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lady, give a young man, a servant, such a blow behind the approbation. He knew nothing, she said, of American ear as made him reel, and I afterwards found that it was manners." her daily and hourly practice to beat her servants, male and female, either with her fist, or with a thong made of cow
The Traveller was in great luck this day, if it be true hide.
that Scotsmen abroad rejoice to meet each other.
“ Lolley had to drive about sixteen miles to Duncan Mae. “I was placed in a situation at Charleston, which gave millan's, where we were to remain for the night.-It be. me too frequent opportunities to witness the effects of sla- | ing dark when we arrived, Duncan himself came out to very in its most aggravated state. Mrs. Street treated all welcome me, and, as soon as he discovered that I was from the servants in the house in the most barbarous manner; Scotland, he gave me his hand; and his pleasure on seeing and this, although she knew that Stewart, the hotel-keeper me was increased, when he found that I could ask him how here, had lately nearly lost his life by maltreating a slave. he was to-day in Gaelic !” He beat his cook, who was a stout fellow, until he could
“ Duncan came from Argyle when he was very young. no longer support it. He rose upon his master, and, in his He was married to an American woman, whose parents turn gave him such a beating that it had nearly cost him were Scotch ; but she, as well as he, can speak Gaelic. He his life; the cook immediately left the house, ran off, and settled in this country about ten years ago, and has serenty was never afterwards heard of,—it was supposed that he had acres cleared by his own industry, and a considerable tract drowned himself. Not a day, however, passed, without my of wood-land. He was very inquisitive respecting his native hearing of Mrs. Street whipping and ill-using her unfortu-country, but he did not hint at any wish to return to it. nate slaves. On one occasion, when one of the female slaves He was, he said, under a good government, that did justice had disobliged her, she beat her until her own strength was to all ; and he had many advantages. He never went to exhausted, and then insisted on the bar-keeper, Mr. Fergu- market but for coffee. He grew both sugar and cotton on son, proceeding to inflict the remainder of the punishment. his own plantation; and, being a member of a Temperano Mrs. Street, in the meantime, took her place in the bar Society, he did not taste fermented liquor. Coffee was, he
She instructed him to lay on the whip severely in said, the best stimulant, and very good coffee he gave us. an adjoining room. His nature was repugnant to the exe
The drivers, both Mr Lolley and he who was to be chariocution of the duty which was imposed on him. He gave a teer next morning, were, of course, at supper with us; and wink to the girl who understood it, and bellowed lustily, I was glad to find, that Mr Macmillan had so much in. while he made the whip crack on the walls of the room. fuence with them, as to put an entire stop to their rude, Mrs. Street expressed herself to be quite satisfied with the boisterous swearing." way in which Ferguson had executed her instructions ; but,
“ Mr Macmillan promised me a separate bed-room, and unfortunately for him, his lenity to the girl became known he was as good as his word ; but it was a very small apart. in the house, and the subject of merriment, and was one of ment, thinly boarded, with hardly any room for a chair or the reasons for his dismissal before I left the house ;-- but I any thing else. He said, however, that he was a man of did not know of the most atrocious of all the proceedings invention, and, taking his carpenter's tools with him, he in of this cruel woman until the very day that I quitted the
a moment put up pins for a looking-glass and other neciso house. I had put up my clothes in my portmanteau, when sary articles. I was not long in bed when I distinctly I was about to set out, but finding it was rather too full, I heard him, through the thin boarding of the room, engaged had difficulty in getting it closed to allow me to lock it ; in family worship with his family, consisting of bis wife I therefore told one of the boys to send one of the stoutest
and two daughters, who were young women.” of the men to assist me. A great robust fellow soon after In the steam-boat in which our traveller ascended the wards appeared, whom I found to be the cook, with tears Mississippi from Natchez, he met with a young man, in his eyes ;--I asked him what was the matter? He told named Macleod, a blacksmith from Glasgow, " who had me that just at the time when the boy called for him, he been for some years at New Orleans, and whose health har had got so sharp a blow on the cheek bone from this devil in petticoats, as had unmanned him for the moment. Upon moderation. He admits that he is in a far more comfort
never yet suffered, owing, as he says, to his sobriety ani my expressing commiseration for him, he said he viewed this able situation here than at home. He receives regularly as nothing, but that he was leading a life of terrible suffering ;—that about two years had elapsed since he and his seventy-five dollars a month, and 100 dollars per month if wife, with his two children, had been exposed in the public the unhealthy season.
he remains in the city, which he has hitherto done, during market at Charleston for sale,—that he hal been purchased who remained in the city during the unhealthy part of tha
He has seen almost all his friends by Mr. Street,—that his wife and children had been pur. chased by a different person ; and that, though he was living to see the country, and for exercise and bealth.”
season die. He was making this trip merely with a view in the same town with them, he never was allowed to see them ;- he would be beaten within an ace of his life if he All the booksellers seem Scotchmen. At St. Louis, in ventured to go to the corner of the street. Whenever the bookseller, Mr. Palmer, was from Kelso, which he had left least symptom of rebellion or insubordination appears at in 1801. Charleston on the part of a slave, the master sends the slave to the gaol, where he is whipped or beaten as the heard of a settler from Scotland, and was told he trould be
Near Jacksonville, in the Illinois county, Mr. Stuart master desires."
In travelling to Mobile, Mr Stuart was driven to Price's hurt if a Scotsman passed his door without calliog; arHotel, by Price himself, and in Mrs Price finds a country-cordingly, on a fine May morning, he made his approach.
“ I soon,” he says, “ reached the farm belonging to Mr. “She had an excellent breakfast prepared. Perceiving, James Kerr, which Mr. Brick had described to me. I found after I had begun breakfast, that she was not partaking, 1
Mr. Kerr out of doors, and he received me with so hearty, asked her the reason. She never break fasted, she said, welcome, that we were soon acquainted. Mrs. Kerr provide without her husband, and he was still with the horses. ed an abundant breakfast, consisting of tea, coffee, es Mrs Price is an Isle of Skye woman, her name Fraser, of pork-steaks, peach preserves, honey, and various sorts of the Lovat family, as she told me; but her chief anxiety bread. Mr. Kerr is from South Queensferry
, in Scotland was to hear particulars as to the family of Macleod of Mac- brother-in-law to Mr. Hugh Russell there, and is martın leod, respecting which it was luckily in my power in some
to Miss Rowe of Fountain Bridge, near Edinburgh. He degree to gratify her. She had lived a long time in South was formerly foreman to Mr. Francis Braidwood, a wel? Carolina, but liked Alabama quite as well, it it were not known upholsterer in Edinburgh. Mr. Braidwood's work. for the want of schools for her children, the climate was men, about twenty years ago, combined to give up work more healthy, and her husband better paid. Captain Hall's unless they got higher wages. Mr. Braidwood offers dit Travels had been read in this cabin, and with no sınall dis- Kerr higher wages, but he dared not accept the offer, on 30
count of the consequences which he had reason to appre- this country would be, that he should apply at the landhend from the workmen if he had acted in face of the con offices at Springfield, or at Vandalia, or at any other of the federacy. He, therefore, without inuch consideration, ac land-offices, and get the surveyors to show him those situacompanied by a friend of his of the name of George Elder, tions which they look on as the most desirable, first, in put his foot in a vessel at Leith bound for North America. point of health ; secondly, in point of soil; thirdly, in being When he reached New York, he for some years successfully provided with good water, and a sufficieut quantity of wood, prosecuted his business of a carpenter and upholsterer, which is not always the case in the prairie land, and onght but it turned out that buildings had been crected too ra most especially to be attended to, strong wooden fences pidly for the population, and there was a want of employ- being indispensable ; and, fourthly, in point of convenience ment in his line.
of situation, including the neighbourhood to a town, * At that period the New York newspapers were filled with schools, and churches, and the means of communication inviting descriptions of settlements in Illinois. He, there by roads and rivers. fore, came directly here from New York, and procured 500 “ Having got this information, let him lay it before peracres of the very best land in the state, as he thinks, of rich sons of experience in the district or state, such as Mr. Ali. soil, from three to four feet deep. It produces from thirty son or Mr. Kerr, and be much more guided by their advice to forty-five bushels of wheat, and excellent corn and oats than by that of the surveyors. The surveyors may be all in rotation. It would do it injury to give it manure. The very good, trust-worthy men, but they may have objects to land is so easily ploughed, that a two-horse plough ploughs serve in disposing of this or that tract of land, which a two and a half acres per day. There is never any want of stranger cannot divine.” a market here. Everything is bought by the merchants for New Orleans, or for Galena, where a vast number of work. Stuart met with an emigrant, whose history is worth re
At Springfield, another town in this fine country, Mr. men are congregated, who are employed in the lead mines on the north-western parts of this state. There is also a
lating :considerable demand for cattle for New settlers. Cattle are “ In walking about the town in the evening, I met Mr. allowed to run out on the prairie during the whole winter; Strawbridge, formerly a farmer in Donegal, in Ireland ; a but Mr. Kerr thinks, that even during the short winter of gentleman 75 years old, who brought a family of five chile this country, it would be advisable to have the cattle fed in dren with him to this country twenty years ago, all of whom hou ses on the prairie, and a sufficiency of grass cut and have done well. He was first settled in the State of Ohio; made into bay in the preceding summer. The cattle on the but hearing of the prodigious fertility of the soil in this prairie must, he remarked, have salt at least once a-week. part of Illinois, he disposed of 100 acres which he had im. Mr. Kerr, as well as Mrs. Kerr, remarked, that nothing proved in Ohio, and purchased 640 acres about eight miles annoyed them so much as the difficulty of getting servants.
to the north-west of Springfield, great part of which he has I have already noticed that Illinois is not a slave-holding now improved, and where he also has a mill. His descripstate. Indeed, I have seen fewer people of colour since I tion of his land, and of its produce, was quite equal in came into Illinois than in any of the other states of the point of quality and quantity to that of Mr. Kerr: and he Union, probably not half-a-dozen altogether. The immi. added, that parts of his land had produced forty bushels of gration to Illinois is so great, that the supply of servants
wheat to the second crop without sowing. He has advan. has never yet been equal to the demand ;-the consequence tages, too, in point of situation, by being nearer to the Ga. is obvious, not only that wages are high, but that servants lena lead mines, to which he last year sold 8000 wooden are saucy, and difficult to please. It may, too, be presum- posts, at three dollars per hundred. No person can be ed, that many of those servants who have turned out ill in fonder of this country than Mr. Strawbridge. He had been other places, and who, on that account, cannot find situa- in Scotland; but there was no land in that country to be tions at home, may be disposed to remove to a country compared (he said) to that of his farm; and he viewed this where there is an unusual demand, and where they may district as quite a paradise or garden. Finding him so readily get employment. In such a mixed population, much disposed to praise, I asked him how he was off for there must, for some years, be a greater number of worth
servants. His answer was marked :-- You have hit the less persons, and of persons of doubtful character, than in
nail on the head. It is disticult to get servants here, and the old-peopled states of North America ; but the univer more difficult to get good ones.' This difficulty has, I find, sal education of the people, wherever the population becomes been increased of late, in consequence of the number of considerable, will soon banish this temporary state of in- labourers required at the Galena lead mines.” convenience.
In the neighbourhood of the late Mr Birkbeck's estates, * After breakfast, Mrs. Kerr, who had come out with us, Mr Stuart has an adventure which places the emigration of put the question plump to me, whether I did not think the respectable farmers in a comfortable light. After noticing view from the door of their house was equal to that from Hopetoun House. In order to render this question, and my
the contradictory accounts given of Birkbeck, he saysanswer, at all intelligible, it is necessary to remark, that
" It is, however, sufficiently apparent that Mr Birkbeck Hopetoun House is the finest place in the neighbourhood of
was possesscil of a very comfortable settlement here, and Mr. Kerr's birth-place, Queensferry,—and that the view that his residence and the accommodation afforded, were in from the terrace in front of that house is one of the noblest i substance such as he represented them in his publications. that can be imagined, commanding the Frith of Forth the
In proceeding from his land towards Albion, I was passing whole way to its month, with the most beautiful of its
a nice-looking English villa, at the distance of perhaps a banks, and a diversity of ground almost incapable of being hundred yards to the northward, when I found a young described. I could not, therefore, answer Mrs. Kerr's ques
mau at the plough close to ine, in the field in front of the tion exactly in the affirmative. I told her that the view house. I learnell from him, on making inquiry, that the which she enjoyed was as fine as that of many of the great place had belonged to Mr Pritchard, a gentleman from Engest places in England, but that the presence of the Firth of land, of the Quaker persuasion; that he was now dead, Forth was necessary before this view could be likened to leaving a widow, a daughter, and two sons, of whoin this that from Hopetoun House. Mr. and Mrs. Kerr are ad young wan was one. At his request, I went to the house, vanced in life, and he seems as much satisfied with his si.
which is extremely neat, and the view from it quite as detuation as it is possible to be. He has not only a beautiful lightful as an inland view can be. In short, it is quite a farm, but an excellent well-furnished house, and a good jou of a place. The situation is considerably higher than garden and orchards. He considers the situation eminently the English prairie, great part of which is overlooked,—and healthy."
the viers of hill and dale, of woodland, and of cultivated
soil, is as rich and diversified as can well be conceived. This adventure concludes with advice to emigrants, Mrs Pritchard told me that all were doing well here, and which we extract :
that, when she saw from the newspapers the sufferings of * What I would recommend to a stranger emigrating to great part of the population in England, she lamented they
real goodness of his disposition, and gentleness of his con.
did not come here, where all would be well off who could the offer, and asked me what wages he should propose. My work. Were they thousands, and thousands, and thousands, advice to him was to leave that matter to his master, after all would be provided for; and she spoke from experience, he had been at work a week, and showed what he could do. having been here for nearly a dozen of years. She added, The next time I saw Boswell he was in the receipt of two however, that those settlers were not the most prosperous dollars a day for ten hours' work, and of as much more at who had come with their pockets full of money, and had the same rate per hour, if he chose to be longer employed. made large purchases of land, and had laid out considera- | His gaing—for he told me that he could live at one-half of ble sums of money in buildings, and in prodigious purchases the expence which it cost him to live in Scotland, although of cattle, &c. as no adequate return had been obtained for his family here had animal food three times a day,-0003 great expenditures; but that every one of the labourers who enabled him to have a comfortable well-furnished honse, had come to this country with Mr Birkbeck and Mr Flower, where I again and again saw his family quite happy, and or who had followed them to their settlements, and who | in which he had boarders. I sent for him to Hoboken, had turned out sober and industrious, were now in posses- where I was then living, two or three days before I left sion of a plantation of some extent, yielding them a com New York, in the month of April 1831, that I might lean fortable livelihood. The wages of every one of the labour- if I could be the bearer of any communication to his friends ers was such as to enable them to save a certain sum every in Scotland. He came over to me in a better suit of clothes year from the period of their arrival, and, in the course of on his back and a better umbrella, than, I believe I my. ten or twelve years, they had all scraped together enough self possessed. He only wished, he said, his friends to know of money for the purchase of settlements, on which they how well settled he now was. He had earned on the pre. were living in comfort, in houses which they had built. ceding day almost as much as he could eam at the same bo. They were, in fact, landed proprietors and farmers, living siness in Scotland in a week ; and he hoped in less thao on their own property, and in as respectable a situation as twenty years to make a fortune, and return to Scotland." any persons in this country. All had done well who had “ I have mentioned the whole particulars of this case, not begun on too large a scale."
because it contains information which may be useful to “ Mrs Pritchard had shown great taste in cutting trees many. I had reason to know, before I left New York, here and there to obtain the sweetest peeps of the prairie. that Boswell was an excellent workman,-industrious, ho. I hardly remember to have seen a more delightful prospect nest, and sober. He told me that he never drunk mucha in any of the fertile valleys in England than from the front whisky in his own country, and that he would take far les of the house.”
of it at New York, where, though it was much cheaper, it . “ Albion is upon Mr Flower's part of the prairie, and
was of very inferior quality. Certificates of good character was built by him. It was only begun twelve years ago, are very requisite for all emigrants to the United States, but and contains a town-house, a smithy, three stores, one broad especially for mechanics and labourers; and they should street, with lanes to the prairies and woods, all handsomely either be procured from magistrates or from clergymen
, 10 laid out, and perhaps more in the substantial English style matter to what sect they belong. I need not add, that it is than I have seen elsewhere in the western country. Me most important to obtain recommendations, where they cati chanics of every necessary description are now resident at be got, to some respectable individual at the port where the Albion."
emigrants first of all arrive.” Mr Stuart says that all Mechanics should take ont cer. With this we must for the present conclude. Our extificates of character, and illustrates the advice by the fol
tracts are intended to be useful, to emigrants especially, lowing narration :
We might have found many more amusing, but there are « I had not heen long at Mr Anderson's when I was ap
none more important. plied to by a good-looking young man, from the west of Fifeshire in Scotland, whose name was John Boswell, to
PERSON AND MANNERS OF COWPER. give him, or procure for him, a letter of recommendation to a ship-builder in New York. I had never seen him before, Cowper was of the middle stature; he had a fine, open, so far as I knew; but I had been acquainted with his fa- and expressive countenance, that indicated much thoughtther, a very respectable person in his line, a farm overseer fulness, and almost excessive sensibility. His eyes were to the late Mr Mutter of Annfield, near Dunfermline. Bos more remarkable for the expression of tenderness than of well's story was this :—He had been bred a ship-carpenter, penetration. The general expression of his countenance had married, and was the father of two children. Finding partook of that sedate cheerfulness, which so strikingly his wages of about 2s. or 2s. 6d. per day insufficient for the characterizes all his original productions, and which never maintenance of his family, he commenced being toll-keeper, failed to impart a peculiar charm to his conversation. but did not succeed in his new profession. He had, there His limbs were more remarkable for strength than for defore, brought his wife and children to New York, being licacy of formi. He possessed a Farm temperament, possessed only of a small sum of money, and of some furni. and he says of himself in a letter to his cousin, Mrs Bodture, a fowling-piece, &c. He had made application, im ham, dated February 27, 1790, that he was naturally mediately on his arrival at New York, some weeks previ. " somewhat irritable;" but, if he was, his religious prirously for employment, but no one would receive him into ciple had so subdued that lendency, that a near relatioa, his ship-building yard, in which there is much valuable who was intimately acquainted with him the last ten yéni property, without attestations of his character for honesty of his life, never saw his temper ruffled in a single instanci. and sobriety. He accidentally heard of my being in the His manners were generally somewhat shy and reserved, neighbourhood, and applied to me to give him such attes- particularly to strangers ; when, however, he was in pelo tations. Knowing nothing previously of this young man fect health, and in such society as was quite congenial but what I have mentioned, it was impossible for me to his taste, they were perfectly free and unembarrassed ; his comply with his request, but I gave him a letter to a gen- conversation was unrestrained and checrful; and his whole tleman in the neighbourhood of New York, who might, 1 deportment was the most polite and graceful, especially to thought, be of use to him, stating exactly what I knew of females, to whom he conducted himself, him. Workmen in the ship-building line were at this pe- with the strictest delicacy and propriety. riod plentiful, and months followed before any opening oc Much as Cowper was admired by those who knew him cured for employing Boswell. In the meantime his finances only as a writer, or as an occasional correspondent, he was were exhausted, and he had been obliged to part with some infinitely more esteemed by his more intimate friends ; inof the property he had brought with him. He was begin- deed, the more intimately he was known, the more he was ning to wish himself well home again when an offer of beloved and revered. Nor was this affectionate attachment work was made to him. I happened to be in New York so much the result of his brilliant talents, as it tras of the on the very day when this occurred, and remember well the pleasure which beamed in his eyes when he told me of duct.
on all occasions,
circumstances of their childhood had no inconsiderable in.
fluence upon them in after life, and especially upon her SUSANNA ANNESLEY, THE MOTHER OF..
two sons, John and Charles, when they became the founders JOHN WESLEY.
and directors of a new community in the Christian Church.
John's providential deliverance from the fire deeply imThis admirable woman, the youngest daughter of Dr, pressed his mother, as it did himself, throughout the whole Annesley, was born about the year 1670. She posses
of his life. Among the private meditations which were sed a highly improved mind, with a strong and mas found among Mrs. Wesley's papers, was one written long culine understanding. Though her father was a con after the event, in which she expressed in prayer her inten. scientious Non-conformist, he had too much dignity of tion to be more particularly careful of the soul of this mind, leaving his religion out of the question, to be a bigot. child, which God had so mercifully provided for, that she Under the parental roof, and “Before she was thirleen might instil into him the principles of true religion and years of age,” say some of her biographers, “ she examined, virtue ;—“Lord,” she said, “ give me grace to do it sincerewithout restraint, the whole controversy between the esta- ly and prudently, and bless my attempts with good sucblished church and the dissenters."* The issue of this ex.
The peculiar care which was thus taken of his reamination was, that she renounced her fellowship with the ligious education, the habitual and fervent piety of both his latter, and adopted the creeds and forms of the Church of parents, and his own surprising preservation, at an age England ; to which she zealously adhered.
when he was perfectly capable of remembering all the cirIt does not appear that her father threw any obstacles in cumstances, combined to foster in him that disposition ber way; or that he afterwards disapproved of her marry which afterwards developed itself with such force, and proing a rigid churchman. Nor is it known, after the most duced such important effects. extensive search, that the slightest difference ever existed Mrs. Wesley taught her children from their infancy, Letireen Dr. Annesley and his son-in-law, or daughter, on duty to parents
. She had little difficulty in breaking their the subject. It was about the year 1690 that sho became wills, or reducing them to absolute subjection. They were the wife of Mr. Samuel Wesley. The marriage was blessed early brought, by rational means, under a mild yoke: they in all its circumstances; it was contracted in the prime of were perfectly obedient to their parents, and were taught Uleir youth ; it was fruitful, and death did not divide them to wait their decision in every thing they were to have, or till they were both full of years. The excellence of Miss to perform. They were never permitted to command the Annesley's mind was equal to the eminence of her birth. servants. Mrs. Wesley charged the domestics to do noShe was such a helpmate as Mr. Wesley required, and thing for any of her children unless they asked it with reto her," says Dr. Clarke, “under God, the great eminence spect ; and the children were duly informed that the serof the subsequent Wesley family is to be attributed.” vants had such orders. This is the foundation and essence
As Mr. Wesley's circumstances were narrow, the educa- of good breeding. Insolent, impudent, and disagreeable tion of the children fell especially upon Mrs. Wesley, who children are to be met with often, because this simple, but seems to have possessed every qualification for a public or important mode of bringing them up is neglected. “ Mol. private teacher. The manner in which she taught her ly, Robert, be pleased to do so and so," was the usual mechildren is remarkable. This she has detailed in a letter thod of request both from sons and daughters. They were to her son John, which we shall hereafter insert. She bore never permitted to contend with each other; whatever dif. ninoleen children to Mr. Wesley, most of whom lived to ferences arose, their parents were the umpires, and their be educated ; and ten came to man and woman's estate. decision was never disputed. The consequence was, there Her son John mentions the calm serenity with which his were few misunderstandings amongst them; and they had mother transacted business, wrote letters, and conversed, the character of being the most loving family in the county surrounded by her fifteen children. All these were edu- of Lincoln! But Mrs. Wesley's whole method of bringcated by herself; and as she was a woman that lived by ing up and managing her children, is so amply detailed in Tule she arranged everything so exactly, that for each oper. a letter to her son John, that it would be as great an ination she had sufficient time. It appears also, from seve-justice to her, as to the reader, to omit it. ral private papers, that she had no small share in mana,
Epworth, July 24th, 1732. ging the secular concerns of the rectory. Even the tithes “DEAR Son,-According to your desire, I have collectand glebe were much under her inspection.
ed the principal rules I observed in educating my family. About the year 1700, Mrs. Wesley made a resolution “The children were always put into a regular method to spend one hour morning and evening in private devo- of living, in such things as they were capable of, from their tion, in prayer and meditation, and she religiously kept it birth; as in dressing and undressing, changing their linen, ever after, unless when sickness, or some urgent call of duty &c. The first quarter commonly passes in sleep. After to her family, obliged her to shorten it. If opportunity that they were, if possible, laid into their cradle awake, and offered, she spent some time at noon in this religious and rocked to sleep; and so they were kept rocking till it was profitable employment. She generally wrote her thoughts time for them to awake. This was done to bring them to on different subjects at these seasons; and a great many of a regular course of sleeping, which, at first, was three hours her meditations have been preserved in her own hand-wri- in the morning, and three in the afternoon ; afterwards ting. Though Mrs. Wesley allotted two hours in the day two hours, till they needed none at all. When turned a for meditation and prayer in private, no woman was ever year old (and some before,) they were taught to fear the more diligent in business, or attentive to family affairs than rod, and to cry softly, by which means they escaped much she was. Remarkable, as before observed, for method and correction which they might otherwise have had ; and that good arrangement, both in her studies and business, she most odious noise of the crying of children was rarely saved much time, and kept her mind free from perplexity. heard in the house. From several things which appear in her papers, it seems “As soon as they grew pretty strong, they were confined that she had acquired some knowledge of the Latin and to three meals a-day. At dinner their little table and Greek languages in her youth, though she never made any chairs were set by ours, where they could be overlooked : pretension to it. She had studied human nature well, and they were suffered to eat and drink as much as they and knew how to adapt her discourse both to youth and would, but not to call for any thing. If they wanted age.
aught, they used to whisper to the maid that attended Mrs. Wesley devoted as great a proportion of time as she them, who came and spoke to me: and as soon as they could, discourse with each of her children separately could handle a knife and fork, they were set to our table. every night in the week, upon the duties and hopes of They were never suffered to choose their meat : but always Christianity; and it may readily be believed, that these made to eat such things as were provided for the family.
Drinking, or eating between meals was never allowed, unIt seems strange that a girl of thirteen years of age should be con. sidered capable of deciding this question, though she might possess, as
less in case of sickness, which seldom happened. Nor were in the case of Mrs. Wesley, great natural ta lents.
they suffered to go into the kitchen to ask any thing of the
servants, when they were at meat: if it was known they Rising from their places, or going out of the room, was did so, they were certainly beat, and the servants severely not permitted, except for good cause ; and running into reprimandel. At six, as soon as family prayer' was over, the yard, garden, or street, without leave, was always conthey had their supper ; at seven the maid washed them, sidered a capital offence. and beginning at the youngest, she undressed and got them “For some years we went on very well. Never were all to bed by eight; at which time she left them in their children better disposed to piety, or in more subjection to several rooms awake, for there was no such thing allowed, their parents, till that fatal dispersion of them, after the in our house, as sitting by a child till it fell asleep. They fire, into several families. In those they were left at full were so constantly used to eat and drink what was given liberty to converse with servants, which before they had them, that when any of them were ill, there was no diffi- always been restrained from ; and to run abroad to play culty in making them take the most unpleasant medicine, with any children good or bad. They soon learned to ne for they durst not refuse it.
glect a strict observance of the Sabbath : and got know. “ In order to form the minds of children, the first thing ledge of several songs, and bad things, which before they to be done is to conquer their will. To inform the under- lad no notion of. That civil behaviour, which made them standing is a work of time; and must, with children, pro- admired, when they were at home, by all who saw them, ceed by slow degrees, as they are able to bear it : but the sub- was, in a great measure, lost ; and clownish accent, and jecting the will is a thing that must be done at once, and the many rude ways learnt, which were not reformed, without sooner the better ; for by neglecting timely correction, they some difficulty. When the house was rebuilt, and all the will contract a stubbornness and obstinacy which are hardly children brought home, we entered on a strict reform ; and ever after conquered, and never without using such severity then we began the custom of singing psalms, at beginning as would be as painful to me as to the child. In the es and leaving school, morning and evening. Then also that teem of the world, they pass for kind and indulgent, whom of a general retirement at five o'clock was entered upon : I call cruel parents; who permit their children to get ha- when the oldest took the youngest that could speak, and bits which they know must be afterwards broken. When the second the next, to whom they read the psalms for the the will of a child is subdued, and it is brought to revere day, and a chapter in the New Testament; as in the and stand in awe of its parents, then a great many childish morning they were directed to read the psalms, and a follies and inadvertences may be passed by. Some should chapter in the Old; after which they went to their private be overlooked, and others mildly reproved : but no virful prayers, before they got their breakfast, or came into the transgression ought ever to be forgiven children, without chas- family. tisement less or more, as the nature and circumstances of the There were several by-laws observed among us. 1 med. case may require. I insist upon conquering the will of child-tion them here because I think them useful. ren betimes, because this is the only strong and rational 1. It had been observed that cowardice and fear of puufoundation of a religious education, without which, both ishment often lead children into lying ; till they get a cus precept and example will be ineffectual. But when this is toni of it which they cannot leave. To prevent this, a law thoroughly done, then a child is capable of being governed was made, that whoever was charged with a fault, of by the reason and piety of its parents, till its own under which they were guilty, if they would ingenuously confess standing comes to maturity, and the principles of religion it, and promise to amend, should not be beaten. This have taken root in the mind.
rule prevented a great deal of lying. “I cannot yet dismiss this subject. As self-will is the 2. That no sinful action, as lying, playing at church, root of all sin and misery, so whatever cherishes this in or on the Lord s Day, disobedience, quarrelling, &c., should children ensures their wretchedness and irreligion : what ever pass unpunished. ever checks and mortifies it, promotes their future happi 3. That no child should ever be chid, or beat turice for vers and piety. This is still more evident, if we farther the same fault; and that if they amendo, they should neconsider that religion is nothing else than doing the will of ver be upbraided with it afterwards. God, and not our own; that the one grand impediment to 4. That every signal act of obedience, especially wben it our temporal and eternal happiness being this self-will, no crossed their own inclinations, shonld be always commend indulgence of it can be trivial, no denial unprofitable. ed and frequently rewarded, according to the merits of the Heaven or hell depends on this alone. So that the parent case. who studies to subdue it in his child, works together with 5. That if ever any child performed an act of obedience, God in the renewing and saving a soul. The parent who or did anything with an intention to please, though the indulges it, does the devil's work; makes religion imprac- performance was not well, yet the obedience and intention ticable, salvation unattainable, and does all that in him should be kindly accepted, and the child, with sweetness lies to damn his child, soul and body, for ever.
directed how to do better for the future. “Our children were taught, as soon as they could speak, 6. That property be inviolably preserved ; and none the Lord's prayer, which they were made to say at rising suffered to invade the property of another in the smallest and bedlime constantly; to which, as they grew older, matter, though it were but of the value of a farthing, or i were added a short prayer for their parents, and such por pin ; which ihey might not take from the owner withont, tion of Scripture, as their memories could bear. They much less against, his consent.
This rule can never be too were very early made to distinguish the Sabbath from other much inculcated on the minds of children. days. They were taught to be still at family prayers, and 7. That promises be strictly observed ; and a gift once to ask a blessing immediately after meals, which they used bestowed, and the right so passed away from the donor, live to do by signs, before they could kneel or speak. They not resumed, but left to the disposal of him to whom it were quickly made to understand that they should have no. was given; unless it were conditional, and the condition of thing they cried for, and instructed to speak respectfully the obligation not performed. for what they wanted.
8. That no girl be taught to work till she can read very “ Taking God's name in vain, cursing and swearing, pro- well; and then that she be kept to her work with the same faneness, obscenity, rude ill-bred names, were never heard application, and for the same time that she was beld to in among them ; nor were they ever permitted to call each reading. This rule also much to be oliserved; for the puro other by their proper names, without the addition of bro- ting children to learn sewing before they can read perfectly ther or sister. "There was no such thing as loud talking is the very reason why so few women can read fit to be or playing allowed ; but every one was kept close to busi- heard, and never to be well understood." ness for the six hours of school. And it is almost incredi
After such management who can wonder at the rare er: hle what a child may be taught in a quarter of a year by cellence of the Wesley family? Mrs. Wesley never consi
. a vigorous application, if it have but a tolerable capacity
, dered herself discharged from the care of her children. In and good health. Kezzy excepted, all could read better in to all situations, the followed them with her prayers and liat time, than most svomen can do as long as they live counsels : and her sons, even when they became men and