Page images
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small]

Orioles. True orioles are tropical Old World birds, in general appearance resembling the American orioles, which belong to a distinct family (Icteridce). The Golden Oriole visits England. American orioles build pendent nests. The Mexican Troupial is celebrated for its me I od ious, clear notes. Most of the species are S. American. See Baltimore Oriole. 0 Orion. In Mythology, hunter, blinded or slain, and finally placed among the stars.

Oriskany. Village of Oneida co., N.Y.; scene of a battle between;800 Americans under Gen. Herkimer and a force of Tories and Indians, Aug. 6, 1777.

Oriskany Sandstone. Bed at the base of the Devonian, chiefly in N. Y. and Pa. It is thin but widespread, and contains a somewhat peculiar fauna. See Devonian.

Orlssa. Former state of e. India, now part of Bengal. Pop., 1891, 3,865,020.

Orizaba. Volcanic peak in Mexico, between the capital and Vera Cruz. Ht. 18,314 ft.

Orkian, 1290-1360. Son and successor of Othman. founder of the Turkish empire; Sultan from 1326. He took sundry Greek towns in Asia and Europe, and organized the Janissaries.

Orkney Islands. Numerous group n.e. of Scotland, 29 being inhabited; called Arcades by classical writers; conquered

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

Orlando. See Roland.

Orleans. City of France, on the Loire, 75 m. s.s.w. of Paris; besieged by Attila451; twice plundered by Northmen; besieged by the English 1428-29, but relieved by Joan of Arc; prominent in the Huguenot wars and in that of 1870. It had a university 1312-1789, and hasa large trade. Pop., 1891,63,705.

Orleans, Bastard Op. See Dunois.

Orleans, Dukes Of. Charles, 1391-1465; French commander at Agincourt 1415; prisoner in England till 1440; lyric poet; father of Louis XII.—Jean Baptiste Gaston, 1608-16G0: third son of Henry IV.; Duke 1626: busy in intrigues against


Captivity of the Duke of Orleans in the Tower.
(From an Illumination In the Royal MS.)

Richelieu and Mazarin.—Philippe, 1674-1723; grandson of Louis XIII.; able general and notorious debauchee; Regent from 1715.—Louis Philippe Joseph (eoalite), 1747-1793; revolutionist, deserting his order and voting: for the king's execution; guillotined; father of King Louis Philippe.

Orleans, Maid Of. See Joan Of Arc.

Orleans, Territory Of. Louisiana; so termed 1804-12.

Orlcy, Bernaert Van, 1490-1560. Flemish painter, historically important as one of the first transmitters of Italian influence.

Orloir. Russian family: Gregory, 1734-1783, planned the murder of Peter III., which was executed 1762 by his brother Alexis. Their nephew, Alexis, 1787-1861, was a noted diplomatist.

Orloff. See Horse.

Orlop. Deck of a ship on which the cables are stowed.

Ormerod, Eleanor, b. ab. 1835. English entomologist. Insect Life, 1884.

Ormolu. See Copper, Metallurgy Of.

Ormonde, James Butler, First Duke Of, 1610-1688. Earl 1632; Commander in Ireland 1640-43; Lord-lieut. 1644; active royalist; made Duke 1660; Viceroy of Ireland 1662-69 and 167685.—His grandson and namesake, 1665-1746, 2d duke 1688, Lord-lieut. of Ireland 1703, held command against France and Spain 1711, and was impeached and attainted 1715.

Ormulum. Series of homilies on the Gospel history, in Semi-Saxon verse, by Orm, ab. 1220: in the Bodleian library at Oxford; discovered 1659, pub. 1852.

Ormuz, Strait Of. Passage connecting Persian Gulf with Sea of O., which is an arm of the Arabian Sea or Indian Ocean.

Ormuzd, Ormazd, or Ahura-mazda. Chief deity of Zoroastrianism, source and representative of good, opposed to the evil Ahriman.

Ornlthadelphla. See Prototheria.

[merged small][ocr errors]

Ornlthichnltett. Footprints of birds, found chiefly on slabs of the Trias.

Ornithology. Natural history of birds. The extant portions of Aristotle's works treat of 170 species of birds. No further contributions of importance were made until the time of Turner, 1544, Gesner, and Belon; but the foundations of the science were not laid until 1676, by Willughby and Ray. The binomial classification of Linnaeus was introduced 1735 and improved by Brisson 1760. Buffon introduced 1783 the conception of variation of species. In 1812 Merrem started the modern system of classification. In 1831 Swainson developed the conception of Evolution, and Nitsch sought a natural classification. In 1835 Sundevall began to recognize the importance of internal structure as furnishing classificatory characters. This conception was supported by the paleontological discoveries of connecting links between Birds and Reptiles, begun 1861, worked out by Owen 1863, Huxley 1867, Milne-Edwards 1871, Marsh 1872, and fully developed in the latter's Odontorniihes, 1880. These data have stimulated Sclater to present a revised system of the Birds. Besides the authors above mentioned, the following, with main date of publication, are the most important. Catesbv, 1731; Brunnich, 1764; Forster, 1771; Fabricius, 1780: D'Aubenton, 1780; Pennant, 1785; White, 1789 (Nat. Hist, of Selborne); Bartram, 1791; Barton, 1799: Le Vaillant, 1801; Bewick, 1804; Tiedemann, 1810; Illiger, 1811; Nauniann, 1817; De Blainville, 1820; Audubon, 1827; Wilson, 1828; Bonaparte, 1831; Keyserlingand Blasius, 1839; Gervais, 1856; Parker, 1860; Coues, 1884; Ridgway, 1887.

OrnitliopliilotlB. Flowers which are cross-fertilized by birds, which carry the pollen of one to the pistils of another. The Humming Birds are especially active in this process.

Ornlthorhynchus. Duck-billed water-mole of Australia, also called Platypus; brown aquatic mammal, 18 in. long, with webbed feet. It burrows into muddy banks and feeds on shellfish, etc. Its jaws are ensheathed by a duck-like bill: four horny molar teeth are present. The tail is short and flat. The

[graphic][merged small]

males have movable spurs on the hind legs, perforated and connecting with poison glands. These creatures resemble birds still more in their internal anatomy. A well-developed coracoid bone is present; there is a cloaca, and the young are born from eggs. Epipubic bones are present, but no marsupial pouch.

OrnitllOBaurla. Flying Reptiles, now extinct, but abounding in the Jurassic period. The limbs were specialized to hold a web, as in bats, except that the little finger was greatly prolonged, to support the anterior edge of this patagium, the other fingers being free, and the thumb rudimentary. The head was like that of modern birds; even the jaws were incased in a horny beak, which usually bore teeth. The shoulder girdle was avian; the pelvis was saurian. The bones were provided with air-sacs; the blood was warm, but no feathers were present. In size the Pterodactyls ranged from that of a sparrow to that of a condor. One from the Kansas chalk deposits had a spread of wingof 25 ft. They inhabited both continents. It is probable that none of their descendants now remain. The Birds are descended from the Dinosaurs, which belong to the order Ornithoscelida. See Pterosauria.

Ornlthoscellda. Order of extinct Reptiles whose hind limbs, etc., show bird-like characters. Here are included the Dinosauria and Compsognathits. In the latter the head is birdlike, the neck vertebrae are long, the anterior ribs short, the posterior long, and the astragalus is fused with the long tibia. The pubis and ischium are elongated downward, and the ilium extends forward.

Orobnnchacear). Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermaz, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Oamopetala:, comprising 12 genera and ab. 150 species, scatter* d

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

called Typhon, from a mythical dragon who is said to have traced its course with his tail, but later after Orontes, who built a bridge across it. Length ab. 240 m.

Oroslus, Paulus. Spanish presbyter of 5th century, whose 7 books of History against the Pagans, extending to 417, were much valued in the Middle Ages, and tr. into Anglo-Saxon by Alfred.

Orozco y Berra, Manuel, 1816-1881. Mexican historian.

Orpheus. In Greek M3-thology, Thracian musician of extraordinary gifts. Apollo gave him the lyre, and the Muses taught him its use; by its strains he tamed wild beasts, made trees follow him, and won back his wife Eurydice from Hades, but lost her again because he could not refrain from looking back at her before reaching the upper world. Many hymns and poems are credited to an Orphic fraternity, which existed till ab. 300.

Orplincnt. AsjS3. Natural Arsenious Sulphide (q.v.), of yellow color, occurring in small quantity and usually as a product of alteration of ores containing arsenic.

Orpine. See Live-forever.

Orr, James Lawrence, 1822-1873. M.C. 1849-59; Senator C.S.A. 1862-65; Gov. of S. C. 1865-68; Circuit Judge for S. C. 1870; U. S. Minister to Russia 1872.

Orrery. Machine constructed for the purpose of showing

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

in 1715. Though not accurate it gives a general notion of the way in which the planetary motions are performed.

Orris-Root. RootstocUs of certain species of Iris, natives of s. Europe, smelling strongly like violets and used in perfumery.

Orsay, Alfred Guillaumk Gabriel, Count D\ 1801-1852. French "glass of fashiou and mold of form," long prominent in London.

Orsinl. Princely family, long prominent in Rome; Guelphs and enemies of the Colonnas. Two of them became popes, 1277 and 1724.

Orslnl, Felice, 1819-1858. Italian fanatic, bred to conspiracies; sentenced to the galleys 1844, pardoned 1846; deputy 1849; imprisoned 1855; executed in Paris for killing and wounding many persons in an attempt on the life of Napoleon III. Jan. 14.

Ortega, Casimiro Gomez, 1740-1819. Director of the Botanical Gardens in Madrid. Tabula botanicce, 1778.

Ortel, Abraham, 1527-1598. Flemish geographer. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1570; Thesaurus Oeog., 1578-96.

Orth, Godlove Stoner, 1817-1882. M.C. from Ind. 1863-71, 1873-75, and from 1879; U. S. Minister to Austria 1875-77.

Orth, Johannes, b. 1847. Prof. Gottingen 1878; writer on pathology.

Orthez. Town of s. France, near which Wellington defeated a French army under Soult Feb. 27,1814. Pop. ab. 4,800.

Orthli. Palaeozoic Brachiopod genus, containing numerous species; originally distinguished oy the straight hinge line.

Ortho Acids. Usually the ordinary form, derived from normal acids by the abstraction of one or more molecules of water; e.g., normal phosphoric acid, P(OH),. by loss of one molecule of water becomes orthophosplioric acid, H,P04.

Orthoceras. Straight chambered Palaeozoic shell, allied


Fragment of Orthocerat crebri- Restoration of Orthoceras, the

septum — Cincinnati Group, shell being supposed to be

North America, of the natu- divided vertically, and only

ral size. The lower figure is its upper part being shown,

a section showing the air- a, Arms; /, Muscular tube

chambers, and the form and ("funnel") by which water is

position of the siphuncle. expelled from the mantle

chamber; c. Air-chambers; 8, Siphuncle.

to the nautilus; sometimes in the Cambrian and Silurian attaining a length of 15 ft. There are many species, from the Silurian to the Liassic. See Tetrabranchiata.

Orthoclase. KAlSi?0„. Common Feldspar (q.v.); distinguished from quartz by its pearly cleavage, and from mica by its greater hardness.

Ortho Compounds. Wherever this prefix is used, see the main word; e.g., for ortho-toluidine see toluidine. See META and BENZENE HYPOTHESIS.

Orthodox School of Political Economy. Group of economists who have followed with comparative closeness the teachings of Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, and the other early English economists.

Orthodoxy. Correct religious opinions, as opposed to heterodoxy or heresy; variously defined according to the point of view.

Orthoepy. Branch of grammar dealing with pronunciation.

Orthognathy Division of mankind having slightly projecting jaws and teeth, as in the European races. They have a high facial angle. See Man and Craniometry.

Orthogonal. Right angled: operations such as transformation, projection, etc., and their results, in which the movement is at right angles to a fixed base.

Orthogonal Transformation. From one set of rectangular axes in space to another having the same origin. Point distances from origin are unchanged, and the transformation is automorphic.

Orthographic (orthogonal) Projection. That in which points or lines are projected by lines or planes perpendicular to the base of projection.

Orthography. Correct spelling; of increasing importance as the number of words increases and the standard of education rises; formerly optional in England, especially with proper names.

Orthoneura. See T.-kskmii.oska.

Orthopedic Surgery. Branch of surgery dealing with operations and mechanical appliances used to correct deformities; e.g.,club-foot, curved backs from spinal disease, primarily in children.

Orthoptera. Insecta with incomplete metamorphosis, with two pairs of wings, which in the Pseudoneuroptera are membranous and alike (with close nervures), and cannot be folded; but, in the Orthoptera genuina, the anterior pair are small and hard, the hinder ones are broad and membranous and can be folded together longitudinally beneath the anterior pair. The jaws are fitted for biting. The genuine Orthoptera comprise the tribes Cursoria, Gressoria, and Saltatoria. The Pseudoneuroptera comprise the tribes Physopoda, Corrodentia, and Amphibxotica. Grasshoppers and Dragon-flies are illustrations of the two main groups respectively.

Orthostichous. Straight row of leaves or other organs.

Orthostyle. Straight row of columns detached and not forming a portico.

Orthotropous. Straight ovule, i.e., one not bent nor curved; also called Atropous.

Orton, Arthur (alias Thomas Castro), b. 1834. Claimant in the TichborneCase (q.v.), 1871-72; tried for perjury 1873-74, and sentenced to 14 years with hard labor. In 1895 he confessed the imposture.

Orton, Edward, LL.D., b. 1829. Prof. Antioch Coll. 186573; Pres. Ohio State Univ. 1873-81: state geologist of Ohio, assistant and chief, from 1869; author of reports and numerous papers on the Geology of Ohio. His principal work has been upon the Coal and Gas fields of Ohio.

Orton, James, 1830-1877. Prof. Vassar Coll. from 1869; explorer in S. America 1867-68,1873, and 1877. Andes and Amazon, 1870-76: Comparative Zoology, 1875.

Ortygia. 1. Island in Bay of Syracuse, Sicily, occupied by part of the city. 2. Delos.

Orvleto. Ancient town of central Italy, noted for its cathedral, built 1290-1580; resort of many popes in distress. Pop. 7,900.

Oryx. Several species of African Antelopes, characterized


Oryx \Uryx Ixisn).

by very long, nearly straight, upward growing horns with rings near the base. The hair is yellowish, variegated with



black marks on the head, flanks, etc. The forequarters are strongly developed as compared with the hindquarters.

Orzeszkowa, Eliza, b. 1842, m. 1858. Polish novelist and essayist.

Osage Indians. Southern Sioux of Kansas; originally ab. 5,000. They sided with the Confederacy 1861, and are now ab. 1,000, on a reservation in n.e. Indian Territory.

Osage Orange. Toxylon pomiferttm. Thorny tree of the Mulberry family, native of the s. central U. S., bearing a large, yellow fruit, the color and size of a very large orange; also called Bow-wood, and entensively planted for hedges.

Osage River, or Marais Des Cyones. Right hand branch of the Missouri, rising in Kansas, and flowing e. through Mo.; navigable for 50 m. Drainage area 15,262 sq. m.

Osaka, or Ozaka. Seaport of Japan, on s.e. coast of Niphon at the mouth of Kamagawa River, which intersects it with streams and canals; important for its commerce; once



capital of the empire; site of the mint since 1871. Its castle, built ab. 1583 by Hidevoshi, is notable, and contained a line palace, burned 1868. Pop., 1893, 483,600.

Osborn, Lauohton, 1809-1878. American poet.

Osborn, Selleck, 1783-1826. American poet and journalist.

Osborn, Sherard, R. N., 1822-1875. Arctic explorer, in search of Franklin 1849 and 1852; prominent in the Crimean and Chinese wars; Admiral 1873. Arctic Journal, 1852; Sir John Franklin, 1860.

Osborne House. Marine residence of Queen Victoria, built 1845 by Cubitt, on the Isle of Wight, near Cowes.

Osbourne, Lloyd, b. ab. 1865. Stepson of R. L. Stevenson, and his collaborator in The Wrong Box, 1889, Tlie Wreckers, 1893, and The Ebb Tide, 1894.

Oscan. Italic dialect, spoken by Samnite and other tribes, and still important in the time of Ennius; represented only by inscriptions, which go back to 4th century B.C.

Oscan) an, Hatchik, b. 1818. Armenian novelist, resident in America from 1855. The Sultan and his People, 1857.

Oscar I., 1799-1859. Son of Bernadotte; King of Sweden and Norway 1844; publicist and musician.—His son, Oscar II., b. 1829, king 1872, is noted as a poet and orator. Works, 5 vols., 1875-94.

Osceola, 1804-1838. Chief of the Seminole tribe of Indians, who, in retaliation for the enslavement of his wife, began war in Fla. 1835; captured by treachery 1837.

Oscillarlaceae. Order of Cyanophycece, minute blue-green Alga: comprising forms with motile filaments, divided by septa? into numerous tabular pseudocysts.

Oscillating Engine. Steam engine in which the end of the piston-rod fits upon the crank-pin, and the excursion of the crank-pin on both sides of a given diameter of its circle is admitted by causing the cylinder to swing upon trunnions. There being no connecting-rod, the engine is much more compact. The live steam and exhaust pass in and out through the trunnions, and the valve is either moved by being linked to the fixed frame, or else the rocking of the trunnion surface causes ports to be properly opened and closed. Leakage at the

[merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

Oscines. Singing birds; divided into Spizognatha, with conirostral beak, as the Weaver, Finch, Crossbill, and Sparrow, and the CoracognaUue, of which the Wagtail, Thrush, and Crow are dentirostral, the Lark and others conirostral, the Honey-eaters (Meliphagidce) tenuirostral, and the Swallow lissirostral. See Passeres.

Oscott. R. C. college near Birmingham, Eng., founded 1752, enlarged 1835; for education of priests only since 1889.

Osculating Circle. One having the highest order of contact with a curve at a given point. Its radius is called the radius of curvature.

Osculating Circle in Space. One which passes through three consecutive points of a curve in space. Its center is the point where the line of section of two consecutive normal planes cuts the osculating plane.

Osculating Conic. In coordinate geometry, the conditions under which the general conic osculates with a curve of given order can be established, and the specific character of the conic determined, by examining the (invariant) criterion of the general conic in connection with the coordinates of the point of osculation.

Osculating Plane. One coincident with three consecutive points of a curve.

Osculation. Highest order of curve contact.

Osculatrix. Curve having a higher order of contact with a given curve than any other of its kind.

Osculum. Exhalent opening of the sponge. Many of these are not the same as the oscule of the simpler sponges, which represents the exhalent opening of the embryo sponge. Sometimes this opening, simple or branched, becomes reduced to irregular canals that lead to a special set of small pores, secondarily developed in the cortex of the sponge. Such openings are pseudoscula or pseudoprocts.

Osgood, Emma Aline, b. ab.1852. American singer, known chiefly in England since 1876.

Osgood. Frances Saroent (locke), 1811-1850. American poet.

Osgood, Samuel, 1748-1813. Delegate to Congress 178084: Commissioner of Treasury 1785-89; U. S. Postmaster-gen. 1789-91.

Osgood, Samuel, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1880. Pastor in New York 1849-70. Milestones, 1855.

Osgoodites. Millenarian sect in N. H., now extinct.

O'Sliaiiglmcssy, Arthur William Edgar, 1846-1881. English poet.

Oslikosll. Capital of Winnebago CO.. Wis.; on Fox River,

at its mouth in Lake Winnebago. It has large manufactures, especially of lumber. Pop., 1890, 22,836.

Osiandcr, Andreas, 1498-1552. German reformer and theologian, prof. Konigsberg 1549. He modified the doctrine of justification by faith in a mystical direction, which was supposed to bring it nearer to the R. C. view. His followers were

[blocks in formation]

driven from Prussia 1567; their leader, his son-in-law, Funck, I beheaded for alleged treason 1556.

Osier. See Willow.

Osiris. Chief deity of ancient Egypt; brother and husband of Isis; slain by Set, and avenged by his son Horus; judge of the dead.

Osier, Edward. 1798-1863. English hymnist; ed. Church and King, 1836-37.

Osier, William, M.D., b. 1849. Prof. McGill Univ. 1874, Univ. Pa. 1884. and Johns Hopkins Univ. 1889; medical writer.

Osier's Anemometer. Square plate of metal exposed perpendicular to the wind, whose pressure upon it is resisted by springs.

Osman. See OthMan.

Osmanli. See Turks.

Osman Pasha, b. 1832. Turkish general, distinguished at Plevna, where he blocked the Russian advance Aug.-Dec. 1877.

Osmlc Acid. See Osmium Oxides.


Osmiridium. Alloy of osmium and iridium, found in nature and made artificially for tipping gold pens. See Osmium.

Osmium. Os. At.wt. 190.8, 22.477, sp. ht. .031, valence II., IV., VI., VIII. Infusible; discovered by Tennant 1803; heaviest of all metals; rare. It occurs in platinum ores as an alloy of iridium. When heated, or treated with nitric acid, it is converted into the peroxide, Os04, the vapors of which are poisonous. It is not used in the arts, but an alloy of osmiridium, which is not attacked by acids, is employed for tipping gold pens, and. since it is not oxidizable and nonmagnetic, is sometimes used for the bearings of the mariner's compass.

Osmium Chlorides. OsCU. Dichloride. Brownish-black powder, soluble in water, with a dark-violet color; made by heating powdered osmium in a current of dry, air-freed chlorine.—OsCl4. Tetrachloride. Red substance, soluble in water; made by heating the dichloride in a stream of chlorine.

Osmium Oxides. OsO. Osmium monoxide. Grayishblack, insoluble powder.—OsaO,. Osmium sesquioxide. Black powder, insoluble in acids.—Os03. Osmium dioxide. Masses, of a coppery luster.—Os04. Osmium tetroxide. Usually called osmic acid; formed by heating finely-divided osmium. It sublimes in transparent needles, which are readily soluble in water, yielding a colorless liquid, which does not affect litmus and possesses a burning and caustic taste. It has a powerful, penetrating odor suggestive of chlorine, is very poisonous, and acts violently and seriously upon the eyes.

under parts white. Bill sharply hooked: tarsus long, feet large, with outer toe reversible, and with strong equal claws, adapted

Osmium Sulphides.

precipitate, obtained on

OsS,. Disulphide. Yellowish brown

passing hydrogen sulphide into a le. Precipitated . sulphide from a hydrochloric acid solution of the


soluble osmium salt.—OsSt. Tetrasulphide. Precipitated by hydrogen tetroxide.

Osmosis, or Osmose. Diffusion of a liquid through a membrane. See Endosmosis and Exosmosis.

Osmundacea?. Order of Ferns, of a small number of species, growing mainly in bogs; including the common Royal fern or Flowering fern and the Cinnamon fern.

Osnabriick. Towd of Hanover, on the Hase, 75 m. s.s. w. of Bremen; founded 772; seat of a bishop from ab. 810. Here the peace of Westphalia was signed 1648: George I. of England died on the way to it 1727. It has some manufactures. Pop., 1890, 39.929.

Osorio, Manoel Luiz, Marquis Of Hf.rval, 1808-1879. Brazilian general, distinguished in wars with Uruguay and Paraguay; Senator 1877, Minister of War 1878.

Osphradium. Olfactory organ of Mollusks; patch of sensory cells near each gill.

Ospina, Manuel. 1803-1885. then in exile till 1872.

Osprey (pandion Haliaetus). Falconoid bird, widely distributed, abundant along U. S. Atlantic coast, where it nests in oil' trees. The rarer European Osprey prefers cliffs near inland waters. Length 2 ft., color dark brown, the head and

Pres. of Colombia 1856-61;


for holding fish; a strong flyer. Eggs 2-4, closely blotched with brown.

Ossa AND Pelioil. Mountains in Thessaly; the giants in their war with the gods attempted to scale heaven by piling them on Olympus.

Ossein. Organic material composing one-third of the substance of bone, identical with collagen. Collagen is the substance of which the white fibers of connective tissue are composed.

Ossetish. Iranic language spoken by the Ossetians of the Caucasus. The sound of h, common in Iranian, is absent.

Ossian. Gaelic bard of 3d or 4th century, to whom were ascribed many legends of much later date, probably 1100-1500. These were collected and expanded by James Macpherson (q.v.), 1760. Their origin was the subject of much discussion.

Ossification. Process by which bone-tissue is produced. A formation of cartilaginous substance precedes that of the bone, and in this the deposit of the lime-salts takes place making the bone. It is deposited from centers extending by additions in the various directions needed for the shape of the bone. Where there are cavities in the bones, these are formed by the absorption of bone-tissue, the process of ossification being continuous, and, when the individual has attained maturity and there is no further absorption, the proportion of bony material increases, rendering the bones brittle in age. Ossification is also applied to the deposit of calcareous matter in other tissues, as ossification of the arteries or of the heart.

Ossoli, Sarah Margaret (fuller), Marchioness, 18101850, m. 1847. American author, of much influence with the Boston transcendentalists.

Ostade, Adrian Van, 1610-1685. Dutch genre painter, who affected low life-subjects with great success.—His brother, Izaax, 1621-1649, was of less note.

Ostend. Seaport of Belgium, 14 m. w. of Bruges; wellknown watering-place. Pop., 1886, 22,602.

Ostend Manifesto. Drawn up Oct. 1854 by U.S. ministers to Britain. France, and Spain, J. Buchanan, J. Y. M;tson,

« PreviousContinue »