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“ Begone, Sirrah, off my grounds !” one would say. even in a cabin, whose inmates are blessed with a love of “ Why don't you work, you sturdy impostor,” another independence, industry, and mutual affection. would exclaim, * rather than stroll about lazily, training Owen, in pursuance of his intention, did 'not neglect, your brats to the gallows ?” “You should be taken up, when the proper season arrived, to place out his eldest fellow, as a vagrant," a third would observe ; " and if I children among the farmers. The reader need not be told ever catch you coming up my avenue again, depend upon
that there was that about him which gained respect. He it, I will slip my dogs at you and your idle spawn." had, therefore, little trouble in obtaining his wishes on this
Owen, on these occasions, turned away in silence : he point, and to his great satisfaction, he saw three of them did not curse them ; but the pangs of his honest heart went
hired out to earn their own support. before Him who will, sooner or later, visit upon the heads It was now a matter of some difficulty for him to take a of such men their cruel spurning and veglect of the poor. cabin and get employment. They had not a single article
« Kathleen,” he observed to his wife, one day, about a of furniture, and neither bed nor bedding, with the excepyear or more after they had begun to beg; “ Kathleen, 1tion of blankets almost woru past use. He was resolved, have been turnin' it in my mind, that some of these chil- however, to give up, at all risks, the life of a mendicant. dhre might sthrive to earn their hit an' sup, an' their little for this purpose, he and the wife agreed to adopt a plan coverin" of clo'es, poor things. We might put them to herd quite usual in Ireland, under circumstances somewhat difcows in the summer, an' the girshas to somethin' else in the ferent from his : this was, that Kathleen should continue farmer's houses. What do you think, asthore ?"
to beg for their support, until the first half-year of their “For God's sake do, Owen; sure my heart's crushed to children's service should expire ; and in the mean time, see them-my own childhre, that I could lay down my life that he, if possible, should secure employment for himself. for begging from door to door. Och, do something for By this means, his earnings, and that of his children, might them that way, Owen, an' you'll relieve the heart that remain untouched, so that in half a year, he calculated loves them. It's a sore sight to a mother's eye, Owen, to upon being able to furnish a cabin, and proceed, as a cotsee her childhre beggin' their morsel.”
tier, to work for, and support his young children and his “ It is, darlin-it is; we'll hire out the three eldest, wife, who determined, on her part, not to be idle any more Brian an' Owen, an? Pether, to herd cows; an’ we may gets than her husband. As the plan was a likely one, and as Peggy into some farmer's house to do loose jobs an' run of Owen was bent on earning his bread, rather than be a burmessages. Then we'd have only little Kathleen an' poor then to others, it is unnecessary to say that it succeeded. Ned along wid us. I'll thry any way, an' if I can get them in less than a year he found himself once more in a home, places, who knows what may happen ? I have a plan in and the force of what he felt on sitting, for the first time my head that I'll tell you, thin."
since his pauperism, at his own hearth, may easily be con. “ Arrah, what is it, Owen jewel ? Sure if I know it ceived by the reader. For some years after this, Owen got maybe when I'm sorrowful, that thinkin' of it, an’ lookin' on slowly enough; his wages as a daily labourer, being so forrid to it will make me happier. An' I'm sure, acushla, miserable, that it required him to exert every nerve to keep you would like that."
the house over their head. What, however, will not care“But, maybe, Kathleen, if it wouldn't come to pass, fulness and a virtuous determination, joined to indefatigable that the disappointment 'ud be heavy on you ?”.
industry, do? “How could it, Owen ? Sure we can't be worse nor we' After some time, backed as he was by his wife, and even are, whatever happens ?"
by his youngest children, he found himself beginning to “ Thrue enough indeed, I forgot that ; an' yet we might, improve. In the mornings and the evenings he cultivated Kathleen. Sure we'd be worse, if we or the childhre had his garden and his rood of potato ground. He also collectbad health."
ed with a wheelbarrow, which he borrowed from an ac“God forgive me thin, for what I said ! We might be quaintance, compost from the neighbouring road ; scoured worse. Well, but what is the plan, Owen ?”
an old drain before his door ; dug rich earth, and tossed it ** Why, when we get the childhre places, I'll sthrive to into the pool of rotten water beside the house, and in fact, take a little house, an' work as a cottar. Then, Kathleen, adopted several other modes of collecting manure. By this "we'd have a home of our own.' I'd work from light to means, he had, each Spring, a large portion of sich stuff on light; I'd work before hours an afther hours ; ay, nine which to plant his potatoes. His landlord perunitted him days in the week, or we'd be comfortable in our own little to spread this for planting upon his land; and Owen, ere home. We might be poor, Kathleen, I know that, an' long, instead of a rood, was able to plant half an acre, and bard pressed, too ; but then, as I said, we'd have our own ultimately, an acre of potatoes. The produce of this being home, an' our own hearth ; our morsel, if it 'ud be homely, more than sufficient for the consumption of his family, he would be sweet, for it would be the fruits of our own la- sold the surplus, and with the money gained by the sale, bour."
was enabled to sow half an acre of oats, of which, when « Now, Owen, do you think you could manage to get made into meal, he disposed of the greater share. that?"
Industry is capital; for even when unaided by capital it “Wait, acushla, till we get the childhre settled. Then creates it ; whereas, idleness with capital, produces only I'll thry the other plan, for it's good to thry any thing that poverty and ruin. could take us out of this disgraceful life.”
We cannot follow the gradual rise of this virtuous fa. This humble speculation was a source of great comfort mily by slow and sure degrees; but we will take Owen's reto them. Many a time have they forgotten their sorrows turn home. in contemplating the simple picture of their happy little When Owen once more found himself independent and cottage Kathleen, in particular, drew, with all the vivid safe, he longed to realize two plans on which he had for colouring of a tender mother, and an affectionate wife, the some time before been seriously thinking. The first was various sources of comfort and contentment to be found to visit his foriner neighbours, that they might at length
fragments to the vallies between them. A thousand birds Ha, ha, ha! It is, darlin'; it is indeed; an' I'd be sarry poured their songs upon the ear; the brecze was up, and
know that Owen M'Carthy's station in the world was such so, at the most, an' afther that I'll have news for you about as became his character. The second was, if possible, to all o' them." take a farm in his native parish, that he might close his When Monday morning arrived, Owen found himseif days among the companions of his youth, and the friends ready to set out for Tubber Derg. The tailor had not disof his maturer years. He had, also, another motive ; there appointed him; and Kathleen, to do her justice, took care lay the burying place of the M'Carthys, in which slept the that the proofs of hergood housewifery should be apparent in mouldering dust of his own “golden haired" Alley. With the whiteness of his linen. After breakfast, he dressed him. them—in his daughter's grave—he intended to sleep his self in all bis finery; and it would be difficult to say whelong sleep. Affection for the dead is the memory of the ther the harmless vanity that peeped out occasionally from heart. In no other grave-yard could he reconcile it to his simplicity of character, or the open and undisguised tri himself to be buried; to it had all his forefathers been ga- umph of his faithful wife, whose eye rested on him with thered ; and though calamity had separated him from the pride and affection, was most calculated to produce a smile scenes where they had passed through existence, yet he was “Now, Kathleen," said he, when preparing for his immeresolved that death should not deprive him of its last mediate departure, “ I'm thinkin' of what they'll say, when lancholy consolation ;-that of reposing with all that re- they see me so smooth an' warm lookin'. I'll engage they'll mained of the departed," who had loved him, and whom be axin one another, “Musha, how did Owen MCarthy he had loved. He believed, that to neglect this, would be get an, at all, to be so well to do in the world, as he apo to abandon a sacred duty, and felt sorrow at the thought of pears to be, afther failin' on his ould farm *** being like an absent guest from the assembly of his own “ Well, but Owen, you know how to manage them." dead ; for there is a principle of undying hope in the heart, “ Throth, I do that. But there's one thing they'll nerer that carries, with bold and beautiful imagery, the realities get out o' me, any way.” of life into the silent recesses of death itself.
“ You won't tell that to any othem, Owen ?" Having formed the resolution of visiting his old friends “ Kathleen, if I thought they only suspected it
, I'd at Tubber Derg, he communicated it to Kathleen and his never show my face in Tubber Derg agin. I think I could family ; his wife received the intelligence with undisguised bear to be—an' yet it 'ud be a hard struggle wid me, too. deligiil.
but I think I could bear to be buried among black straz“But whin do you mane to go to Tubber Derg, Owen ?" gers, rather than it should be said, over my grave, among
“In the beginnin' of the next week. An' Kathleen, my own, there's where Owen M‘Carthy lies—who was ahagur, if you remember the bitther mornin' we came upon the only man, of his name, that ever begged his morsel on the world—but we'll not be spakin' of that now. I don't the king's highway. There he lies, the descindant of the like to think of it. Some other time, maybe, when we're great M'Carthy Mores, an' yet he was a beggar." ! settled among our onld friends, I'll mintion it."
know, Kathleen achora, it's neither a sin nor a shame to - Well, the Lord bliss your endayvours, any how! Och, ax one's bit from our fellow-creatures, whin fairly brought Owen, do thry an' get us a snug farm somewhere near them to it, widout any fault of our own; but still I feel se me. But you didu't answer me about Alley, Owen ?”
thing in me, that can't bear to think of it widout shame “ Why, you must have your wish, Kathleen; although an' heaviness of heart." I intended to keep that place for myself. Still we can sleep “ Well, it's one comfort, that nobody knows it but our. one on aich side of her ; an' that may be asily done, for our selves
. The poor childhre, for their own sakes, won't eve? buryin' ground is large : so set your mind at rest on that breathe it; so that it's likely the sacret 'ill be berried wide." head. I hope God won't call us till we see our childhre settled dacently in the world. But sure, at all evints, let
The sun had now risen, and as Owen ascended the larger His blissed will be done !"
of the two bills which we have mentioned, he stood again “ Amin! amin! It's not right of any one to keep their
to view the scene that stretched beneath him. About an hearts fixed too much upon the world ; nor even, they say, less, as if the land had been a land of the dead. The
hour before all was still; the whole country lay notiora upon one's own childhre.”
“People may love their childhre as much as as they plase, mountains, in the distance, were covered with the thin Kathleen, if they don't let their grah for them spoil the cra
mists of morning; the milder and richer parts of the landthurs, by givin' them their own will, till they become head-scape had appeared in that dim grey, distinctness which strong an' over. bearin’. Now, let my linen be as white a gives to distant objects such a clear outline. With the et a bone before Monday, plase goodness; I hope, by that time, ception of the blackbird's song, every thing seemed as if that Jack Dogherty will have my new clo'se made ; for i stricken into silence ; there was not a breeze stirring : boch intind to go as dacent as ever they seen me in my best animate and inanimate nature reposed days."
the very trees appeared asleep, and their leaves motionless “ An' so you will, too, avillish. Throth, Owen, it's you as if they had been of marble. that'll be the proud man, steppin' in to them in all your changed. The sun had Aung his splendour upon the mounts grandeur! Ha, ha, ha! The spirit o' the M-Carthys is in tain-tops
, from which the mists were tumbling in broken you still, Owen.”
as if in a trance;
But now the scene was
it wasn't. I long to sce poor Widow Murray. I dunia the columns of smoke from the farm-houses and cottages is her son, Jemny, married. Who knows, after all we suf- played, as if in frolie, in the air. A white haze was be ferel, but I may be able to help her yet —that is, if she ginning to rise from the meadows; early teama were a foot: stands in need of it. But, I suppose, her childhre's grown and labourers going abroad to their employmenta The up now, an' able to assist her. Now, Kathleen, mind Mon: lakes in the distance shone like mirrors ; and, the, qlee day next; au' have every thing ready. I'll stay a week or springs on the mountain sides glittered in the sun, like.gria
on which the eye could scarcely rest. Life, and light, and Good mornin', an' thank you both, gintlemen. To tell motion, appear to be inseparable. The dew of morning yees the truth,” he added, with a smile, “I long to be hay npon nature like a brilliant veil, realizing the beautiful among my ould friends-manin' the people, an' the hills image of Horace, as applied to woman :
an' the green fields of Tubber Derg--agin; an', thanks be “Vultus nimium lubricus aspici."
to Goodness, sure I will soon.!!. By and by the songs of the carly workmen were heard ; In fact, wherever Owen went, within the bounds of his nature had awoke ; and Owen, whose heart was strongly, native parish, his name, to use a significant phrase of the though unconsciously, alive to the influence of natural people, was before him. His arrival at Krank Farrel's religion, participated in the general elevation of the hour, was now generally known by all his acquaintances, and and sought, with freshened spirits, the house of his enter. the numbers who came to see him were almost beyond be. tainer..
lief. During the two or three successive days, he went As he entered this hospitable roof, the early industry of his among his old “croniens ;" and no sooner was his arrival friend's wife presented him with a well-swept hearth and a at any particular house intimated, than the neighbours all pleasant fire, before which had been placed the identical flocked to him. Sithes were left idle, spades were stuck chair, tbat they had appropriated to his own use. Frank in the earth, and work neglected for the time being; all was enjoying "a blast o' the pipe," after having risen ; to
crowded about him with a warm and friendly interest, not which luxury the return of Owen gave additional zest and proceeding from idle curiosity, but from affection and resplacidity. In fact, Owen's presence communicated a holi- pect for the man. day spirit to the family; a spirit, too, which declined not
Owen had no sense of enjoyment when not participated for a moment during the period of his visit.
in by his beloved Kathleen. If he felt sorrow, it was less Owen, as we said, was prompt in following up his deter: as a personal feeling than as a calamity to her. If he crminations. After breakfast they saw the Agent and his perienced happiness, it was doubly sweet to him as reflected father, for both lived together. Old Rogerson had been in- from his Kathleen. All this was mutual between them. timately acquainted with the M‘Carthy3, and, as Frank had
Kathleen loved Owen precisely as he loved Kathleen. Nor anticipated, used his influence with the Agent in procuring let our readers suppose, that such characters are not in for the son of his old friend and acquaintance the farm humble life. It is in humble life, where the springs of which he sought.
feeling are not corrupted by dissimulation and evil know“ Jack," said the old gentleman, “ you don't probably ledge, that the purest, and tenderest, and strongest virtues know the history and character of the Tubber Derg Mac
are to be found. Carthys so well as I do. No man ever required the writ
As Owen approached his home, he could not avoid conten bond of a M'Carthy; and it was said of them, and is trasting the circumstances of his return now with those unsaid still, that the widow and orphan," the poor man or the der which, almost broken-hearted after his journey to Dubstranger, never sought their assistance in vain. I, myself
, lin, he presented himself to his sorrowing and bereaved will go security, if necessary, for Owen M'Carthy.”
wife about sixteen years before. He raised his hat, and “ Sir," replied Owen, “ I'm thankful to you ; I'm grate thanked God for the success which had, since that period, ful to you. But I wouldn't take the farm, or bid for it at
attended him, and, immediately after his silent thanksgivall, unless I could bring forrid enough to stock it as I ing, entered the house. wish, an' to lay in all that's wantin' to work it well. It
His welcome, our readers may be assured, was tender 'ud be useless for me to take it-to struggle a year or two
and affectionate. The whole family gathered alout him, -impoverish the land-án' thin run away out of it. No,
and, on his informing them that they were once more about no; I have what'll put me upon it wid dacency an' com
to reside on a farm adjoining to their beloved Tubber Derg, fort."
Kathleen's countenance brightened, and the tear of delight " Then, since my father has taken such an interest gushed to her eyes. in you, M'Carthy, you must have the farm. We shall
“God be praised, Owen,” she exclaimed; “ we will have get leases prepared, and the business completed, in a few the ould place afore our eyes, an what is betther, we will days; for I go to Dublin on this day week. Father,
be ncar where Alley is lyin'.", I 'not remember the character of this family; and I re
There is little more to be said. Sorrow was soon sucmember, too, the sympathy which was felt for one of them ceeded by cheerfulness and the glow of expected pleasure, who was harshly ejected, about seventeen or eighteen years which is ever the more delightful as the
is pure, agó, ont of the lands on which his forefathers had lived, I In about a week their old neighbours, with their carts and understand, for centuries."
cars, arrived ; and before the day was closed on which «I'am that man,'Sir," returned Owen. “ It's too long a Owen removed to his new residence, he found himself once story to tell now; but it was only out o' part of the lands, more sitting at his own hearth, among the friends of his Sir, that I was put. What I held was but a poor patch youth, and the companions of his maturer years. Ere a compared to what the family held in my grandfather's time. twelvemonth elapsed, he had his house perfectly white, and A great part of it went out of our hands at his death." as nearly resembling that of Tubber Derg in its better days
" It was very kind of you, Misther Rogerson, to offer to as possible. About two years ago we saw him one evengo security for hiin,” said Frank; " but if security was ing in the month of June, as he sat on a bench beside his wantin', Sir, I'd not be willin' to let any body but myself door, singing with a happy heart his favourite song of back him. I'd go all I'm worth in the world-an', be my “ Colleen dhas crootha na mo.” It was about an hour be. Bowl, double as much—for the same man.".
foré sunset. The house stood on a gentle eminence, be. “I know that, Frank, an' I thank yon ; but I could put neath which a sweep of green meadow stretched away to security in Mr. Rogerson's hands here, if it was wanted the skirts of Tubber Derg. Around him was a country
naturally fertile, and, in spite of the national depression,
Abraham Whitehead, clothier.-- When children, after thir.
teen, fourteen, fifteen, or sixteen hours of labour, have, in the still beautiful to contemplate. Kathleen and two servant extremity of their fatigue, fallen into errors and mistakes in
aids were milking, and the whole family were assembled piecing, by placing the cording obliquely, has seen the balls. about the door.
spinner or overlooker take his strap or the billy-roller, and as,
« Damn thee! close it little devil, close it !" and then smite the “Well, childhre,” said the father, “ didn't I tell yees the child with the strap or the billy-roller. Some have been bestea bitther mornin' we left Tubber Derg, not to cry or be disso violently that they have lost their lives on such occasion ; heartened—that there was a good God above, who might through her cheek. He has seen the hilly-spinner take the
and even a young girl has bad the billy roller jammel guite do somethin' for us yet ?' I never did give up my trust in billy-roller and rap them on the head, making their heads crack Him, an' I never will. You see, afther all our little so that you might have heard the blow at the distance of six or
eight yards, in spite of the din and rolling of the machinery. throubles, he has wanst more broug'it us together, an' made Knew a boy of the name of Senior, his school-fellow, who was us happy. Praise an' glory to His name !"
killed by a blow from the billy-roller. A woman, in Holmforth, I looked at him as he spoke. He had raised his eyes to factory children are oftener beaten than with either stick or strap
was also beaten to death with this instrument; with which the heaven, and a gleam of elevated devotion, perhaps worthy These beatings usually occurred at the latter end of the day, of being called sublime, irradiated his features. The sun, when the children were sleepy and fatigued. It is a common too, in setting, fellúpon his broad temples and iron-grey could be brought to swear that the practice was a general ote,
practice to strike the children with the billy-roller. Handreds locks with a light solemn and religious. The effect to me and that the children so beaten were blind for two or three days. who knew his noble character, and all that he had suffered, If any attempt is made to punish the overlooker, the children was as if the eye of God then rested upon the decline of a
to be discharged. These atrocities took place in Me.
Brown's mill, of Leeds. Has seen children of the age of seven virtuous man's life with approbation ;—as if he had lifted years, going from their homes at five and six, and sometita up the glory of his countenance upon him. Would that four and five, to their mills. Children of this tender age often many of his thoughtless countrymen had been present! for breakfast or tea. The forty minutes for dinner is their only
work till ten on a winter's night. They have no time allowed They might have blushed for their crimes, and been con time for rest, and then they are often employed in cleaning the tent to sit and learn wisdom at the feet of Owen M'Carthy."
William Kershaw, a clothier.–The pieceners are dreadfully
beaten; has been beaten bimself with a billy-roller, toward FACTORY CHILDREN.
night, when he was particularly drowsy, till he repeatedly
vomited blood; was then only eight years old; intreated his We again present our readers with an extract from that mother not to complain, lest he shonld be further beaten.dark record, the forty days' evidence taken before the Com- This was many years ago; but the children are not better mittee of the House of Commons, on the condition of the the oldest, when a piecener, has had to stop a day or two a
treated now; has children working at a mill at present; wretched children in the factories. This is a subject of which home for three successive weeks, on account of being beaten oa we shall never lose sight, till the rank offence which cries the head. Has known the unlimited power of punishment on
the to Heaven be removed from among us.
part of the overlookers ; knew the father and mother of 3
It matters little child who was killed by being beaten on the head with the whether the bloated idol, fed with infant blood, be Moloch, billy-roller. The children are beaten at all times in the day, Juggernaut, or the god of British commercial idolatry, for the most trivial mistakes, but the greatest complaints have Mammon :- the sin is alike deep, the expiation alike called
been at night, when the children are drowsy and fatigued. John Goodyear, scribble feeder.
Considers the long hours for. One of the witnesses examined before the Committee, the cause of the cruelties upon factory children, which are re; the Rev. Mr. Gordon of Aberdeen, stated, that some years their strength. Te is a common practice in woollen milie.com
sorted to for the purpose of compelling them to labour beyond ago, Dr. Chalmers had from the pulpit told the manufac- beat them with a stick, strap, or billy-roller. Had a brother turers of Glasgow, “ That they egar human beings as who nearly lost his eye hy a blow from one of these instruments. so many pieces of machinery, the living principle within the treatment of children grows more and more inbuman; hot them as the power which set the machine in motion ; and
seen them a hundred times worse treated of late years thad he
was when young. that their sole object was to get out of the machines as Thomas Bennett, slubber. He said, with grief, that English much work as possible with the least expense."
children were enslaved worse than the Africans. Complained
when working at Mr. Wood's mill. Dewsbury, " that they Richard Oastler, Esq:-Has seen little boys and girls of had not time io eat;" to wbich Wood replied, " Chew it as ten years old, one in particular, whose forehead was cut open by your work." Towards the evening, when the children are the thong, whose cheeks and lips were laid open, and whose drowsy, they are apt to get entangled in the machinery Saw informed bim, that he had been frequently knocked down with drowsy, about the middle, bore her to the roof
, and when she the billy-roller, (a heavy rod of from two to three yards long,
came down her neck appeared broken. The slubber ran up to and two inches in diameter, with an iron pivot at each end, her and pulled
her neck and serit het to the doctora. forming part of the inachinery,) and that on one occasion he Benjamin Gummersal, piecener.-Has been beaten by the had been hung up by a rope round the body, and almost overlooker till black and blue on his face, and has had his can frightened to death, for the most trivial mistakes in his work. Became deformed through hard work, and ill treatment; Has seen the bodies of these poor creatures almost broken down, cannot walk at all; is obliged to go up stairs backwards, so that they could not walk without assistance, when they have Richard Wilson, piecener.-His brother became so deformed been seventeen or eighteen years of age ; some who, after living that his father
was compelled to carry him to the mille che all their lives in this slavery, were consigned at that age to
died at twenty-three. Has seen the children beaten severely poor houses, and not maintained by the masters, for whom they towards night. had worked, as would have been the case had they been negro
Benjamin Bradshaw, cloth-dresser, of Holbeck, Leeds... slaves, but by other people who had reaped no advantage from
When children go to work at five in the morning, and remaja their labour.
till ten at night, they become stupified with labour. 'Has heard,
in the room under which he worked, at Mr Rosia's faetory, • This story we have abridged from a new work of very great merit, lehet a heart of stones they were beaten in that mil.chiesta
between seven and eight, the cries of children, that would have entitled Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. The tale we have ly with a strap, or leathern belt
. His own children baye response make us know and love our fellow.subjects of Ireland ; and heartily do as the boys. He has known a little
girl beaten most cruelly
for a happy vein of humour. We have seen no work better calculated to of their backs. The girls were treated with the same servering we recommend it to such of our readas as dráw supplies from circu- going to the water-closet. He did remonstrate with their mindre lating libraries. It is worth fifty fashionable novels.
ter respecting the abuse of his daughter, but instead of discharge
ing the overlooker, the philanthropic individual discharged all Samuel Smith, Esq. Surgeon of Leeds.--The accidents by bis children from his employ. Of seven hundred persons on machinery are of so fearful a character as to entirely disable whom he called to ascertain their sentiments on the factory the sufferers-Has frequently seen accidents of the most fearful question, sevenleed only eould write their own names.
kind that it is possible to conceive. Has seen cases in which Eliza Marshall.-Worked at Mr. Marshall's flax mill, Water the arm has been torn off near the shoulder joint, and the lane. Leeds, and afterwards at Mr. Warburton's. Becaine upper extremity chopped into sin all fragments from the tip of crooked with excessive labour, and went into the Infirmary: the finger to above the elbow. Has seen every extremity of Has been beaten, and has seen other children strapped and the body broken. A great number of these accidents might kicked down. The master was often present and was as bad as have been prevented by some Act to compel the owners of the overlooker , they were as frightened when he came as if mills to have such horizontal and upright shafts as revolve with they were going to be killed. She was so exhausted at night, great rapidity in situations where children are placed near them, that she had to be trailed home. ls deformed from excessive sheathed and covered with boxes of wood, which might be done labour in a standing position. Had to crawl to bed on her at small expense, but is often neglected. Many of these accidents hands and knees.
take place when the children are exhausted and sleepy from the Abraham Weldam.-Worked at Judson and Brother's mills long period at which they have continued their labour; they at Keighley. Considers the lives of factory children one of ex are in that state of lassitude and fatigue that they cannot keep traordinary oppression and slavery. In the mill referred to their eyes open, and their fingers are frequently involved in the they were chastised and beaten very cruelly at times; the over: machinery when they are in that helpless state.
Had seen a looker was a person of very immoral character, a very bad girl 15 or 16 years of age who was much deformed, and ascers man; he chastised them with any weapon that came at hand. tained that she had worked from five in the morning till ten at The overlookers are too often in the habit of availing them- night, for six months in succession, without being allowed a selyes of their controul over the female children for very impro- single minute for food, rest, or recreation ; she was obliged to per purposes.
take her breakfast, dinner, and tea, as she followed her work. Samuel Coulson, tailor, of Stanningley.--His children get She was a “scribbler” in a flax mill at Holbeck Dear Leeds. to bed about eleven, but were obliged to be up at two to ensure Reader ! bear in mind that the above extracts are taken from their arriving in time at the mill, thus allowing them only seven hundred closely printed folio pages of evidence, ietailing three hours sleep. An accident befel his daughter, who lost the most revolting and heart-rending cruelties; and we entirely one of her fingers, in consequence of the brutal interference of agree with a London contemporary, “ That if the cruelties heretbe overlooker, whilst she was at work, in the after part of the in exposed had been invented by a writer of romance, they day. She was five weeks in the Leeds infirmary, during the would have been considered as outraging probability.". Can whole of which time her wages were stopped. She had not the such a system be longer tolerated in a country professing Chrisleast assistance from her employer. One of his daughters was tianity ? Impossible. beaten until her back was like a jelly. The wounds had to be dressed a fortnight after infliction, “ in the way of a poor sole dier that has suffered at the halberds."
TROUBADOURS. Haorah Brown-Worked at nine years of age at Mr. Ack The Norman rhymers appear to have been the genuine royd's mill, at Bradford. Has seen the overlooker drag the descendants of the ancient Scandinavian scalds ; they were children about “ three or four yards” by the hair of their heads. well known in the northern part of France long before the The master was fully aware the children were thus treated appearance of the Provençal poets called Troubadours, and Has even treated them bimself in the manner already described. Trouvers, that is, Finders, probably from the fertility of their
Peter Smart, overlooker at Mt. Andrew Smith's mill, Dun invention. The Troubadour's brought with them into the dee, was frequently much beaten to keep him up to his labour, north a new species of language called the Roman language, often till be was blooly at the mouth and nose. was accustomed to beat him as well as the overseer, both with which in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was commonly their hands and a leathern strap.
used in the southern provinces of France, and there esteemAlexander Dean, overlooker' at Dundee. Was barbarously ed as the
most perfect of any in Europe. It evidently oriused by the overseer of Mayfield Mill; was once struck and ginated from the Latin, and was the parent of the French koocked against the machinery, till he had one of his eyes tongue; and in this language their songs and their poems closed. The instrument with which he was struck was the were composed. These poets were much admired and billy-roller.
courted, being, as a very judicious modern writer says, the Peter Frith, engineer at Winsley.-Was cha stised and delight of the brave, and the favourites of the fair ; because kicked so severely for being five minutes too late at dinner time they celebrated the achievements of the one and the beauties ou one occasion,' (his mother having sent bim on an erraod,) of the other. Even princes became Troubadours, and wróte that his knee was broken in three places. He fell down; but poems in the Provençal dialect ; among others, a monarch the strap was laid upon him till he arose. He bopped home, of our own country certainly composed verses of this kind. leaoing on a boy's shoulder. Eldin Hardgrave.-Grew deformed after be had worked at
The reader will, I doubt not, readily recollect the common Mr. Broten's mill, of Leeds. Had worked for seventeen hours story of Richard I., who, being closely confined in a castle a day all the year round; has been discharged for coming to belonging to the Duke of Austria, was discovered by his fa. London to give evidence.
vourite minstrel Blondel, a celebrated Troubadour, through Joshua Drake, The overlooker was accustomed to beat his the means of a poem composed by the poet, in conjunction daughter with a strap, (a heavy thong of leather with a wooden with his royal master. The story is thus related in a very handle,) and sometimes to kick her with his foot.
ancient French author, quoted by Claude Fauchet ; Blon. her arms and neck swelled myny times from the beatings she del, seeing that his lord did not return, though it was rehas got.
Joho flall, overlooker of Bradford.—Has the names and ported that he had passed the sea from Syria, thought that addresses of two hundred families, who have all deformed, he was taken by his enemies, and probably very evilly en. children, the whole having been so disabled by the inhuman treated ; be therefore determined to find him, and for this extent of their labour in tender years at the neighbouring factories. purpose travelled through many countries without success;
Joseph Sadler.—The temperature of factories varies; it is at last he came to a small town, near which was a castle 80, 90, 100, and even 110. The temperature of Mr. Mars- belonging to the Duke
of Austria ; and, having learned from land's mill is about 100; in the dressing rooms, 110. So in his host that there was a prisoner in the castle who had been teose was the application required from the children, that he confined for upwards of a-year, he went thither, and cultihad frequently seen them exert themselves, with tears in their vated an acquaintance with the keepers ; for a minstrel, eyes, and with the most heart-rending entreaties, pray to have
says the author, can easily make acquaintance.' However, their labour alleviated, and to avoid the chastisement that was
he could not obtain a sight of the prisoner, nor learn his inevitable. If their food is not brought at the precise moment fixed by factory regulations, they are compelled to go without quality; he therefore placed himself near to a window be. it. They are often kept a long time without food. It is a com. longing to the tower wherein he was shut up, and sangia mon thing to see the childreä weeping, in consequence of the few verses of a song which bad been composed conjointly excessive labour they endure, and their not being able to do the by him and his patron. The King, hearing the first part of work assigned to them. Has seen terror and apprehension de the song, repeated the second ; which convinced the poet, picted io their countenances when going to work; weeping that the prisoner was no other than Richard himself. Hasthrough the street is an every day occurrence.
tening, therefore, into England, he acquainted the barons