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serves for the country, and the forwarding of them to the About this season, certain rhyming effusions, leading post office in Lombard Street, or in parcels for the mails,

and to other coach offices The Gazelte nights, every through a great variety of metres to the same conclusions, Tuesday

and Friday, add to his labours—the pablication of draw notice to our news deliverers, the boys, or techni. second and third editions of the evening papers is a supercally, devils of the different newspaper offices. Their duties addition. On what he calls a regular day,' he is fortiare light, and their system crude, compared with that of nate if he find himself settled within his own door by seren the well-organized newsmen of London. As the anticipat- o'clock, after fifteen hours of running to and fro. It is now ed abolition of the taxes on knoucledge, will at once ap. fresh orders, ascertain how many of each paper he will re

only that he can review the business of the day, enter his proximate our system to that of the metropolis, and give quire on the morrow, arrange his accounts

, provide for the rise to a new order in the Fourth Estate, it may be money he may have occasion for, eat the only quiet meal curions to view this branch of the statistics of the press. he could reckon upon since that of the evening before, and It is detailed by Mr. Hone, and no better authority could steal a few hours from the night' for needful rest, before

he rises next morning to a day of the like incessant occupa. be obtained :

tion; and thus from Monday to Saturday he labours every “ All the year round, and every day in the year, the day. newsman must rise soon after four o'clock, and be at the « The newsmen desires no work but his own to prore newspaper offices to procure a few of the first morning Sunday no Sabbath ,' for on him and his brethren devolves papers allotted to him, at extra charges, for particular or

the circulation of upwards of fifty thousand Sunday papers ders, and despatch them by the early coaches. After- in the course of the forenoon. His Sunday dinner is the wards, he has to wait for his share of the regular' publi- only meal he can insure with his family, and the short recation of each paper, and he allots these as well as he can mainder of the day, the only time he can enjoy in their sa. among some of the most urgent of his town orders. The ciety with certainty, or extract something from, for more next publication at a later hour is devoted to his re- serious duties or social converse. maining customers ; and he sends off his boys with differ « The newsman's is an out-of-door business at all seasons, ent portions according to the supply he successively re- and his life is measured out to unceasing toil. In all ceives. Notices frequently and necessarily printed in dif- weathers, hail, rain, wind, and snow, he is daily constrained ferent papers, of the hour of final publication the preceding to the way and the fare of a wayfaringman. He walks, or day, guard the interests of the newspaper proprietors from the rather runs, to distribute information concerning all sorts of sluggishness of the indolent, and quicken the diligent news circumstances and persons, except his own. He is unable man. Yet, however skilful his arrangements may be, they to allow himself, or others, time for intimacy; and, there. are subject to unlooked for accidents. The late arrival of fore, unless he had formed friendships before he took up his foreign journals, a Parliamentary debate unespectedly pro- servitude, he has not the chance of cultivating them sare tracted, or an article of importance in one paper exclusively, with persons of the same calling. He may be said to have retard the printing and defer the newsman. His patience, been divorced, and to live separate and apart from well-worn before he get his last papers,' must be continued society in general : for, though he mixes with every hody, during the whole period he is occupied in delivering them. it is only for a few hurried moments, and as strangers do in The sheet is sometimes half snatched before he can draw it a crowd. from his wrapper ; he is often chid for delay when he « The losses and crosses to which newsmen are subject, and should have been praised for speed ; his excuse, All the the minutiæ of their laborious life, would form an instrucpapers were late this morning,' is better heard than ad. tive volume. As a class of able men of business, their immitted, for neither giver nor receiver has time to parley; portance is established by excellent regulations, adapted to and before he gets home to dinner, he hears at one house that their interests and well-being; and their numerous society * Master has waited for the paper these two hours ;' at includes many individuals of high intelligence, integrity, another, · Master's gone out, and says if you can't bring and opulence. the paper earlier, he won't have it at all ;' and some ill-conditioned master,' perchance, leaves positive orders, Don't New Year's GIFTS. The custom of New Year's Gifts take it in, but tell the man to bring the bill, and I'll pay is very ancient, and was formerly carried to a great extent. it and have done with him.'

The sovereign used to accept gifts from his courtiers and “Besides buyers, cvery newsman has readers at so much principal favourites, and was also in the habit of making each paper per hour. One class stipulates for a journal al- presents to certain individuals; the Prince, however, always ways at breakfast; another, that it is to be delivered ex. taking care that the presents he received greatly exceeded actly at such a time; a third, at any time, so that it is left in value those which he gave. It is recorded of Bishop La. the full hour; and among all of these there are malcon- timer, that on one occasion he presented to his master tents, who permit nothing of time or circumstance' Henry VIII., instead of a sum in gold for a New Year's to interfere with their personal convenience. Though Gift, a New Testament, with the leaf folded down at Hethe newsman delivers, and allows the use of his paper, and brews, ch. xiii. v. 4,-on reference to which the King fetches it, for a stipe-ad not half equal to the lowest paid found a text well suited as an admonition to himself. Qucen porter's price for letter-carrying in London, yet he finds Elizabeth supplied herself with wardrobe and jewels prinsome, with whom he covenanted, objecting, when it is called cipally from New Year's Gifts. . Dr. Drake has given a for, I've not had my breakfast:-—' The paper did not list of some of these presents ; amongst the items we find come at the proper time'- I've not had leisure to look at the following :-“ Most of the Peers and Peeresses of the it yet'_' It has not been left an hour'-or any other pre- Realin, the Bishops, the Chief Officers of State, her Majesty's tence equally futile or untrue, which, were he to allow, Household, even as low as the master of the pantry and would prevent him from serving his readers in rotation, or head cook, all gave her Majesty a Christmas-box--consistat all. If he can get all his morning papers from these ing either of a sum of money, jewels, trinkets, or wearing customers by four o'clock, he is a happy man.

apparel. The Archbishop of Canterbury usually gave L:40, “Soon after three in the afternoon, the newsman and some the Archbishop of York L.30, and the other Prelates from of his boys must be at the offices of the evening papers ; L.10 or L.20. The Peers gave in the same proportion ; but before he can obtain his requisite numbers, he must wait whilst the Peeresses presented rich gowns, petticoats, shifts till the newsmen of the Royal Exchange have received stockings, garters, &c. Her physician presented her with theirs for the use of the nterchants on 'Change. Some of box of foreign sweetmeats ; and from her apothecary she the first he gets are hurried off to coffee-houses and tavern. received a box of ginger-candy, and a box of green ginger. keepers. When he has procured his full quantity, he sup-Ambroise Lupo gave her a box of lutestrings, and Smith, plies the remainder of his town customers. These disposed the royal dustman, presented her Majesty with tiro bolts of of, then comes the hasty folding and directing of his re- cambric.",


I am now endeavouring to do. Were it possible that la fulfilment of my promise to my London readers, I either this statement of motives, or that any part of the have now placed in my shop, at Bolt Court, an assort

work itself, could be, by even the most perverse of hu. ment of apples, which were grown on the beautiful banks

man beings, ascribed to any desire on my part to curry of the Clyde, which, the reader will please to observe, is farour with the Scotch, or to any selfish desire whatsonearly about the centre of Scotland. These apples ever; were this only possible, I am afraid that I should were all grown in the orchard of Mr. Hamilton of Dal- not have had the courage to make this statement; but, Zell; and, though they have been at Glasgow, at sea, and

as this is completely impossible, I make it as being the lying in London unpacked (all put togeiher) ever since just due of the people of Scotland, for whose well-being, the first of November, I think they could now challenge whose honour, whose prosperity, whose lasting peace and Covent Garden! I shall let these apples remain in my happiness, I have as great a regard as I have for the wellshop for eight or ten days, or more ; and I have also boing, prosperity, and happiness of those who inhabit the placed there a Dunlop cheese, Dunlop being a village in spot wbere I myself was born. Ayrshire famous for making cheese ; and, I have no

THE WINE TREE. scruple to say that this cheese, which is about half a hun « 'Tis the Vine ! 'tis the Vine !" said the cup-loving boy, dred weight, is, pound for pound equal in quality to any As he saw it spring bright from the earth, cheese from Cheshire, Gloucestershire, or Wiltshire. And call'd the young Genii of Wit, Love, and Joy, There is nothing like seeing things with our own eyes.

To witness and hallow its birth. I cannot bring up Scotland itself, and exhibit it at Bolt

The fruit was full grown; like a ruby it flamd, Court, but I can exhibit these indubitable proofs of

Till the sun-beam that kiss'd it turn'd pale :

“ 'Tis the Vine! 'tis the Vine!" every Spirit exclaim d, the goodness and productiveness of the soil of that

“Hail, hail to the Wine-tree, all hail !". country; and of the virtue and sense of its people I have, in my tour, put upon record proofs enough. As

First, fleet as a bird, to the summons Wit flet, I have, in different nunibers of the Register, inserted

While a light on the vine- leaves there broke, the greater part of this tour, I now insert the following :

In flashes so quick and so brilliant, all knew the tide, dedication, and preface to the volume, which

'Twas the light from his lips as he spoke.

“ Bright tree ! let thy nectar but chcer me," lie cried, will be published on Thursday next, the 10th inst. And

“And the fount of Wit never can fail :" thus I shall, as far as I am ablo, have done justice to a “ 'Tis the Vine! 'tis the Vine !" hills and valleys reply ; country and a people, who have been more, and more “ Hail, bail to the Wine-tree, all hail!" unjustly, misrepresented than any country and people upon the face of the earth..

Next, Love, as he leand o'er the plant to admire

Each tendril and cluster it wore,

From his rosy mouth sent such a breath of desire, The molives as to the making of this publication are, As made the tree tremble all o'er. to communicate to every body, as far as I am able, cor Oh! never did Horrer of the earth. sea, or sky, rect notions relative to Scotland ; its soil ; its products; Such a soul-giving odour inhale : jos state, as to the well-being or ill-being of the people; "'Tis the Vine ! 'tis the Vine !" all re-echo the cry; but, above all things, it is my desire to assist in doing “ Hail, hail to the Wine-tree, all hail !" justice to the character, political as well as moral, . public Last Joy, without whom even Love and Wit die, ns.well as private, national as well as social, of our broth Came to crown the bright hour with his ray; ren in that very much misrepresented part of the king And scarce had that mirth-waking tree met his eye, dom. This is a duty particularly incumbent on me; for, When a laugh spoke what Joy could not say ; though I never have carried my notions of the sterility

A langh of the heart, which was echoed around and worthlessness of Scotland, and of the niggardly char

Till, like music, it swelld on the gale; acter of its inhabitants, to the extent which many others

“'Tis the Vine ! 'tis the Vine !" laughiny myriads resound ;

“ Hail, hail to the Wine tree, all hail!" have; though I have, in reprobating the conduct of the

(We need scarcely tell that the author of these gay verses is " bosing" pro-consular feelosofers, always made them an

Moore. They are taken from “ Evenings in Greece," a musiexception io the people of Scotland; though I have als cal work, to which he contributes the poetry. I ways done this, still, I could not prevent myself from im. Living, in some degree, the prejudices, which a long train of causes, beginning to operate nearly a thousand years

When I found myself in the cabin with the bold outlaw ago, bave implaoted in the minds of Englishmen; though

-for Matthews had been legally denonnced for many I had intimately known, for many years, such great num. daring and successful contests with the Revenue- I could bers of Scotchmen, for whom I had the greatest regard, not but admire the thorough indifference to possible consestill the prejudices, the false notions, lay lurking in my quences which this singular personage exhibited. He knew mind; and in spite of my desire always to do justice to that several men of war were at the moment cruising on wards everybody, the injustice would slip out, even with the station, and that they had been apprized he had sailed out my perceiving it. In any other man it would have from Flushing, and that this coast was the spot selected by been of some importance that these erroneous notions the owners to cffect the landing—yet he laughed and drank should be corrected; but, in me, whose writings I might as gaily as I should in a club-house, and despatched the fairly presume extended to every part of the civilized my bounden duty to do that justice, which I have endeaploits; and the scene was admirably in keeping: Around world, it became of very great importance ; and it becamo messages which were occasionally brought down with per

He spoke principally of his own exvoured to do in the following pages; and to make, by a

the cabin, muskets, pistols, and blunderbusses were secured trae statement of facts derived from ocular proof, that in arm-racks, and cutlasses and tomahawks were susatonement for past errors which I have in these pages pended from the bulk-heads. His had been a wild caendeavoured to make.

reer; and though not passed the middle age, his life teemed From how many pairs of lips have I heard the excla- | with “ perilous adventure.” I was so much annused with mation : "'Good God! who would have thought that his varied narratives of brave attempts and desperate suc. Scotland was such a country! What monstrous lies we have cesses, that the second hour slipped away before I rose and been told about that rountry and people!" And, which bas took my departure. On regaining the deck, the hurry of pleased me exceedingly, not one man have I met with to the business was over. The contraband cargo had been re. whom the discovery does not seem to have given delight. placed by stone ballast ; for, by previous arrangement, If I had before wanted a motive to give further exten. each boat bronght a quantity of shingle from the beach, sion to my account of Scotland, these exclamations would and hence the smuggler was already in trim, and ready to have been inotives sufficient ; for they would have proved, stand out to sea. This notorious ressel was considered in that bare justice demanded that which, by this publication, size and sailing superior to any of a simular class, and her


voyages had been numerous and successful. Her armament to disinherit an heir-at-law, it is necessary to give him a was formidable: sixteen heavy carronades were extended Bhilling by the will, for that otherwise he would be ei. along the deck, with two long brass guns of a sinaller ca. titled to the whole property.—That a funeral passing over liber, and every other appurtenance of war was in perfect any place makes it a public highway. That the body of a efficiency. But the most striking object was her ferocious. debtor may be taken in execution after his death.—That a looking, but magnificent crew ; they seemed only formed man marrying a woman who is in debt, if he take her for “ the battle and the breeze," and well justified their wild from the hands of the priest, clothed only in her shift

, will commander's boast, “ that he could thrash any cruiser of not be liable for her engagements. That those who are

, . We left the vessel; and, to judge by the cags and cases may not marry, though first couşins may. That a husband! stowed away in the gig, my cousin had not been forgotten has the power of divorcing his wife, by selling her in open in the general distribution. The outlaw stood upon a car- market, with a halter round her neck.—That a woman's ronade, and waved his hand as we pulled from the ship's marrying a man under the gallows will save him from ex. side ; and in a short time set his head-sails, and stood off to ecution. That if a criminal has been hung and revives, he sea with the ebb-tide and a spanking breeze, which carried cannot afterwards be executed. That the owners of assey him out of sight directly. This was fated to be the last are obliged to crop their cars, lest the length of them should landing of the Jane, and the last exploit of her commander frighten the horses. -she foundered on her next voyage, and every person on TO PRESERVE THE Roots OF GERANIUMS IN THE board perished with the vessel.— Wild Sports of the West. WINTER.– The following method of preserving through

the winter the more gross and succulent geraniums, such THE MONKS OF THE SCREW.

as the large scarlet, &c. is but little known. On the apWhen Lord Avenmore was a young man, better known on proach of frost take them out of the ground, in doing which the turf than at the bar, he founded a club ear Newmarket, carefully avoid injuring the roots; wash off all the earth, called the Monks of the Screw ; the rules of which he drew and hang them up to the ceiling of a good under-ground up in very quaint and comic Monkish Latin verse. It was on this model that a still more celebrated club of the same name

cellar with the roots uppermost. In the spring they will was afterwards established, under his Lordship’s auspices, in

have made some yellowish-green, and unhealthy-looking

shoots. When the frosts are over, they are to be replanted Dublin. It met on every Sunday during the law terms, in a large house in Kevin's Street, the property of the late Lord and protected at night, and from cold winds, by mats, or by Tractou, and now converted into a seneschal's court. The turning a basket over them until they have resumei theit reader may have some idea of the delightful intercourse this wonted healthy appearance. The above method must prore society must have afforded, when he learns that Flood, Grattan, particularly advantageous to the numerous persons who Curran, Lord Charlemont, Daly, Bowes, and a host of such have not the use of a conservatory, and who happen men, were amongst its members. Curran was installed Grand think that geraniums never appear so ornamental as whes Prior of the order, and deputed to compose the charter song. growing in the open ground; and certainly much mor It began thus ;

beautiful and natural than those long-legged sickly exotie When St Patrick our order created,

that are frequently seen drawn up in straight lines in a hot And called us the Monks of the Screw,

house. Good rules he revealed to our Abbnt,

The following is a specimen of Irish logie - His land To guide us in what we should do.

lady was what was termed a 'general dealer,' and, ann But first be replenished his fountain

other things, sold bread and whisky. A customer enten With liquor the best in the sky,

her shop and inquired if she had any thing to eat And he swore, by the word of his saintship,

drink? “ To be sure,' she replied, I have got a thimble The fountain should never run dry.

full of the cratur, my darling, that comes only to twopene My children, be chaste, till you're tempted ;

and this big little loaf you may have for the same money While sober, be wise and discreet ;=

Both twopenco? " Both the same, as I'm a Christian And humble your bodies with fasting,

man, and worth double the sum.' Fill the whisky, Whene'er you've got nothing to eat.

you plase.' She did so, and he drank it; then rejoined Then be not a glass in the convent,

It comes to twopence, my jewel ; I'm not hungry, tak Except on a festival, found,

back the loaf,' tendering it. Yes, honey, but what pas And this rule to enforce, I ordain it

for the whisky ?? Why the loaf to be sure! Bat A festival-all the year round.

haven't paid for the loaf.' 'Why you wouldn't bare Saint Patrick, the tutelar idol of the country, was their man pay for a thing he hasn't eat?' A friend going patron saint; and a statue of him, mitred and crosiered, after was called in by the landlady to decide the difficulty, having for years consecratud their Monkish revels, was trans- gave it against her; and from deficiency in her powers ferred to Curran's convivial sideboard at the Priory. Of the calculation, the permitted the rogue to escape." -Bernard hours passed in this society Curran ever afterwards spoke with

Retrospectims. enthusiasm. “Those hours," said he, addressing Lord Avenmore on the occasion, as a Judge, and wringing tears from his

CONTENTS OF No. xxv. aged eyes at the recollection, which we can remember with

The Duties of the People at the Present Period.. no other regret than that they can return no more :

The State of Feeling in a Manufacturing Town.. “We spent them not in toys, or lust, or wine,

Popular Estimation of Geology.. ....*********** But search of deep philosophy;

Reverend William Muir..... Wit, eloquence, and poesy ;

The Remarkable History of Sophia Dorothea, Wife of George Arts which I lov'd, and they, my friend, were thine!”

ELEMENTS OF THOUGAT-Signs of the Times The Fiction

Writers, or Moral Instructors-Sir Walter Scott-Parties.

Affectation .....

Tue Story.Teller-The Irish Bessy Bell and Mary Gray..

An Old Scottish Toun........

The London Newsman.................
There seems a love in hair, though it be dead ;

Cobbett on Scotland...
It is the gentlest, yet the strongest thread

The Wine Tree-Matthews the Smuggler..
Of our frail plant-a blossom from the tree,

The Monks of the Screw.....
Surviving the proud trunk ;-as though it said,

SCRAPS Locks of Hair as Keepsakes-To Preserve the Roots et

Geraniums in the Winter, &c.......
Patience and gentleness is power-in me
Behold affectionate Eternity.

EDINBURGH: Printed by, and John JOHNSTONE, 19, St Tas " VULGAR ERRORS.—That leases are made for 999 years, Square. -- Published by JOHN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, S, Nort because a lease for 1000 years would create a freehold.. Bridge Street, Edinburgh; by JOHN MACLEOD, and ATKINSON & C

Booksellers, Glasgow; and sold by all Booksellers and Vendor That deeds executed on Sunday are void. That, in order Cheap Periodicals






No. 26.-Vol. II. SATURDAY, JANUARY 26, 1833.


MR. STUART'S THREE YEARS IN During his long course of travel he visited schools,

colleges, courts of justice, churches of every de.

nomination, proceeded by steam, stage, and on horseThis book is likely to attract more general back; and faithfully relates all he saw, and much notice, especially in Scotland, than any work which of what he heard, never neglecting what he had bas lately appeared ; and this for two reasons ; for dinner or supper, nor yet what his fare cost, first, it is about that country with which we have and-seldom forgetting to record his assertion of a so many ties, and upon which the hopes of our Briton's right to a single bed, a basin of water, suffering population of all classes under the high and a clean towel. He is in truth a homely staest, naturally fall back; and secondly, it is written tist, and, we are persuaded, an accurate one; and by Mr. Stuart of Dunearn, long a noticeable mem where his book rises to generalized views, or luxber of our community, a leading whig, among party uriates in description, he draws upon higher sourwhigs, a dashing speculator, a spirited, if not a ces. With all this, and though nothing is idealized very calculating agricultural improver, a charac. or viewed en beau, he gives us a most favourable ter in many points formed and fashioned by war impression of the Americans ; at least of the peoprices, and the fictitious tide of prosperity which ple of the Northern States,--while he only does rose so rapidly, ebbed as fast, and left so many them justice in a kindly, candid spirit, respecting trares of misery and ruin on the society over them (as we do him) too much to think they require wwhich it swept. Mr. Stuart was also the antago- glozing and indulgence from a traveller. In towns nist of Sir Alexander Boswell, in that unfortunate he is less happy, we think, than in the country; and affair when a “ fool-born jest” was most foolishly especially among the new emigrant settlements of vindicated, and a contemptible offence atoned by the Illinois and Missouri. His account of these the sacrifice of human life. In this unhappy fine countries will be read with much interest, and rencontre Mr. Stuart was, it is said, inextr ably with profit by persons meditating emigration. His involved, and if so, he was certainly more to be description of the southern slave states presents pitied than the victim. These circumstances, and the most horrible and revolting picture the nine days wonderment which arose from his have ever yet seen, of the open profligacy, utter abrupt withdrawal to the United States, have thrown debasement, and moral depravity inseparable from a reflected interest around his book which is not slavery. A selection of Mr, Stuart's anecdotes wanted. It may be left to its own fate. Mr Stu- must put to shame, and for ever strike dumb every art went to America in the summer of 1828, and one who dare yet raise a voice for a system which returned in the spring of 1831. He possessed to us appears infinitely more brutalizing to the many of the qualities most requisite to an intelli- white than to the suffering black population. Of tha gent and impartial observer. He was of mature age, social habits and domestic character of the Ameria man of business and of the world, well acquainted cans, we learn less than we could have wished; for with rural affairs on the grand and expensive though Mr. Stuart went every where, he has, out style, and withal somewhat of a politician. During of inns and boarding-houses, recorded a few observahis stay he visited nearly every important place in tions. The mental condition of the people of the States, traversing the breadth and length of the America is best indicated by their political and land“ from Dan to Beersheba” in the humour of social state. It is sound, healthful, and happy. finding all fruitful and flourishing, viewing every We shall begin with the elementary part, --Educathing in the fairest light, and putting the best tion, and the provision made for this only sure construction upon every occurrence. With such basis of national prosperity and social well-being. qualifications and dispositions Mr. Stuart collected “ On one of the first days I walked out, I was joined by an immense mass of facts, which he relates in a seafaring person of the name of Sheaffe, with whom I had the plain unadorned style of a journalist, leaving got acquainted in the course of my walks by the sea side, the reader to select, compare, weight, and draw and seemed to gxin les livelihood by fishing, and jerrying

who lived in the neighbourhood, and had a small boni, conclusions for himself,

His own opinions and over passengers to and from the island. After congratulatimpressions aro merely stated, never insisted upon. I ing meon my recovery, he ashel me if I was not in want of


books. He had seen me occasionally bring books from two millions, it is unqnestionable, that the entire popula. Boston, before I had met with the accident before noticed. tion are educated, that is to say, can read and write and He mentioned various historical and philosophical books in that the exceptions, which do not at the utmost amoum his library, which were at my service ; and also the Lon. to 2000 persons, are composed of blacks and foreigners don Examiner newspaper for several years. I caught at “ The result of the recent inquiry into the state of Edu. his offer, when he mentioned the Examiner, having been eation in the State of New York, which adjoins New Eng. recently reading the American account of the battles on land, and is almost equal to it in population, and to which the Canada frontier in the wars of 1813 and 1814, and I have already alluded, is very much, though not entirely being anxious to compare them with the British Gazette the same. It is proved by actual reports, that 499,434 accounts. I therefore accepted the Examiner, which he for children, oat of a population of one million, nine hundred tunately had at the period I wanted. I doubt whether such thousand, were at the same time attending the schools, that an occurrence as this could have happened anywhere else in is, a fourth part of the whole population. Althonga the the world. I found that Mr. Sheaffe, whose house is as public funds of New York State are great, these schools humble-looking a wooden cottage as any one in the neigh- are not entirely free, but free to all who apply for im. bourhood, had formerly been a seaman in a merchant ship, munity from payment. The amount of the money paid and had been in England; but the explanation is easy. to the teachers by private persons does not, however, Education is open to all in this country; and all, or almost amount to one-third of the whole annual expense, which is all, are educated. It was lately ascertained by reports ac some what less than a million of dollars. curately taken, that, out of a population of about 60,000 It is not, however, to be inferred, that education at persons in the State of Massachusetts, only 400 beyond the free-schools is so general all over the United States, as in age of childhood could not read or write. And more espe- the four millions of inhabitants of New England and the cially, by returns from 131 towns presented to the legisla- State of New York; but the provision for public schools ture, that the number of scholars receiving instruction in is admirable in all the populous states, Pensylvania, Near those towns is 12,393; that the’number of persons in those Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, &c.; and free education can towns, between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one, who everywhere be procured, even in the southern states, for are unable to reapand write, is fifty-eight ; and that in one whites, on application being made for it. The appropria

. of those towns, the town of Hancock, there are only three tions of land for schools in the old states were formerly persons unable to read or write, and those three are mutes. very much confined to the donations of individuals, many The general plan of Education at the public free schools of which have now, however, become very valuable; but here is not confined to mere reading, writing, arithmetic, the appropriations for schools in the new states have been and book-keeping, and the ancient and modern languages; regulated by congress, and their extent is immense. Every but comprehends grammar, mathematics, navigation, geo township of the new lands is divided into thirty-six sections, graphy, history, logic, political economy, and rhetoric, each a mile square, and each containing 640 acres. One moral and natural philosophy; these schools being, as section of every township is appropriated for schools In stated in the printed regulations, intended to occupy the addition to this, great appropriations have been made in young people from the age of four to seventeen, and to Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, and others of the western form a system of education advancing from thə lowest to states, for seminaries of a higher order, to the extent of the highest degree of improvement, which can be derived about one-fifth of those for schools. The land belonging from any literary seminaries inferior to colleges and uni- to public schools in the new states and territories, in which versities; and to afford a practical and theoretical acquain. appropriations have been made on the east side of the Misi tance with the various branches of a useful education. sissippi, amounts to about eight millioris of acres, and is 6. There are, at present, at Boston, sixty-eight free of course advancing in value as the population increases

. schools, besides twenty-three Sabbath schools; in all or The extent of land, which will be appropriated to the same which the poorest inhabitant of Boston may have his chil. purpose, when the land on the western side of the Missisdren educated, according to the system of education before sippi is settled, must be prodigious,-at present not capable specified, from the age of four to seventeen, without any of being guessed at.” expense whatever.

The children of both sexes are freely Our next extract must be political: the Ballot is admitted. The funds for these schools are derived from bequests and donations by individuals,

and grants from the Hear Mr. Stuart's report from a land where the

at this moment a topic of universal discussion. legislature and corporations; and enable the trustees, con. sisting of twelve citizens, annually elected by the inhabi- ballot has been fully tested. tants of each of the twelve wards of the city, with the “ It was on the 5th November that I was present at the mayor and eight aldermen, to give the teachers salaries, election at Ballston Spa, held in one of the hotels

, about varying from 2500 to 800 dollars a-year. The assistant the door of which, twenty or thirty people might be standteachers have 600 dollars. The trustees elect the teachers, ing. My friend Mr. Brown introduced me, and got me a and vote their salaries yearly; and no preference is given place at the table. I must confess that I have been seldom on any principles but those of merit and

skill. The teach- more disappointed at a public meeting. The excitement ers of the grammar schools must have been educated at occasioned by the election generally was declared by the college, and must have attained a degree of bachelor of arts. The morning and evening exercises of all the schools, com

newspapers to be far greater than had ever been witnessed

since the declartion of indepeandence in 1776. And at mence with reading the Scriptures. of supervision and regulation is established by the trus- creased by an attack made a few days

previous to the elecA very strict system Ballston Spa, any irritation which existed had been in

tion by the local press, and by hand-bills, on the moral " No expense whatever is incurred at those schools ex character of one of the candidates -a gentleman who had cept for books. « The richer classes at Boston, formerly, very gener- neighbourhood.

filled a high ofice in Congress, and who resided in the ally, patronized teachers of private schools, who were paid for some ebulition of humour, or of sarcastic remark, or

I was, therefore, prepared for some fun, in the

usual way; but they now find that the best teach- dry wit, to which Americans are said to be prone. But ers are at the head of the public schools, and, in most cases

, all was dumb show, or the next thing to it. The ballo prefer them,—the children of the highest and lowest rank boxes were placed on a long table, at which half a dozen of enjoying the privilege, altogether invaluable in a free state, the inspectors or canvassers of votes were seated

. The ro: of being educated together. “ In the adjoining State of Connecticut it has been ascer spoken.

ters approached the table by single files Not a word was tained by accurate reports that one-third of the population,

Each voter delivered his list, when he got next

to the table to the officers, who called out his name. Ang of the New England States, the population of which, incided on the officers having no dificulty, from their

In the whole person might object, but the objection was instantly du Cluding Massachusetts and Connecticut, amounts to about knowledge of the township, of the persons residing in il,


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