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begin 870 m. from the sea. The delta extends 175 m. along the coast, and is crossed by above 50 channels. The tide is felt for 270 m.
Orlando. See ROLAND.
Orleans. City of France, on the Loire, 75 m. s.s.w, of Paris; besieged by Attila 451; twice plundered by Northmen; besieged by the English 1428–29, but relieved by Joan of Arc; prominent in the Huguenot wars and in that of 1870. It had a university 1312–1789, and has a large trade. Pop., 1891, 63,705.
Orleans, BASTARD OF. See DUNOIS.
Orleans, DUKES OF. CHARLES, 1391-1465; French commander at Agincourt 1415; prisoner in England till 1440; Ivric poet; father of Louis XII.-JEAN BAPTISTE GASTON, 1608-1660; third son of Henry IV.; Duke 1626; busy in intrigues against
The Orinoco at Caicara. Orioles. True orioles are tropical Old World birds, in general appearance resembling the American orioles, which belong to a distinct family (Icteridae). The Golden Oriole visits England. American orioles build pendent nests. The Mexican Troupial is celebrated for its melodious, clear notes. Most of the species are S. American. See BALTIMORE ORIOLE.
Orion. In Mythology, hunter, blinded or slain, and finally placed among the stars.
Oriskany. Village of Oneida co., N.Y.; scene of a battle between 800 Americans under Gen. Herkimer and a force of Tories and Indians, Aug. 6, 1777.
Oriskany Sandstone. Bed at the base of the Devonian, chiefly in N. Y. and Pa. It is thin but widespread, and contains a somewhat peculiar fauna. See DEVONIAN.
Orissa. Former state of e. India, now part of Bengal, Pop., 1891, 3,865,020.
Orizaba. Volcanic peak in Mexico, between the capital and Vera Cruz. Ht. 18,314 ft.
Orkian, 1290-1360. Son and successor of Othman, founder of the Turkish empire; Sultan from 1326. He took sundry Greek towns in Asia and Europe, and organized the Janissaries.
Orkney Islands. Numerous group n.e. of Scotland, 29 being inhabited; called Arcades by classical writers; conquered
Captivity of the Duke of Orleans in the Tower.
(From an Illumination in the Royal MS.) Richelieu and Mazarin.-PHILIPPE, 1674–1723; grandson of Louis XIII.; able general and notorious debauchee; Regent from 1715.-LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH (ÉGALITÉ), 1747–1793; revolutionist, deserting his order and voting for the king's execution; guillotined; father of King Louis Philippe.
Orleans, MAID OF. See JOAN OF ARC.
Orley, BERNAERT VAN, 1490–1560. Flemish painter, historically important as one of the first transmitters of Italian influence.
Orloff. Russian family: Gregory, 1734–1783, planned the murder of Peter III., which was executed 1762 by his brother Alexis. Their nephew, Alexis, 1787–1861, was a noted diplomatist.
Orloff. See HORSE. Orlop, Deck of a ship on which the cables are stowed. Ormerod, ELEANOR, b, ab. 1835. English entomologist. Insect Life, 1884.
Ormolu. See COPPER, METALLURGY OF.
Ormonde, JAMES BUTLER, FIRST DUKE OF, 1610–1688. Earl 1632; Commander in Ireland 1640–43; Lord-lieut. 1644; active royalist; made Duke 1660; Viceroy of Ireland 1662–69 and 1676– 85.-His grandson and namesake, 1665–1746, 2d duke 1688, Lord-lieut. of Ireland 1703, held command against France and Spain 1711, and was impeached and attainted 1715.
Ormulum. Series of homilies on the Gospel history, in Semi-Saxon verse, by Orm, ab. 1220: in the Bodleian library at Oxford; discovered 1659, pub. 1852.
Ormuz, STRAIT OF. Passage connecting Persian Gulf with Sea of O., which is an arm of the Arabian Sea or Indian Ocean.
Ormuzd, ORMAZD, or AHURA-MAZDA. Chief deity of Zoroastrianism, source and representative of good, opposed to the evil Ahriman.
Ornithadelphia. See PROTOTHERIA.
Ornithichnites. Footprints of birds, found chiefly on through the temperate and warm regions of Europe, Asia, slabs of the Trias.
Africa, and America; called the Broom-rape family. Ornithology. Natural history of birds. The extant por Orography. Department of Geology which considers the tions of Aristotle's works treat of 170 species of birds. No structure, geological history, age, and mode of formation of further contributions of importance were made until the time mountains of every kind and size, including all elevations above of Turner, 1544, Gesner, and Belon; but the foundations of the the general level of a country. See MOUNTAIN and MOUNTAIN science were not laid until 1676, by Willughby and Ray. The STRUCTURE. binomial classification of Linnæus was introduced 1735 and im
Orohippus. See EQUIDÆ. proved by Brisson 1760. Buffon introduced 1783 the conception
Orontes. River of Syria, flowing n. to Antioch and thence of variation of species. In 1812 Merren started the moderni system of classification. In 1831 Swainson developed the con- i
w, to the Mediterranean; now Nahr-el-Asi. It was originally ception of Evolution, and Nitsch sought a natural classification. In 1835 Sundevall began to recognize the importance of internal structure as furnishing classificatory characters. This conception was supported by the paleontological discoveries of connecting links between Birds and Reptiles, begun 1861, worked out by Owen 1863, Huxley 1867, Milne-Edwards 1871, Marsh 1872, and fully developed in the latter's Odontornithes, 1880. These data have stimulated Sclater to present a revised system of the Birds. Besides the authors above mentioned, the following, with main date of publication, are the most important. Catesby, 1731; Brünnich, 1764; Forster, 1771; Fabricius, 1780; D'Aubenton, 1780; Pennant, 1785; White, 1789 (Nat, Hist. of Selborne); Bartram, 1791; Barton, 1799: Le Vaillant, 1801; Bewick, 1804; Tiedemann, 1810; Illiger, 1811; Naumann, 1817; De Blainville, 1820; Audubon, 1827; Wilson, 1828; Bonaparte, 1831; Keyserling and Blasius, 1839; Gervais, 1856; Parker, 1860; Coues, 1884; Ridgway, 1887.
Ornithophilous. Flowers which are cross-fertilized by birds, which carry the pollen of one to the pistils of another. The Humming Birds are especially active in this process.
Ornithorhynchus. Duck-billed water-mole of Australia, also called Platypus; brown aquatic mammal, 18 in. long, with webbed feet. It burrows into muddy banks and feeds on
Valley of the Orontes. shellfish, etc. Its jaws are ensheathed by a duck-like bill: four
called Typhon, from a mythical dragon who is said to have horny molar teeth are present. The tail is short and flat. The traced its course with his tail, but later after Orontes, who
built a bridge across it. Length ab. 240 m.
Orosius, PAULUS. Spanish presbyter of 5th century, whose 7 books of History against the Pagans, extending to 417, were much valued in the Middle Ages, and tr. into Anglo-Saxon by Alfred. Orozco y Berra, MANUEL, 1816–1881. Mexican historian.
Orpheus. In Greek Mythology, Thracian musician of extraordinary gifts. Apollo gave him the lyre, and the Muses taught him its use; by its strains he tamed wild beasts, made trees follow him, and won back his wife Eurydice from Hades, but lost her again because he could not refrain from looking back at her before reaching the upper world. Many hymns and poems are credited to an Orphic fraternity, which existed till ab. 300.
Orpiment. As,Sg. Natural ARSENIOUS SULPHIDE (q.v.), of yellow color, occurring in small quantity and usually as a product of alteration of ores containing arsenic.
Orpine. See LIVE-FOREVER.
Orr, JAMES LAWRENCE, 1822-1873. M.C. 1849-59; Senator Duck-billed Water-mole (0. anatinus).
C.S.A. 1862–65; Gov. of S. C. 1865–68; Circuit Judge for S. C. males have movable spurs on the bind legs, perforated and con- 1870; U. S. Minister to Russia 1872. necting with poison glands. These creatures resemble birds
Orrery. Machine constructed for the purpose of showing still more in their internal anatomy. A well-developed coracoid bone is present; there is a cloaca, and the young are born from eggs. Epipubic bones are present, but no marsupial pouch.
Ornithosauria. Flying Reptiles, now extinct, but abounding in the Jurassic period. The limbs were specialized to hold a web, as in bats, except that the little finger was greatly prolonged, to support the anterior edge of this patagium, the other fingers being free, and the thumb rudimentary. The head was like that of modern birds; even the jaws were incased in a horny beak, which usually bore teeth. The shoulder girdle was avian; the pelvis was saurian. The bones were provided with air-sacs; the blood was warm, but no feathers were present. In size the Pterodactyls ranged from that of a sparrow to that of a condor. One from the Kansas chalk deposits had a spread of wing of 25 ft. They inhabited both continents. It is probable that none of their descendants now remain. The Birds are descended from the Dinosaurs, which belong to the order Ornithoscelida. See PTEROSAURIA.
Ornithoscelida. Order of extinct Reptiles whose bind limbs, etc., show bird-like characters. Here are included the Dinosauria and Compsognathus. In the latter the head is birdlike, the neck vertebræ are long, the anterior ribs short, the posterior long, and the astragalus is fused with the long tibia. The pubis and iscbium are elongated downward, and the ilium extends forward. Orobanchaceæ. Natural family of flowering plants, of
George II.'s Orrery. the class Angiospermæ, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Gam- the motion of the planets round the sun, and of the satellites opetalæ, comprising 12 genera and ab. 150 species, scattered | round their primaries. Made by Rowley for the Earl of Orrery
in 1715. Though not accurate it gives a general notion of the i Orthogonal. Right angled: operations such as transforway in which the planetary motions are performed.
mation, projection, etc., and their results, in which the moveOrris-Root. Rootstocks of certain species of Iris, natives ment is at right angles to a fixed base. of s. Europe, smelling strongly like violets and used in per Orthogonal Transformation. From one set of rectfumery.
angular axes in space to another having the same origin. Orsay, ALFRED GUILLAUME GABRIEL, COUNT D', 1801-1852. Point distances from origin are unchanged, and the transFrench * glass of fashion and mold of form," long prominent
formation is automorphic. in London.
Orthographic (ORTHOGONAL) Projection. That in Orsini, Princely family, long prominent in Rome; Guelphs
which points or lines are projected by lines or planes perpenand enemies of the Colonnas. Two of them became popes,
ecame popes. dicular to the base of projection. 1277 and 1724.
Orthography. Correct spelling; of increasing importance Orsini, FELICE, 1819–1858. Italian fanatic, bred to con as the number of words increases and the standard of education spiracies; sentenced to the galleys 1844, pardoned 1846; deputy rises; formerly optional in England, especially with proper 1849; imprisoned 1855; executed in Paris for killing and wound names. ing many persons in an attempt on the life of Napoleon III. Orthoneura. See TÆNIOGLOSSA. Jan. 14.
Orthopedic Surgery. Branch of surgery dealing with Ortega, CASIMIRO GOMEZ, 1740–1819. Director of the Bo-operations and mechanical appliances used to correct deformitanical Gardens in Madrid. Tabulæ botanicæ, 1773.
ties; e.g., club-foot, curved backs from spinal disease, primarily Ortel, ABRAHAM, 1527-1598. Flemish geographer. Thea
in children. trum Orbis Terrarum, 1570; Thesaurus Geog., 1578–96.
Orthoptera. Insecta with incomplete metamorphosis, Orth, GODLOVE STONER, 1817-1882. M.C. from Ind. 1863–71, with two pairs of wings, which in the Pseudoneuroptera are 1873–75, and from 1879; U. S. Minister to Austria 1875–77. membranous and alike (with close nervures), and cannot be
folded; but, in the Orthoptera genuina, the anterior pair are Orth, JOHANNES, b. 1847. Prof. Göttingen 1878; writer on
small and hard, the hinder ones are broad and membranous pathology.
and can be folded together longitudinally beneath the anterior Orthez. Town of s. France, near which Wellington de
pair. The jaws are fitted for biting. The genuine Orthoptera feated a French army under Soult Feb. 27, 1814. Pop. ab. 4,800.
comprise the tribes Cursoria, Gressoria, and Saltatoria. The Orthis. Palæozoic Brachiopod genus, containing numer
Pseudoneuroptera comprise the tribes Physopoda, Corrodentia, ous species; originally distinguished by the straight hinge line.
and Amphibiotica. Grasshoppers and Dragon-flies are illustra
tions of the two main groups respectively. Ortho Acids. Usually the ordinary form, derived from
Orthostichous. Straight row of leaves or other organs. normal acids by the abstraction of one or more molecules of
Orthostyle. Straight row of columns detached and not water; e.g., normal phosphoric acid, P(OH).. by loss of one molecule of water becomes orthophosplioric acid, H,PO,
forming a portico.
Orthotropous. Straight ovule, i.e., one not bent nor Orthoceras. Straight chambered Palæozoic shell, allied
curved; also called Atropous.
Orton, ARTHUR (alias THOMAS CASTRO), b. 1834. Claimant in the TICHBORNE CASE (q.v.), 1871–72; tried for perjury 1873–74, and sentenced to 14 years with hard labor. In 1895 he confessed the imposture.
Orton, EDWARD, LL.D., b. 1829. Prof. Antioch Coll. 1865– 73; Pres. Ohio State Univ. 1873–81: state geologist of Ohio, assistant and chief, from 1869; author of reports and numerous papers on the Geology of Ohio. His principal work has been upon the Coal and Gas fields of Ohio.
Orton, JAMES, 1830–1877. Prof. Vassar Coll, from 1869; explorer in S. America 1867–68, 1873, and 1877. Andes and Amazon, 1870–76; Comparative Zoology, 1875.
Ortygia. 1. Island in Bay of Syracuse, Sicily, occupied by part of the city. 2. Delos.
Orvieto. Ancient town of central Italy, noted for its cathedral, built 1290–1580; resort of many popes in distress. Pop. 7,900.
Oryx. Several species of African Antelopes, characterized
Fragment of Orthoceras crebri.
Restoration of Orthoceras, the septum - Cincinnati Group,
shell being supposed to be North America, of the natu
divided vertically, and only ral size. The lower figure is
its upper part being shown. & section showing the air
a, Arms; , Muscular tube chambers, and the form and
(funnel'') by which water is position of the siphuncle.
expelled from the mantle-
Orthoclase. KAISI,Oy. Common FELDSPAR (q.v.); distinguished from quartz by its pearly cleavage, and from mica by its greater hardness.
Ortho Compounds. Wherever this prefix is used, see the main word; e.g., for ortho-toluidine see toluidine. See META and BENZENE HYPOTHESIS.
Orthodox School of Political Economy. Group of economists who have followed with comparative closeness the teachings of Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, and the other early English economists.
Orthodoxy. Correct religious opinions, as opposed to heterodoxy or heresy; variously defined according to the point of view.
Orthoepy. Branch of grammar dealing with pronunciation.
VW Orthognathi. Division of mankind having slightly pro
Oryx (Oryx beisa). jecting jaws and teeth, as in the European races. They have by very long, nearly straight, upward growing horns, with a high facial angle. See MAN and CRANIOMETRY.
| rings near the base. The hair is yellowish, variegated with