

York 1849–70. Milestones, 1855. Algce comprising forms with motile filaments, divided by Osgoodites. Millenarian sect in N. H., now extinct. septæ into numerous tabular pseudocysts.

O'Shaughnessy, ARTHUR WILLIAM EDGAR, 1846-1881. Oscillating Engine. Steam engine in which the end of | English poet. the piston-rod fits upon the crank-pin, and the excursion of the

Oshkosh. Capital of Winnebago co., Wis.; on Fox River, crank-pin on both sides of a given diameter of its circle is admitted by causing the cylinder to swing upon trunnions.

at its mouth in Lake Winnebago. It has large manufactures, There being no connecting-rod, the engine is much more com

especially of lumber. Pop., 1890, 22,836. pact. The live steam and exhaust pass in and out through Osiander, ANDREAS, 1498–1552. German reformer and the trunnions, and the valve is either moved by being linked theologian. prof. Königsberg 1549. He modified the doctrine to the fixed frame, or else the rocking of the trunnion surface of justification by faith in a mystical direction, which was supcauses ports to be properly opened and closed. Leakage at the posed to bring it nearer to the R. C. view. His followers were

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driven from Prussia 1567; their leader, his son-in-law, FUNCK, | under parts white. Bill sharply hooked; tarsus long, feet large, was beheaded for alleged treason 1556.

with outer toe reversible, and with strong equal claws, adapted Osier. See WILLOW. Osiris. Chief deity of ancient Egypt; brother and husband

of Isis; slain by Set, and avenged by
his son Horus; judge of the dead.

Osler, EDWARD.1798–1863. English
hymnist; ed. Church and King,

Osler, WILLIAM, M.D., b. 1849. Prof. McGill Univ. 1874, Univ. Pa. 1884, and Johns Hopkins Univ. 1889; medical writer.

Osler's Anemometer. Square
plate of metal exposed perpendicular
to the wind, whose pressure upon it
is resisted by springs.

Osman. See OTHMAN.
Osmanli. See TURKS.

Osman Pasha, b. 1832. Turkish
general, distinguished at Plevna,
where he blocked the Russian advance
Aug.-Dec. 1877.

Osmic Acid, See Osmium OXIDES.

Osmiridium. Alloy of osmium and iridium, found in nature and made artificially for tipping gold pens. See OSMIUM.

Osmium. Os. At.wt. 190.8, sp. gr. 22.477, sp. ht. .031, valence IJ., IV., VI., VIII. Infusible; discovered by Tennant 1803; heaviest of all metals; rare. It occurs in platinum ores as an alloy of iridium. When heated, or treated with nitric acid, it is converted into the peroxide, OsO4, the vapors of which are poisonous. It is not used in the arts, but an alloy of osmiridium, which is not attacked by acids, is employed for tipping gold pens, and, since it is not oxidizable and nonmagnetic, is sometimes used for the bearings of the mariner's com pass.

Osmium Chlorides. OsC12. Dichloride. Brownish-black powder, soluble in water, with a dark-violet color; made by heating powdered osmium in a current of dry, air-freed chlorine.- OsCl, Tetrachloride. Red substance, soluble in water; made by heating the dichloride in a stream of chlorine. • Osmium Oxides. OsO. Osmium monoxide. Grayish

Osprey. black, insoluble powder.-Os,Oy. Osmium sesquioxide. Black

for holding fish; a strong flyer. Eggs 2–4, closely blotched powder, insoluble in acids.-Osog. Osmium dioxide. Masses,

with brown. of a coppery luster.–OsOq. Osmium tetroxide. Usually called Ossa AND Pelion. Mountains in Thessaly; the giants in osmic acid; formed by heating finely-divided osmium. It sub their war with the gods attempted to scale heaven by piling limes in transparent needles, which are readily soluble in water, them on Olympus. yielding a colorless liquid, which does not affect litmus and Ossein. Organic material composing one-third of the subpossesses a burning and caustic taste. It has a powerful, pene stance of bone, identical with collagen. Collagen is the subtrating odor suggestive of chlorine, is very poisonous, and acts stance of which the white fibers of connective tissue are comviolently and seriously upon the eyes.

posed. Osmium Sulphides. OsSg. Disulphide. Yellowish brown

Ossetish. Iranic language spoken by the Ossetians of the precipitate, obtained on passing hydrogen sulphide into a

Caucasus. The sound of h, common in Iranian, is absent. soluble osmiun) salt.-Oss, Tetrasulphide. Precipitated by Ossian. Gaelic bard of 3d or 4th century, to whom were hydrogen sulphide from a hydrochloric acid solution of the ascribed many legends of much later date, probably 1100–1500. tetroxide.

These were collected and expanded by JAMES MACPHERSON Osmosis, or OSMOSE. Diffusion of a liquid through a mem

(q.v.), 1760. Their origin was the subject of much discussion. brane. See ENDOSMOSIS and ExOSMOSIS.

Ossification. Process by which bone-tissue is produced. Osmundaceæ. Order of Ferns, of a small number of

A formation of cartilaginous substance precedes that of the species, growing mainly in bogs; including the common Royal

bone, and in this the deposit of the lime-salts takes place makfern or Flowering fern and the Cinnamon fern.

ing the bone. It is deposited from centers extending by addi

tions in the various directions needed for the shape of the bone. Osnabrück. Town of Hanover, on the Hase, 75 m. s.s.w. Where there are cavities in the bones, these are formed by the of Bremen; founded 772; seat of a bishop from ab. 810. Here absorption of bone-tissue, the process of ossification being conthe peace of Westphalia was signed 1648: George I. of England

tinuous, and, when the individual has attained maturity and died on the way to it 1727. It has some manufactures. Pop., there is no further absorption, the proportion of bony material 1890, 39,929.

increases, rendering the bones brittle in age. Ossification is Osorio, MANOEL LUIZ, MARQUIS OF HERVAL, 1808–1879.

also applied to the deposit of calcareous matter in other tissues, Brazilian general, distinguished in wars with Uruguay and

as ossification of the arteries or of the heart. Paraguay; Senator 1877, Minister of War 1878.

Ossoli, SARAH MARGARET (FULLER), MARCHIONESS, 1810– Osphradium. Olfactory organ of Mollusks; patch of sen

1850, m. 1847. American author, of much influence with the sory cells near each gill.

Boston transcendentalists.

Ostade, ADRIAN VAN, 1610–1685. Dutch genre painter, who Ospina, MANUEL, 1803–1885. Pres. of Colombia 1856-61; affected low life-subjects with great success.-His brother, then in exile till 1872.

IZAAK, 1621-1649, was of less note. Osprey (PANDION HALIAETUS). Falconoid bird, widely dis- Ostend. Seaport of Belgium, 14 m. w. of Bruges; welltributed, abundant along U. S. Atlantic coast, where it nests known watering-place. Pop., 1886, 22,602. in old trees. The rarer European Osprey prefers cliffs near in Ostend Manifesto. Drawn up Oct. 1854 by U.S. minisland waters. Length 2 ft., color dark brown, the head and ters to Britain, France, and Spain, J. Buchanan, J. Y. Mason,

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and P. Soulé, favoring the purchase or seizure of Cuba. It was taken as such. The posterior end of the shell is the nib ineffective.

furthest from the hinge, which here is anterior, and not dorsal Ostensory. See MONSTRANCE.

as in other groups. The French Oyster (Ostrea edulis) is her. Osteolepis. Crossopterygian lepidoganoid, with smooth,

| maphrodite and viviparous, and produces as many as 2,000,000 rhomboidal scales; one of the first discovered armor-clad fish

| young. The American Oyster (O. virginiana) is bisexual, the

" of the Old Red Sandstone (Devonian).

eggs being fertilized and undergoing development after being

spawned. As many as 60,000,000 eggs may be produced from Osteolite. Ca,P,0g. Bone-phosphate; earthy variety of one female, only one or two of which ever reach the market as calcium phosphate, allied mineralogically to apatite, but con mature oysters. The mortality is great, especially in the early stant and definite in chemical composition.

stages, when the young is but the one-five-hundredth of an Osteology. Branch of Anatomy which treats of the bones and skeleton. When the homologous bones of different animals are compared in a systematic manner, it is Comparative Osteology.

Osteostraci. Group of Cephalaspidian fishes (?) whose shields show true bony structure.

Osterwald, JEAN FRÉDÉRIC, 1663–1747. Swiss theologian, pastor at Neûchatel.

Osthoff, HERMANN, b. 1847. Prof. Comparative Philology at Heidelberg 1877.

Ostia. Openings in the walls of sponges, etc. Exhalent ostia pass water out of the system; inhalent ostia draw it in.

Ostia. Port of ancient Rome, at mouth of Tiber; once populous and important; supplied with a new harbor ab. 50; in

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French Oyster.
Oyster, lying in left valve: a, hinge; 6, 11ps, surrounding the mouth;

c, points just below the region of heart; d, gills; e, dorsal edge of

mantle; f, muscle; 9, posterior end of shell. inch in diameter. The oyster spawns from May to August in waters n. of the Chesapeake; the spawning season is more prolonged in southern waters. Both sexes spawn together, so that the water becomes milky with suspended eggs and milt. The eggs sink at the rate of a foot per hour. The majority have settled into the mud by the time segmentation has begun, unless the flowing tides produce whirling currents. The best

temperature for development is between 80° and 90° F. In ab. The Walls of Rome. The Ostian Gate.

12 hours the young embryo has advanced as far as the gastrula

stage, swimming by means of cilia. This locomotor stage ruins by 830; excavated partially 1783, and more fully since

lasts for several days, and finally a shell of two equal valves is 1855.

formed, and two muscles, anterior and posterior, are develOstiaks. Finnish and Mongolian tribes of n. Siberia, on

oped. The anterior adductor never comes to a further develthe Obi and Yenesei Rivers, numbering ab. 27,000; some are

opment. Then the young oyster, now resembling a clam, mixed with the Samoyedes. They are of medium stature, dark

settles on a clean object and cements itself by its left side. In skinned and brachycephalic. They are gentle, honest, and further development the body rotates so as to bring the front skillful. A few are Christian, but Shamanism is prevalent. end under the back (hinge) area, and the two shell valves grow

Ostiole. Orifice of the sexual conceptacles in certain Algce differently. See OYSTER CULTURE. and Fungi.

Ostrich (STRUTHIO). Three or four closely related species Ostrach AND Stockach Villages in Swabia, scenes of of large Ratite birds of African and w. Asiatic plains. S. camevictories March 25, 1799, of Archduke Charles over the French under Jourdan.

Ostracion. See PLECTOGNATHI.

Ostracism. Provision in the Athenian constitution, devised ab. 509 B.C. by Cleisthenes, to prevent any citizen from becoming too powerful. The citizens first carried a popular decree directing its use; then, on an appointed day, cast their votes by tribes, each writing upon an oyster-shell the name of the person whom he considered most dangerous to the state. The man having the highest number of votes, if at least 6,000, was banished for ten years, or, later, for five. Confiscation was not involved.

Ostracoda (WATER-FLEAS). Entomostraca, completely inclosed in a bivalved shell, resembling the mussel. There are seven pairs of appendages, which function respectively as antennæ, jaws, creeping and swimming legs. The body is short and unsegmented. A paired, median eye is present, and sometimes a heart also; this is wanting in Cypris.

Ostracostei. See PLACODERMI.

Ostreidæ (OYSTERS). Family of Lamellibrancbs, belonging to the section Monomyaria. The right valve of the shell is smaller and flatter than the left, on which the animal rests. The adductor muscle is nearly central, and is called the heart or eye by oystermen; the heart lies just in front of this.

Ostrich Farm in California. Organs of vision are supposed to be rudimentary if present at lus is the common ostrich. It has powerful legs, with only 2 all; certain pigment spots at the edge of the mantle may be toes (3d and 4th), of which the outer is relatively little develOSTROGOTHS-OTTERBEIN UNIVERSITY



oped. It can outrun and exhaust a horse. The feathers are Otis, JAMES, 1725-1783. Patriot at Boston, eminent for oraplumes, forming no true web. The wings are small, and can- tory and resistance to search-warrants; permanently injured not be used in flight. The syrinx is im perfectly developed, but 1769 by British officers. Rights of the Colonies, 1764.-His the voice (seldom used) is a lion-like roar. The female and nephew, HARRISON GRAY, 1765–1848, was M.C. from Mass. 1797– young are brownish-gray, the male black, with white wing | 1801, U.S. Senator 1817–22, Mayor of Boston 1829, and a noted and tail plumes. A ht. of 7 ft. and wt. of 300 lbs, are attained. orator. They defend themselves by kicking. They are naturally mo Otitis. Inflammation of the ear in any part. The most nogamous. The eggs, 6 in. long and equal to 24 hen's eggs in frequent seat of the disease is the middle ear, as the earache capacity, are laid every other day. When ab. ten are laid, the

and gatherings in the ear so frequently noticed, especially in sexes take turns at the incubation. Ostriches have been do

children. It frequently accompanies diphtheria and scarlet mesticated by African tribes from remote periods. The English

fever. The condition is always a serious one, apt to terminate began ostrich-farming in s. Africa 1865. This profitable branch

in a chronic discharge (otorrhea) or in difficulty of hearing, of agriculture has been introduced into both Americas. See

and not infrequently will cause death. A disease of such danRHEA.

ger cannot be safely left to domestic remedies. It is unwise to Ostrogoths. See Goths.

drop fluids in the ear, especially if one of the ingredients is a Ostrovski, ALEXANDER, 1824-1886. Russian dramatist. vegetable or animal oil. A douche of hot water, the applica

tion of cloths wrung out of hot water or a Japanese handOstrowski, TOMAS ADAM RAWICZ, COUNT, 1739–1817. Pol

stove to the external ear will usually relieve the intense pain. ish statesman.-His son, ANTONI JOANNES, 1782-1847, served

The discharge should be washed away by gentle syringing with under Napoleon, and bore part in the rising of 1830–31.

a warm boric-acid solution. Further treatment than this is Osuna, PEDRO TELLEZ GIRON, DUKE OF, 1579–1624. Spanish

unsafe unless directed by a physician. general, Viceroy of Sicily 1611 and Naples 1616; imprisoned

Otocardia. See MOLLUSCA. from 1620.

Otoconia. See OTOLITH. Oswald, St., ab. 605–642. King of Northumbria 632, which he Christianized; killed in battle with pagans.

Otocyst. Capsule, or spherical chamber, in Medusce, etc., Oswald, HEINRICH SIEGMUND, 1751-1834. German hymnist.

containing otoliths.

Otolith. Calcareous nodule, usually lying loose in an Oswego. Capital of O. co., N. Y., on Lake Ontario, at

otocyst, suspended in a fluid and in contact with certain hairs mouth of O. River; taken July 14, 1756, by Montcalm, and by

that connect with nerves. They serve both as organs of hearthe British May 6, 1814; chartered 1848; site of a State Normal

ing, transmitting vibrations, and of equilibrium, by giving School. It has numerous flour mills, iron works and grain

various stimuli of pressure according to the position of the elevators. Pop., 1890, 21,842.

body. Oswego-Tea. Monarda didyma. Odorous herb of the

Otoporp. Meridional extension of nettle-cells from the Mint family, native of N. America, often cultivated; known

bases of the tentaculicysts to the exumbrella of certain of the as Bee-balm.

Scyphomedusa (Jelly-fish). Osweo, or Oswy. King of Northumbria 642-670. He con

Otsego Lake. Source of the Susquehanna, in O. co., quered Penda of Mercia 655, and called the council of Whitby

N. Y.; celebrated in Cooper's novels. Length 8 m. 664, which committed England to Roman Christianity.

Ottawa. Capital of Canada, in Ontario, on s. bank of Otariadæ. Family of Pinnipedia, including the Eared

the 0. River; founded 1826, and called Bytown till chartered Seals or Sea Lions; e.g., the Alaskan Fur Seal (Callorhinus).

Otfried. German poet of 9th century, author of a versified paraphrase of the Gospels.

Othman, ab,575–655. Son-in-law of Mohammed; 3d caliph 644.

Othman, or Osman, AL GHASI, 1259–1326. Founder of Ottoman empire; commander under Sultan of Iconium 1280; ruler of Bithynia 1299. Conqueror of much of Asia Minor.

Othman II., 1604–1622. Sultan 1617; deposed and slain by janissaries.

Othman III., 1700–1757. Sultan 1754.

otho, MARCUS SALVIUS, 32-69. Comrade of Nero; Gov, of
Lusitania 58-68; noted for vigor and profligacy; sharer of
Galba's revolt; Emperor for 95 days; defeated and slain by
Otho (or OTTO) I., “ THE GREAT,” 912–973. Son and suc-

cessor of Henry I.; King of the
Germans 936; crowned as Em-
peror at Rome 962. He waged
many w:rs, extended his em-
pire widely, and with it the
nominal dominion of Christi-
anity.-His son, OTHO II., 955–
983, Emperor 973, was an active
ruler and conqueror.-His son,

Canadian Parliament Buildings, Ottawa-The Main Building.
OTHO III., 980–1002, succeeded

1854; seat of government since 1858; divided by the Rideau

Canal. It has an extensive lumber trade. Pop., 1891, 44,154. Otho IV., 1175-1218. Son of Henry the Lion; emperor

Ottawa Indians. Canadian Algonquin tribe, near Lake of Rome 1198–1212.

Huron; driven w. of Lake Superior by the Iroquois 1649-80, Otho, 1815–1867. Son of

befriended by the Objibways and driven back e. by the Sioux. Louis of Bavaria; King of

There are now ab. 1,000 in Canada, and a few with the ShawGreece 1832; deposed 1862.

nees in Indian Territory. Otho of Freising

Ottawa River. In Canada, rising in the highlands be(BAVARIA), ab. 1114-1158. Bp.

tween the Great Lakes and Hudson's Bay, and flowing into the 1137; grandson of Henry IV.;

St. Lawrence near Montreal. Length ab. 800 m. author of two Latin histories,

Ottendorfer, OSWALD, b. 1826 in Moravia. Partaker in Tuo States and Deeds of Fred

German revolts 1848; in New York from 1850; ed. Staatserick.

Zeitung from ab. 1859; active in reform and beneficence.. Otis, FESSENDEN NOTT,M.D.,

Otterbein, PHILIP WILLIAM, 1726–1813. German Reformed LL.D., b. 1825. Prof. New York

| missionary in America 1752; founder of the United Brethren in Coll. of Physicians and Sur

Christ 1800. geons 1871; writer on urinary Otterbein University. Founded 1847 at Westerville, Otho Ill. diseases.

Ohio, by United Brethren. It offers preparatory, classical, Otis, GEORGE ALEXANDER, M.D., 1830-1881. Surgeon U.S.A. and philosophical courses, and has 15 teachers and ab. 300 from 1861; professional writer.




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Otterburn. Village of Northumberland, where Henry i Ouida. See DE LA RAMÉ, LOUISA.
Percy (Hotspur) fought the Scots under Douglas Aug. 19, 1388. Ouless, WALTER WILLIAM, b. 1848. English portrait-
This battle is celebrated in the ballad Chevy Chase.

painter; Academician 1881. Otters. Animals of genus Lutra and family Mustelidae;

Ounce, Leopard-like animal of genus Felis, inhabiting aquatic, fish-catching Carnivora, with webbed feet, burrowing

the mountain heights and colder parts of Asia. It is 4 ft. long, in the banks of ponds and streams. The Old World otter

besides the long tail. The color is yellowish gray, with black spots and rings. A mane is present.

Ounce. Twelfth of a pound in Troy weight, sixteenth in avoirdupois,

Ouray, 1820-1880. Chief of the Uncompahgre Utes in Col.; civilized, pacific, friendly and useful to U. S. Government.

Ourique Town of Portugal; scene of a defeat of five Saracen kings and a great Moorish army, July 25, 1139, by Alfonso, who became king.

Ouseley, SIR WILLIAM, LL.D., 1769–1842. English Oriental scholar, who published a number of works upon Persian and Arabic literature and history. Travels in Persia, 1819-23.His son, SIR WILLIAM GORE, D.C.L.. 1797-1866, diplomatist and author, was long in S. America. –His cousin, SIR FREDERICK ARTHUR GORE, 1825-1889, Prof. of Music at Oxford 1855, founded a college for choristers, composed oratorios and anthems, edited several music books, and wrote on barmony, counterpoint, and fugues. His father, SIR GORE, 1770-1844, diplomatist and Orientalist, wrote on Persian Poets, 1846.

Outbye. Passage leading from a mine.

Outcrop. Ledge or mass of rock at the surface or above Otter (Lutra vulgaris).

it, generally forming the edge of a stratum or mineral deposit, (L. vulgaris) is 2 ft. long, and has been trained to catch fish for

which from that point disappears beneath other formations. man. The American otter is 4 ft. long, exclusive of the long,

Outlaw. One adjudged to be out of the law's protection. flattened tail. It is brown, and has a peculiar pad on the nose.

In the U. S. this punishment is confined to traitors. Otto. See Otho.

Outlier. Outstanding mass of rocks resulting from cirOttocar, 12th cent. German chronicler.

cumdenudation. Ottocar II., ab.1230–1278. Son of Wenceslas I.; King of

Output. Yield of a mine, estimated by day, month, or Bohemia 1253; conqueror of Prussia and Hungary; defeated

year. and slain by Rudolph.

Outram, SIR JAMES, 1803–1863. British officer, in India Ottoman Empire. See TURKEY.

from 1819; defender of Hyderabad 1843; commander in Persian Otto of Roses. See ATTAR OF ROSES.

war 1856–57; associated with Havelock in relieving Lucknow Ottrelite. Hydrous aluminium iron silicate, occurring in Sept. 1857, and Sir Colin Campbell in its recapture March 1858; the form of hard crystalline scales in many clay schists.

Lieut.-gen. and Knight 1858. Ottumwa. Capital of Wapello co., Iowa, on the Des

Outside, or OUTER EDGE. Figure in skating, in which the Moines, in a coal region. It has extensive manufactures. Pop.,

skater rolls on the outer edge of the runner, and thus describes 1890, 14,001.

curves and circles. Otway, THOMAS, 1651-1685. English dramatist, eminent Ouvarovite, or UVARAVITE. Ca,Cr,Si,0,. Variety of in tragedy. Don Carlos, 1676; The Orphan, 1680; Venice Pre garnet containing chromium; chrome-garnet. served, 1682.

Ouvrard, GABRIEL JULIEN, 1770-1846. French contractor Ouabain. C.H.,O,,. Poisonous glucoside from the wood and financier, imprisoned 1808-13 and 1823-28. Mémoires, 1826. of Carissa shimperi, growing in Africa. It acts on the heart Ouvrard, LÉON FRANÇOIS, 1767-1826. French ethnologist. like digitalis. One of the arrow poisons.

Ouvrier, PIERRE GUSTAVE, 1765–1822. French traveler in Oubliette. Doorless dungeon, reached by ropes from America. Hist. des Etats-Unis, 1819. above.

Ouzel, or OUSEL. Originally, European Blackbird (Merula). Oude, or Oudh. Ancient state of n. India, long subject to It has a yellow bill. The Ring-ouzel (Turdus torquatus) is a Delbi; annexed by Gt. Britain 1856; prominent in the Sepoy mutiny 1857. Area 24,217 sq.m.; pop., 1891, 12,650,831.

Oudenarde. Belgian town, on the Scheldt; scene of a French defeat, July 11, 1708, by Marlborough and Prince Eugene.

Oudinot, CHARLES NICOLAS, 1767-1847. French general, distinguished at Ostrolenka, Friedland, Wagram, and the Beresina; Marshal and Duke of Reggio 1809; Peer 1815.-His son, CHARLES NICOLAS VICTOR, 1791-1863, led the French expedition against Rome 1849.

Oudry, JEAN BAPTISTE, 1686–1755. Painter of the French School. At first he painted historical subjects and portraits.


The Wolf at Bay, by Oudry. then devoted himself to painting animals, especially dogs. He became court painter to Louis XV.

Thrush (Turdus musicus) and Ring-ouzel (Turdus torquatus). thrusli, black, with a white collar, living in mountainous regions. The Water-ouzel (Cinclus) or Dipper is a diving Os

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