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and to whose testimony reference was instantly made, in “ The testimony of Joseph Gerald, a martyr to the sindetermitting on the spot, whether the qualification of the ecrity with which he, at a period not so recent, advocated roter was or was not sufficient. I need hardly say, that the propriety of resorting to the same form ofe lections in I did not attend this excessively uninteresting sort of meet- Geat Britain, before biassed judges and a biassed jury, at a ting for any long time ; but I am bound to bear this testi- time of great political excitement in Scotland, will long mony in its favour, that so quiet a day of election, both be remembered. I myself,' he declared, in his speech on without and within doors, I never witnessed either in Scot- his celebrated trial before the Supreme Criminal Court in land or England. I did not see or hear of a drunk person Scotland, resided during four years in a country where in the street of the village or neighbourhood, nor did I every man who paid taxes had a right to vote-I mean the observe any thing extraordinary, except the increased num- Commonwealth of Pensylvania. I was an eye-witness of ber of carriages or waggons of all kinds, three or four of many elections which took place in Philadelphia, the cathem drawn by four horses, one by six. We were residing pital of the State, - an industrious and populous city; and close by the hotel where the election took place, and in can safely assert, that no one riot ever ensued.' the evening the tranquillity was as complete as if no election had occurred.

“Mr. James Flint, who travelled in the United States * The county canvassers for the twenty townships of this about a dozen of years ago, and whose scrupulous correctcounty of Saratoga afterwards met, and made up their re

ness of narration is well known to all who know him, in turns for the county, in all of which, as well as in the their elections thus :-'A few days ago I witnessed the

his published letters from America, states his views as to whole of the state, the same quietness and perfect order election of a member of Congress for the State of Indiana. prevailed." The number of votes given in this state for the Members for the State Assembly, and county officers, and electors of the president was 276,176, in a population of the votes for the township of Jeffersonville, were taken by upwards of 1,800,000; and that this part of the election ballot in one day. No quarrels or disorder occurred. was most keenly contested, is obvious from the recorded Louisville, in Kentucky, the poll wask ept open for three fact, that the majority for Jackson over Adams in this days. The votes were given viva voce. i saw three fights state only amounted to 5,350. The total number of votes in the course of an hour. This method appears to be progiven in the presidential election on this occasion was ductive of as much discord here as in England.' With afterwards ascertained to be nearly 1,200,000, in a popu- relation to the ballot, I would only further add, that a lation of about twelve millions, of which the whole states great point is gained by its celerity, 10,000 votes can easily are composed.

be taken în five or six hours.” « Thus, in a state far exceeding Scotland in extent, and almost equalling it in population, the votes for the chief

The domestic manners of the Americans are a magistrate of the United States and his substitute,—for the subject of curiosity among us; and there is now an opgovernor and lieutenant-governor of the state for a se- portunity of correcting Captain Halls theories, and nator and representatives to Congress,

for three represen. Mrs. Trollope's fibberies, by the correct text of sheriff, and a clerk to the county, were taken,--and the Mr. Stuart. While giving the Americans praise business of the election finished with ease, and with the for their unostentatious hospitality, he casts a tenmost perfect order and decorum, in three days. All votes der glance back upon the batterie de cuisine of Moray by ballot, which is here considered the only way to obtain Place, and the vintages of its side-board, to the long independent and unbiassed votes ; and if so in this country, sumptuous dinners so favourable for conversation, how much more in the British islands, where the aristofofinential, and numerous. The late eminent Dr. Dwight, wines and viands, instead of the Americans swallowcracy and higher orders are so infinitely more powerful

, and even for a little gastronomic chat about the President of Yale College in Connecticut describes an elec- ing, smoking, andbolting off to win more dollars. But tion meeting in New England very much as I witnessed Mr. Stuart forgets that the frugal simplicity of the it here, After declaring that he had never known a single shilling paid for a vote, he says, “ I have lived long in New American entertainments opens the door to the England. On the morning of an election day, the elec- widest and most frequent hospitality, and includes tors assemble either in a church or a town-house, in the the women, who are effectually proscribed by our centre of the township, of which they are inhabitants. The after-dinner convival system. The tea the enterqusiness of the day is sometimes introduced by a sermon, tainment of ceremony in middle life in America, reand very often by public prayer. A moderator is chosen. minds us of the social suppers of Edinburgh, immorThe votes are given in with strict decency, without a single debate, without noise, or disorder, or drink-and talized by old Creech—which prevailed before webewith not a little of the sobriety seen in religious assem came so ultra-refined and routish. “It never,” says blies. The meeting is then dissolved; the inhabitants Jack Cade - was a merry world since gentlefolks return quietly to their homes, and have neither battles nor disputes. I do not believe that a single woman, bond

came up,”-and gentlefolks are still scarce in or free, ever appeared at an election in New England since America.-We take Mr. Stuart's account of both the colonization of the country. It would be as much as the easy friendly dinner, and the social solid tea. her character was worth.

“ The kindness and hospitality of the Americans are "Dr. Dwight's authority, however, is not greater than quite unostentatious. I write, however, of the mass of many oihers to which I might refer. Chancellor Kent of the people, and without reference to the small number of New York is a person of the greatest respectability as a people

, who consider themselves the great in this country. mát, and of the highest character as a lawyer.

In his An invitation to dinner is generally given in such words Commentaries, which is quite a standard book, he bears as these : ' I will be pleased to see you at two oclock. Mis evidence on the subject of elections: The United Frequently no change whatever is made in the dinner, sup. States, in their improvements upon the rights of representa- posing you to accept. Your friend knows that there is

That detion, may certainly claim pre-eminence over all other go- always abundance of good food upon his table. Fernments

, ancient and modern. Our elesction are held at gree of attention is shown to you which a stranger meets stated seasons, established by law. The people vote by with everywhere, in seeing that his plate be filled in the ballot in small districts, and public officers preside over

first instance with what he likes, but no pressing or en. the elections, receive the votes, and maintain order and treaty are used to make him eat or drink more than he fairness

. Though the competition between candidates is likes. If wine is produced, it is left for him to partake of generally active, and the zeal of rival parties sufficiently it or not as he chooses. There is hardly ever any talk excited, the elections are everywhere conducted with tran

about the dinner, or the quality of the wine, which you are quillity."

not provoked to drink by being told how many years

has been in your friend's cellar or to what vintage it be- merchant in the village, and had mills and a store. His longs.

neighbours had singled him out--not on account of his « It is much more probable that, even amongst the richest education, which was not superior to that of his fellow." classes, excluding always a few who form small coteries in citizens, but on account of iris shrewdness and good chara the great towns, or who have been much in England, you acter to make him a justice of peace, which confers the will hear little coriversation, and that relating more to title of judge. As justice of peace, he gave so great satisa their professional pursuits, their gains, and their dollars, faction that they promoted him to be their high sherifi, and their political situations, than to the food they are eat In the latter capacity he had business this morning to ing, or the wine they are drinking."

transact at Caldwell, the county town, and where the jail But the Tea is the entertainment of ceremony. committed to his charge is situated. This explains the ** Tea-parties, which are very common in the United driving seat was the son of a prisoner in the jail

, to whom.

anxiety he expressed to be off early. The little boy on the States, in some measure make up for what I look upon as the more rational and comfortable conversational dinner cobbler stick to his last,' has no part in the republican

he was carrying linens. Ne sutor ultra crepidam' let the of the middling, the best classes of society in Britain. character of America." Where those tea-parties take place by invitation, the table is ilberally covered, and with a greater number of articles, We meant to have given Mr. Stuart's rencon. such as a profusion of cakes of various kinds and preserves. tres in the wildernesses and prairies with our counAnimal food, too, of some description or other, is almost try-folks, but must defer this till another week, always produced,—and after the tea or supper is finished, wine of various kinds, nuts, fruit, &c. are placed on the with much more than we have to say of a book, sideboard, or handed round. There is, perhaps, a little which will soon be in every one's hands, more room for conversation at such parties than at Bri. tish routes; but still I conceive the rational interchange of sentiment which takes place at English dinners, to be,

STATE OF THE WORKING CLASSES. generally speaking, awanting in the meal which is called by the same name in the United States. Let it not, how

DR. CHALMERS' PAMPULET. ever, be supposed, that I mean to insinuate that at any dinner, public or private, either a stranger or native has any

We were not a little provoked to find the fall reason to expect an uncivil answer to any conversation lacious statements of the last Number of the which he may address to any one sitting at table; but the Edinburgh Review, extensively quoted by the custom is so universal in the most populous part of the United States, to leave the table immediately after dinner,

country press, as containing a true view of the to smoke a cigar, and afterwards to return to professional

vastly improved condition of all classes, but partia business; that the people generally seem to me to be least cularly of labourers, since the American war, and inclined for convivial conversation at the very time when especially during the present century." "Dr Chal. we, with better taste, as I think, enjoy it most.

I am

mers, in vindication of his own opinions, has taken bound, however, to add, after seeing much more of the the field against the Reviewer. His refutation of United States than I had done when I was making these remarks, that I have been at many tea-parties in various

“ the peace peace” or “the peace and prosperity" parts of the country where, sitting over our wine after optimists is triumphant on the point to which tea, we had the enjoyment of agreeable and instructive alone we can advert. So hear the Rev. Doctor. conversation for quite as long a time as should ever be ~ When a writer maintains an untenable posisi devoted to it either in the Old or New World." The following sketch of a Yankee driver con- tion which he employs, with specially emphatic

tion, we generally meet, in the style of exaggera veys a great deal. We must notice that at first clauses. The reviewer tells us, “ that, instead of brush, Mr. Stuart had rather shied his acute, lo- being stationary or retrograde, the condition of quacious and well-informed driver. “ At length we approached the door of our hotel, and all been vastly improved since the American war, and

all classes, but particularly of the labourers, has of us felt regret at the idea of so soon being deprived of the agreeable society of our charioteer. As soon as we got especially during the present century.". Now,"it out of the carriage, when we were within hearing of each so happens, that in both the clauses where he has other, I applied for, and had the sanction of my fellow- | laid the stress of particularity on the one, and of travellers, to beg him to favour us with his company at especiality on the other, the emphasis is misplacdinner, and to take a glass of wine with us. I hastened to the ed. If, by labourers, he meant those to whom the har: room, where I found bim smoking a cigar. I preferred my request in the most civil terms I could think of. He designation purely and properly belongs, 'who re. looked at me for a moment, and then expressed great sur ceive wages simply in return for the exertion of prise, that a foreigner should have asked his driver to dine their strength, and not because of the power they with him. I urged our anxiety to have a little more of his have of bringing to a dead stand, or state of the agreeable company, and promised that we should endea. vour to impart to him all the information we could give productiveness, the enormous capital of their emrelative to the institutions of our own country, in return ployers ; it will be found, under our exposure of for the valuable communications he had inade to us. But the reviewer's first great errror, that their wages lie finally declined, with perfect civility, though, at the lie at the bottom of the scale. And, again, under sametime, with that sort of manner which prevented any

our exposure of his second great eror, it will be attempt to press him. His family,' he said, “expected him, and he must go home. Perhaps, sir," he added, you was found that a general re-action, in the condition of not aware that the High Sheriff of the County was your the working classes, took place about twenty years driver to-day. We are very neighbourly here. The horses ago ; and that, precisely during the present cen. szpected for you this morning had not come in, and I tury, their progress was first arrested, and then could not refuse my neighbour, (mentioning his name,) when he appliel to me. I have good horses and would turned backwards. He has been unfortunate both have been sorry to disappoint a stranger.' Moving fina in regard to the class of men, and to the period of ished his rigar, Mr. Spencer took leave one with a shake years, on which he meant to Iny the pith of his oi 150 hun. We foued on inquiry, that he was a genera! | argument. He made a two-fola selection, for the

obvious purpose of enhancing his statement, or dergo at piece work, when, to eke out a sufficithe proof by which he was supporting it; and in ency for their families, they are known to labour both he is wrong, We have sometimes to correct from four in the morning to eight at night ; and sreader for laying the emphasis on wrong words, it is the distinct testimony of the masters who em. The reviewer has laid his emphasis on wrong ploy them, that this is what these daysmen will things."

do now, and would not have done twenty-five But these are general averments : let us come years ago. We might further state, that the ser. to particulars.

vices of a man, with two horses and single horse ** Let us return once more to Scotland ; and carts, could only be had at that time for 10s. or lest the argument,' either of special manufactures, 128. a day—but now for 5s. or 6s. 6d. Wrights of of midway transitions from one state to another, and masons, in short, all country artisans, with the should be alleged, in opposition to all our former exception of blacksmiths, have experienced a siinstances--we shall now offer a brief view of the milar decline in wages; and a decline not councircumstances of our agricultural population, at tervailed by the greater cheapness of the second, the beginning of this century, and in the present and still greater cheapness of the first necessaries day — assuming that the variation which has taken of life. By the general consent of practical and place in one of its counties, (Peebleshire,) is a fair intelligent men, the peasantry of Scotland have not, average specimen of the change, if any, which the at this moment, the same command over the vari. condition of our peasantry has undergone, over the ous articles which enter substantially into the whole length and breadth of the land. We, on maintenance of families, that they had during the purpose, keep clear of 1800 and 1801, as having first ten years of the present century.” been two years of severe scarcity, amounting to “ Two causes may be assigned for the glowing famine; so that the comparison, strictly speaking, exaggerations of the reviewer, respecting the prois between the rate of wages now, and the mean gress which he affirms to have taken place in the rate of wages from 1802 to 1812 or 1814.

economic state of our people. It may be right The wages of married farm-servants-in as far that we advert, though briefly, to both of them as they are paid in kind, consisting of meal, pota- | as they not only seem to have misled him, but are toes, the keep of a cow, and driving of their fuel fitted to mislead many others, are satisfied to -have spffered no variation. The money wages make up their minds on a rapid and cursory view at the former period were £16 a year; they are of the subject. The sketch which he has drawn of now £10. We are aware that the price of the the internal state and history of Scotland, is one first necessaries of life has fallen to a greater of great plausibility—yet it will not be difficult, proportion than this ; but the money part of this we are persuaded, to evolve the actual state of wages goes to the purchase of second necessaries; the case, the sober reality of the question, from and their price has not fallen in so great a propor- underneath that mantle of speciousness wherewith zion. So that the labourers of this description he hath garnished and overlaid it."are somewhat worse off at the latter than the “ The first great error of the reviewer, then, former period.”

lies in this--that he has generalized workmen of “ The wages of unmarried farm-servants were all sorts and varieties into but one object of conthen £1%, with their victuals, and are now £12, templation. He has viewed them only en masse, with victuals ; they having suffered a descent too, without having adverted to the momentous disthough less by 13s. 4d. than that of the former tinction which obtains between one class of them class of labourers."

and another,-between the men, for example, of “But there is still another class, of inferior con- high wages, in virtue of the control which they dition to the two former, and who also, as appears have over their employer, because they can at any from the comparison of their wages at the two dis- time bring his large and expensive machinery to tinct periods, have sustained a greater descent than a stand; and the men who often have not a third either of them—we mean the day labourers, the part of the wages of the others, because they posjob-men of England, or the orry men of our own sess no such power as weavers, all whose capital country parishes, employed in the construction is a handloom, which is their own; or ground laand repairs of roads, and all the other varieties of bourers, all whose capital is a spade, which is ground labour. About twenty or twenty-four their own also. He reasons, as if the foundation years ago, their allowance was from 10s, to 128. a on which society rested, was throughout of howeek, with victuals, or from 16s, even to 18s. and mogeneous materials; and then tells us, what a 208 a week, without victuals. Their allowance at substantial foundation it is, and how it is consoli. present is 6s, a week with, and 105. without vic- dating every year into greater strength and firmtuals. But these numbers exhibit in both cases the

ness than before. We reason, as if that foundafull summer allowance; and, to estimate their yearly tion was made up of successive strata; and express income, we must take into account the reduction our apprehension that the lowest stratum of all of Is, and 28. a-week, when the days become shorter, might become every year more putrid and unas also the average of about two winter months, sound, and so endanger the stability of the whole when they are totally without employment. A fabric. The work recognises a gradation in the good practical test of the felt straitness in their branches of regular industry; and takes account cireumstances, is the extreme fatigue they will un- ' of a large and ever-increasing body of sapernumes

to contend with? No one will assert that the proprietors

raries at the bottom of the scale. The dashing

PUBLIC CARRIAGES IN BRITAIN. generality of the reviewer does not admit of such PROPRIETORS of coaches have at length found outdiscrimination. It confounds the cotton-spinner though they were a long time before they did discover itof 289. with the poor weaver of 5s, a week. It horse market. They have, therefore, one horse in four al

that the hay and corn market is not 80 expensive as the takes so distant a view of the object, that it comes ways at rest ; or, in other words, each horse lies still on not within sight of details and distinctions the fourth day, thus having the advantage of man. In though, in the instance on hand, of vital import- practice, perhaps, no animal toiling for man, solely for his ance to all correct reasoning on the present state profit, leads so easy and so comfortable a life as the Eng.

fish coach-horse ; he is sumptuously fed, kindly treated, and and future prospects of society. Like an unobser- if he do suffer a little in his work, he has twentyathree hours vant by-passer through some plebeian district of a in the twenty-four of luxurious ease. He is now almost a city, who never once dreams of the mighty grada- stranger to the lash ; nor do we ever see him with a broken tion from the highest to the lowest of its house.. skin; but we often see him kick up his heels when taken holders—though intermingled with, or even con

from his coach, after having performed his stage of ten

miles in five minutes under the hour. So much for conditiguous to each other, the artisan or manufacturing tion. No horse lives so high as a coach-horse. In the operative, of from 20s. to as much as 50s. a-week, language of the road, his stomach is the measure of his may be found in close juxta-position with the corn; he is fed ad libitum. The effect of this is visible in weaver or the labourer, who but realizes an two ways; first, it is surprising to see how soon horses humble fraction of his gains. He overlooks this, gather flesh in this severe work, for there is none more e.

vere while it lasts; and, secondly, proprietors find that good and lumps or amalgamates them all, under the one flesh is no obstacle to their speed, but, on the contrary, ope denomination of the common people. And so, rates to their advantage. Horses draw by their weight, whatever comes from that quarter to the savings and not by the force of their muscles, which merely assist banks; or whosoever, out of the mighty hosts who the application of their weight: the heavier a horse is

then, the more powerful he is in his harness ; in short, it is congregate there, shall attend a mechanics' insti- the weight of the animal which produces the draught

, and tute-he puts it all down to the general, or ra the play and force of his muscles serve to continue it. Light ther the universal elevation, that has taken place horses, therefore, how good soever their action, ought not in the habits and comforts of those who øverspread to be put to draw a heavy load, as muscular force cannot the ground-floor or basement of society. It is thus, horses for fast coaches may be about £23. Faney teams,

act against it for any length of time. The average price of that, in very proportion to the rapidity, the reck- and those working out of London, may be rated consider

. less, but withal confident, rapidity of those slight ably higher than this; but taking a hundred miles of and transient regards which our reviewer has cast ground, well horsed, this is about the mark. The average upon the subject-does he overrate, and that pro- period of each Körse's service does not exceed four years in digiously, not the improvement of the lower, but may allow seven ; but in both cases we are alluding to

a fast coach ; perhaps scarcely so much ; in a slow one we the improvement of the lowest orders. He exults horses put to the work at five or six years old. The price in the fifteen millions of deposits to the provident we have named as the average may appear a low ope; but banks of the country ; but reflects not on that blemished horses find their way into coaches, ius do those multitude of mere labourers the hundreds of thous whose tempers are bad ; neither is a blind horse, with good sands, who compose a distinct and inferior class, level.

courage, altogether objectionable, now the roads are so that are every year multiplying upon our hands, It may not be uninteresting to the uninitiated to learn how and who contribute not so much as one farthing to

a coach is worked. We will then assume A, B, C, and D them. He has not entered at all into the depths enter into a contract to horse a coach eighty miles, caca or statistics of his subject; he has but looked on

proprietor having twenty miles ; in which case he is said to the upper surface of it-or, if reasoning on a sort piration of twenty-eight days, a settlement takes place, ani

cover both sides of the groumd, or to and fro. At the ex. of general average between the most comfortable if the gross earnings of the coach should be £10 per mile

, and the most degraded of the industrious classes, there will be £800 to divide between the four proprietors

, reflects not, that beneath that average there is a

after the following charges have been deducted, viz tolls

, gathering mischief, the inevitable tendency of coach-makers,) two coachmen's wages, porter's wages, rent

duty to government, mileage (or hire of the coach to the which is to undermine the stablest community on or charge of booking-offices at each end, and washing the earth, and to bring down the prosperity of all its coaches. These charges may amount to £150, which leares

£650 to keep eighty horses, and to pay the horse-keepers Let the Reviewers, Useful Knowledge propaga- proprietor for the expense of his twenty horses, being #2

for a period of twenty-eight days; or nearly £160 to each tors, or any other person or class of persons in per week per horse. Thus it appears that a fast coach, pr. terested in concealing the truth, do as they will perly appointed, cannot pay, unless its gross receipts amount with Dr. Chalmers’ economical doctrines, we defy tors' profits depend on the luck he has with his stock.

to £10 per double mile; and that even then the propriethem to impugn these statements,

In the present age, the art of mechanism is eminently re

duced to the practical parposes of life, and the modern form • It is of importance to keep in mind, that the worst combines prodigious strength with almost incredible light,

of the stage-coach seems to have arrived at perfection. It paid of our manufacturing labourers in Glasgow are the ness, not weighing more than about 18 cwt., and being both sexes, in the cotton and weaving mills of that city and considerably

safer. Accidents, no doubt, ocenr, and a mais neighbourhood, was 10,897, in April 1832. We wish that many more than meet the public eye; but how should this we could state the number of hand-loom weavers

at the be otherwise, when we take into account the immense numar same period. But as far

back as 1820, the number of ber of coaches on the road, a great portion of which travel hand-looms was upwards of eighteen thousand.

through the night, and have all the varieties of our climate

orders.*"

most numerous.

guard against accidents to the utmost of their power; but leather has mainly contributed. A handsome horse, well the great competition they have to encounter is a strong harnessed, is a noble sight; and is it not extraordinary, that stimulant to their exertions on this score. Indeed, in some in no country but England is the art of putting a horse into respects, the increase of pace has become the traveller's se- harness at all understood ? Independently of the workman. curity. Coaches and harness must be of the best quality; ship of the harness-maker, if our road-horses were put to horses must be fresh and sound, and coachmen of science their coaches in the loose awkward fashion of the Contiand respectability can alone be employed ; in fact, to the nent, we could never travel at the rate we do. It is the increased pace of their coaches is the improvement in these command given over the coach-horse that alone enables us men's moral character to be attributed. They have not to do it. Our amateur or gentlemen coachmen have done time now for drinking; and they come in collision with a much good: the road would never have been what it now class of persons superior to those who formerly were stage- is, but for the encouragement they gave, by their notice and coach passengers, by whose example it has been impossible support, to all persons connected with it. Would the Holyfor them not to profit in all respects. A coachman drunk head road have been what it is, had there been no such on his box is now a rarity ; a coachman quite sober was, persons as the honourable Thomas Kennyon, Sir Henry even within our memory, still more so.

Parnell, and Mr. Maddox? Would the Oxford coachmen The worst of accidents, and one which, with the present have set so good an example to their brethren of " the structure of coaches, can never be entirely provided against, bench," had there been no such men on the road as Sir arises from broken axletrees, and the wheels coming off on Henry Peyton, Lord Clonmell, the late Sir Thomas Mosthe road. On the whole, however, travelling by public tyn, that Nestor of coachmen, Mr. Annesley, and Mr. Harconveyances was never so secure as it is at the present time. rison? Would not the unhappy coachman of five-andNothing can be more favourable to it than the build of the twenty years back have gone on wearing out their breeches modern coaches. . The boots being let down between the with the bumping of the coach-box, and their stomachs springs, keep the load, conseqently the centre of gravity, with brandy, had not Mr. Warde, of Squerries, after many low; the wheels of many of them are secured by patent a weary endeavour, persuaded the proprietors to place their boxes; and in every part of them the best materials are boxes upon springs ? What would the Devonshire have Leed. The cost of coaches of this description is from £130 been, but for the late Sir Charles Bamfylde, Sir John Roto £150, but they are generally hired from the maker at gers, Colonel Prouse, Sir Lawrence Palk, and others ? Have 24d. to 3d. per mile. Cicero laments the want) of post the advice and the practice of such experienced men as Mr. offices, and well he might. Nothing can excel that depart. Charles Buxton, Mr. Henry Villelois, Mr. Okeover, Sir meut in one country, as it has been long administered by, Bellingham Graham, Mr. John Walker, Lord Sefton, Sir perhaps, the only universally-approved public servant in Felix Agar, Mr. Ackers, Mr. Maxse, Hon. Fitzroy Stanour generation, Sir Francis Freeling ; but we fear in this, hope, Colonel Spicer, Colonel Sibthorpe, &c., been thrown as in more important matters, we are now about to lose away upon persons who looked upon them -as protectors ? sight of the good old rule, of " letting well alone.” It is certainly not. Neither would the improvement in car." said to be the intention of government to substitute light riages-stage-coaches more especially

have arrived at its carriages, with two horses, for the present mail-coaches, present height, but for the attention and suggestions of drawn by four, but we have many suspicions as to the re such persons as we have been speaking of. Gentlemansult of such a change. It is true that persons who horse coaching, however, has received a check, and in more ways the mail cry out lustily against the government for not re than one. “Tampering with the currency," and low prices, munerating them better for the increased speed at which have taken off the leaders'; and the bars and four-bone they are now required to travel the maximum price being whips are hung up for the present—very few four-in-hands ten-pence a-mile. The mail-coaches are excellently a- being visible. The B. D. C., or Benson Driving Club, dapted for quick travelling. When the mail-coach of the which now holds its rendezvous at the Black Dog, Bedfont, present day starts from London for Edinburgh, a man may is the only survivor of those numerous driving associations safely bet a hundred to one that she arrives to her time: whose processions used, 'some twenty years ago, to be but let a light two-horse vehicle set out on the same errand among the most imposing, as well as peculiar spectacles in and the betting would strangely alter. It is quite a mis. and about the Metropolis. Hyde Park Corner, on any takea notion, that a carriage is less liable to accidents for fine afternoon, in the height of the London season, is more being light. On the contrary, she is more liable to them than enough to confound any foreigner, from whatever than one that is well laden in proportion to her sustaining part of the world he may come. He may there see what powers. In the latter case she runs steadily along, and is no other conntry under the heavens can show him, and what but little disturbed by any obstacle or jerk she may meet on is more, what no other country ever will show him. Let the road; in the former, she is constantly on “ the jump,” him only sit on the rail, near our Great Captain's statue, as coachmen call it, and her iron parts are very liable to

with his watch in his hand, and in the space of two hours snap. Oar present mail-coach work reflects the highest he will see a thousand well-appointed equipages pass before credit on the state of our roads, and every thing connected him to the mall, in all the pomp of aristocratic pride, and with them. The hills on our great roads are now cut tri- in which the very horses themselves appear to partake. angular, so that coachmen ascend nearly all of them in a The stream of equipages, of all calibres, barouches, chariots, trol Indeed, coachmen have found out that they are cabriolets, &c. &c., and almost all got up, as Mr. Robingainers 'here, as in the trot every horse does his share, son's advertisements say, “ Regardless of expense,” flows on whereas, very few teams are all at work together when unbroken until it is half-past seven, and people at last bewalking. A wonderful change has taken place in the En- gin to think of what they still call dinner. Old Seneca glish coach-horse. Fifty years ago the idea of putting a

tells us that such a blaze of splendour was once to be seen thorough-bred horse into harness would have been deemed on the Appian Way. It might be so it is now to be seen preposterous. In the carriages of our noblemen and gentle- no where but in London.-Quarterly Review. men, the long-tailed black or Cleveland bayeach one re [The Quarterly concludes this article with a prophecy, d' move from the cart horse-was the prevailing sort, and six that after the second year of the Reform Bill no such sight miles an hour the extent of his pace, and he cost from L.30 of splendour will again be beheld in England. Even for this to L-50. A few years back a nobleman gave seven hun- falling off we shall console ourselves, if " the peasantry" .dred guineas for a horse to draw his cabriolet ; two hun- and " coster-mongers” are more tidily fitted in harness, and dred guineas is now an every day price for a horse of this better mounted on shoe leather.] description; and a hundred and fifty guineas for a gentleman's coach-horse. Indeed a pair of handsome coach-horses, MARCH OF STEAM.-The Champlain, a steam boat fit for London and well broken and bitted, cannot be recently built in America, lately made the voyage from New purchased under two hundred guineas, and even job York to Albany, a distance of 160 miles, in nine hours and masters often give much more for them to let out to their 45 minutes, including a boss of time occasioned by fourteen customers. In harness also, we think we have arrived at stoppages, reducing the aetual time to eight hours and 13 perfection, to which the invention of the patent shining' minutes, which gives nearly 20 miles an hour.

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