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country diversified with the neat and cleanly dwellings of posed of three layers arranged in parallel and transverse the industrious labourer,--the rural scene, during the day, rows and submitted to heavy pressure. A kind of size adorned with seminaries, manufactories, asyluma, stately seems also to have been used, which glued the parts together edifices, gardens, fruitful fields and romantic bowers, and and rendered the spongy texture fitter for the reception of during night, bespangled in all directions with variegated writing. To be of good quality this paper was required to lamps, forming a counterpart, as it were, to the lights which be fine, compact, white, and smooth. Several coarser kinds adorn the canopy of heaven! Such are only a few speci- were made. It would appear from the same author, that mens of the improvements which art, directed by science the Egyptians formerly applied the plant to many purposes. and morality, could easily accomplish.".
“ The inhabitants of Egypt do use the root instead of wood, Most benevolently reasoned ! but when will these things and utensils in an house. The very bodie and pole of the
not for fuel only, but also to make thereof sundry vessels be done ? Who will commence the career of improvement? papyr itselfe serveth very well to twist and weave therewith What signs of daybreak are in the heavens?-scarcely the little boats, and the rinds thereof be good to make sailefaintest streak.
clothes, curtains, mats, and coverlets, clothes also for hang
ings, and ropes. Nay, they use to chew and eat it both raw NATURAL HISTORY.
and sodden: but they swallow the juice only down the throat HYENAS of Abyssinia. These animals generally inhabit and spit out the grosse substance.” As for the flower, it caverns and other rocky places, from whence they issue un served no other purpose than for “ chaplets to adorn the der cover of the night to prowl for food. They are gregari- | images of the gods.” At one time the papyrus was in geneous, not so much from any social principle, as from a greedi- ral request not only in Egypt but in other countries. Under ness of disposition, and a gluttonous instinct, which induce the Ptolemies the books of the great Alexandrian library many to assemble even over a scanty and insufficient prey. were copied on this paper; but when Eumenes, king of They are said to devour the bodies which they find in ceme. Pergamus, began to establish a rival library, a mean jealteries, and to disinter such as are hastily or imperfectly in- ousy controlled the dissemination of knowledge and forbade humed. There seems, indeed, to be a peculiar gloominess the exportation of papyrus. Parchment came into more and malignity of disposition in the aspect of the hyena, general use soon afterwards, and is said to have derived its and its manners in a state of captivity are savage and un Latin name pergamenea from the city of Pergamus, where tractable. Like every other animal, however, it is perfectly it was substituted for the papyrus, which was no longer to capable of being tamed. A contradictory feature has been be obtained. observed in its natural instincts. About Mount Libanus,
INSTINCT OF BIRDS OF PASSAGE.-A curious instance Syria, the north of Asia, and the vicinity of Algiers, the is related in the Philosophical Transactions, illustrative of hyenas, according to Bruce, live mostly upon large succulent that wonderful, incomprehensible faculty which enables the bulbous roots, especially those of the fritillaria, &c.; and he migratory birds, on their return to this country from foreign informs us that he has known large patches of the fields turn- climates, to find their way, year after year, to the identical ed up by them in their search for onions and other plants. arm-houses from which they had migrated. Several swifts He adds, that these were chosen with such care, that after
were marked by taking off two claws from the foot, and the having been peeled, if any small decayed spot became per- same birds were found to return to their former haunts for ceptible, they were left upon the ground. In Abyssinia, seven successive years. The following paragraph on the however, and many other countries, their habits are certainly same subject appeared in the recent London journals :decidedly carnivorous-yet the same courage, or at least fierce- “During last summer an inhabitant of Waldmuenchen, in ness, which an animal diet usually produces does not so ob- Bavaria, caught a house-swallow, which had returned to viously manifest itself in this species. In Barbary, accord- the same nest for four successive seasons, and fastened a ing to Bruce, the Moors in the daytime seize the hyena slight gold ring, bearing his initials (I. G. N.) round his neck. by the ears and drag him along, without his resenting that On the 12th of April last the wanderer arrived from his winignominious treatment otherwise than by attempting to draw ter quarters with a second ring, as well as the former one, himself back; and the hunters, when his cave is large enough round his neck; it was also of gold, and had some Arabic to give them entrance, take a torch in their hands, and ad- letters upon it." vance straight towards him, pretending at the same time to
THE MAMMOTH OF FLOWERS.- The plant called krubut, fascinate him by a senseless jargon. The creature is astound.
or great flower of Sumatra, is a most extraordinary vegeed by the noise and glare, and allowing a blanket to be table prodigy: the breadth of a single full-grown flower exthrown over him, is thus dragged out. Bruce locked up a
ceeds three feet, and the petals or blossom leaves are of a goat, a kid, and a lamh, all day with a Barbary hyena sub-rotund shape, and measure twelve inches each from the which bad fasted, and he found the intended victims in the base to the apex, and it is about a foot from the insertion evening alive and uninjured. He repeated the experiment, of one petal to the opposite one. That part which is conhowever, on another occasion, during the night, with a
sidered the nectarium, situated in the centre of the flower, young ass, a goat, and a fox, and next morning he was as
would hold twelve pints of water. The pistils which are tonished to find the whole of them not only killed, but ac- abortive, are as large as cows' horns, and the weight of the tually devoured, with the exception of some of the ass's whole is estimated at about fifteen pounds. bones !—The general size of the stripped hyena is that of a large dog. Bruce regarded the Abyssinian species as distinct from those described as natives of other parts of Africa, but recent observation has failed to confirm that impression
THE TRUE BALM. of the Scottish traveller. This species was known to the
ADAPTED FROM AN OLD POET. ancients, and was exhibited at Rome for the first time in the reign of Gordian. One which died a few years ago in
IF torn from all we hold most dear, Paris was of an irritable and dissatisfied disposition, and
The tedious moments slowly roll, had eaten away in its impatience all the toes of its hind.
Can music's tenderest accents cheer legs.-Nubia and Abyssinia.
The silent grief that melts the soul ?
Or can the poets' boasted art
To breasts that feel corroding care, fifteen feet sin height. The roots creep extensively and
The healing balm of peace impart, throw up numerous stems, sheathed at the base by a few
And pluck the thorn engender'd there? sword-shaped leaves, and terminated with large and elegant umbels of flowers. The paper of antiquity was prepared
Ah, no ! in vain the verse may flow, from the inner portion of the stein ; and, on the authority
In vain the softest strain begin, of Pliny, the best and most beautiful paper was made out of
The only balm to sooth our wo the very heart of the substance of the stem, and was com.
And calm our grief is-Best LOCHRIN.
COLUMN FOR THE LADIES.
“ Johnny must have been a sodger or a milor," because
“ when he likes himsel' he can brawly clout his breeks FREE TRADE-A SCOTCH D'Eon.
darn his stockings, mak' his ain 'meat, and wash bis ain ABOUT twelve or fourteen years back, a female, whose claise.” At the beginning of February last, Helen applied sex had long been suspected, was discovered in the person She said she was seventeen years of age, and stated that
for employment to a master plasterer in Hutchesontoxt. of a plasterer in Glasgow, who every day pursued his call- she and a sister were left orphans at an early age ; urged ing, in the most steady and regular way. Her history is her forlorn condition, and that having already had some curious ; but before going into it, we would briefly inquire practice, she was very anxious to be bound an apprenwhy, among all the advocates of Free Trade, no one thinks tice, that she might obtain an ample knowledge of the of throwing open the many species of mechanical art, for had the appearance of a little man, she was in reality a
business. Eventually she was employed, and though she which they are fit, to women ? The occupations by which tall woman, being about five feet four inches high. By they can earn their bread are limited to the hardest and no means shy of a lift, times without number she has tai foulest kinds of drudgery, or to a few light employments ried the heavy hod full of lime for the Irish labourer in generally depending on fashion, and liable to continual attendance. Steady, diligent, and quiet
, she gave her maz.
ter every satisfaction, who considering her rather a de fluctuations and depression.
licate boy, feelingly kept her at light ornamental worš, HELEN OLIVER,
and paid her 78. &-week. Sometime since a workman Our heroine, belonged originally to Saltcoats. When her was employed by the same master, to whom Helent tras sex was discovered, she had for upwards of four years worn intimately known. The master having learned the facts the dress, and worked at the trade of a man. She took the of the case, placed her apart at work from the men, and name of a brother, John Oliver. About two years before took a favourable opportunity to speak with her. She is her transformation, she was a maid-servant in a farm house dignantly denied her metamorphosis, offered to produce in West Kilbride; a particular intimacy took place be letters from her sister, declared that she was a free-masin, tweon her and a person in a neighbouring house, who offi- and besides had been a flesher, a drummer in the Grecock ciated as ploughman. Being frequently seen walking to volunteers, and made a number of statements with a view gether in quiet and seqnestered places, they were regarded to escape detection. One day, an Irishman, with characas lovers : ultimately, however, this « ploughman” turned teristic confidence, sprang upon the heroine, hugged her out to be also a female; and it is believed by Helen's rela- like a brother bruin, and cried in his genuine Doric, tives and acquaintances, that it was the arguments of this “ Johnny, they tell me you're a woman, and dang it, I mane personage which induced her to abandon the female dress to know, for I love a purty girl." The agile female ex. and duties. One Sunday, while in her parent's house at
tracted herself in an instant, and with a powerful kick drote Saltooats, she requested her mother to give her, her“ wee him from her ; at the same time exclaiming, with an oath, cutty pipe," and she would give her two new ones in ex- she would soon convince him she was not a woman Cle change. To this unusual demand the mother, after some mately, however, the truth was wrung from her, and she questions, consented ; and Helen immediately afterwards consequently left the town. She writes a good band, and began to write a letter, which, in answer to an inquiry previous to her departure, she addressed a letter to her mas from her parent, she said was to inform the people in Green- ter, in which she bade him farewell, and requested big nat ock, to whom she was hired as a servant, that she would to make much talk about H. Oliver. not be with them for some time, for several reasons she What has since become of Helen-John we have not then alleged. Early on the following morning, Helen heard; but it is likely that some of our readers may be helped herself to a complete suit of her brother's clothes and able to give us the conclusion or progress of her history. disappeared, without giving the least intimation of her fiture prospects, or where she intended to fix her residence. LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT, AND A LOVE LETTEA. Dressed in her new attire, she reached the house of a cousin The following is from a Van Diemen's Land paper, The in Glasgow on the same day. Her relative was not suffi- Colonist.-Friday, August 24, 1832 :-A Police Incide.. ciently intimate with the person of the fair impostor to de- --Last week, a damsel was brought to the police office, tect the fraud. Never doubting in the least that she was charged with putting one Mrs. Norah Mullagan in bodily $ the real John Oliver,” among other inquiries for absent fear. Prisoner pleaded guilty, but begged that the otience relatives,“ sister Helen" was not forgotten. A plas- might be passed over, as she had received an offer of marriage terer stopt at the time in her cousin's house, and she re- from a gentleman, who, in all probability, would turn her solved to learn that business. Accordingly she went for a off, were she to be punished, and he to discover her disgrace. trial to a person in the Calton; but having fallen out with To prove her veracity she produced the following epistle her master, she left the town. She then went to Paisley, from her enamoured swain :-“ My dear angel, this connes where she wrought for about three months, and she was with a pound of sausages, which I hope will find you in next employed for about half-a-year in Johnstone. There, good health, as it leaves me at present. I seed you last either for amusement, or to prevent suspicion, and insure Sunday for the first time, since which I haven't had no concealment, she courted a young woman, and absolutely peace for thinking of your dear self; I therefore will take carried the joke so far as to induce the girl to leave her ser- it as a great favour if you will marry me as early as posvice to be married. [This was going rather far.) Travel- sible, as I can earn by my profession an excellent liselibol; ling one night between Johnstone and Paisley, she was ac. I was rat-catcher and sow.gelder to the late Duke of York' costed by a lad from Saltcoats, who was intimate with her I bleed horses, cures the cholerick morbus, and all other person, parents, and history; and in consequence she re- dumb animals, and have received a good hedication : the moved to Kilmarnock, where she remained six months. children we shall have will get their learning free gratis, Besides the places already mentioned, she has been in I have been schoolmaster in Mr. 's family for the last Lanark and Edinburgh, working always at the plastering, fortnight, and have already teached the eldest boy jography except a short time she was employed by a Glasgow flesher and the manufacture of ginger boer; and as for the second sem, A variety of circumstances have frequently impelled this have made him the most best grammarer and rethmeticker of rustic D'Eon to change not only her master and house of all the lads I ever tcached; so you see I have every charice of residence, but also the town in which she was comfortably prospering; I have bought a ring and a pair of blankets employed, particularly as she was ofton or rather almost have written to the governor for his permission, and to obliged to board and share her lodgings with some neigh quested the clergyman to have us asked in church; ke ape hour workman, and though for obvious reasons she seldom pears to be a very nice sober man ; I wanted him to go and detailed more of her previous history than mentioned tht have halt a pint of rum, but he was too bashful. Please send towns she had visited and the masters she had served, yet me an answer post paid. I remain niy dear angel your into some sagacious females have been known to declare the love."
14. THE STORY TELLER.
charity from the tone in which this youth of the
talk of his sorrows and his oppressors. THE TEN YEARS OF SILVIO PELLICO.
Months passed away. Both the friends felt their health Tuis most interesting narrative is written by the sufferer is not far off when one of us two will be no longer able to
declining—one evening Oroboni said, "My friend, the day himself, an Italian gentleman ; a poet, known to Europe as
come to the window. "Let us be prepared, the one to die the author of Francesca dai Rimini; a patriot; a man of the other to survive his friend.” His langs afterwards bethe purest character and the most 'amlable dispositions, came affected-he felt his time would be short, and would who became the victim of Austrian tyranny. He was a native of Turin, where he lived, when he drew upon him- many, far from the sunny skies of his own dear Italy. In self the suspicions, and the cruel revenge of that vile June 1823, his spirit was released. The sentinel said to government which has usurped the domination of Italy. my enemies.” The old gaoler next falls ill. "We ingnir
Pellicc, his last words were: “I pardon from my heart all His first imprisonment was under the burning leads of ed after him," says Pellico, “with the anxiety of children; Venice. The original sentence was death, but he was in- and when he got a little better, and could walk under our formed that the Emperor had graciously mitigated it to windows, we hailed him, and he would look up with a fifteen years imprisonment in the fortress of Spielburg, in melancholy smile and say to the sentinel,_" These are my Moravia , with hard labour, chains on the feet, the bare sons”. Poor old man ! what grief it gave me to see him
tottering feebly along, without being able to offer him the floor for a bed, and scanty and miserable food. Such are
support of my arm.' He shortly died. the tender mercies of paternal monarchs, to men whose Years passed on : Maroncelli was still kept in the suli. only fault is love of their native country, and the desire of terranean cell. His close confinement and feiters had causits independence, and whose sole effence was becoming mem ed a swelling of the knee joint. He was permitted to share bers of a secret political society. His friend, Maroncelli Pellico's upper cell, and as he grew worse, his chain was the poet, was the sharer of this remorseless punishment. removed :-various applications were tried in vain, Maroncelli's period of condemnation was twenty years. for him—to see him wasting under such cruel tortures to
“How much,” says his loving companion, “ did I suffer On their way to their prison, the German, as well as the feel certain that the knee would never be healed—to perceive Italian villagers, shewed the greatest sympathy with their that the patient himself thought death more probable than fate.
recovery, and with all this to be obliged every instant to "How grateful (says Pellico) I felt to all; how sweet is admire his courage and serenity. He could no longer digest the sympathy of our fellow-creatures—how delightful to nor sleep-he grew frightfully wasted; he often fainted, yet love them. This mitigated the rancour I had felt towards he would even endeavour to encourage me. After nine months those whom I had called my enemies. Who knows, thought a consultation was allowed. The chief physician came-rapT, if I could see them more narrowly-if they could but proved of what had been done and disappeared. A moment see me, we might feel ourselves compelled mutually to pity after the sub-attendant entered to say "The chief physician to love each other.”
did not like to explain himself in your presence.
• What On the '10th April, 1822, they reached the fortress of would he recommend ?' asked the sufferer. "Amputation, Spielbury. They were immediately thrown into a damp, Signor! Weak as you are, will you run the risk ? We unwholesome dungeon, and subjected to confinement as ri- will send word immediately to Vienna, and the moment gorous as could be imposed on the most atrocious felons. | the permission is obtained—“What! is a permission necesSeveral Italian gentlemen, confined for like offences in this sary?Yes, Signor.' horrible prison, died under their sufferings. Pellico applied “In eight days the warrant arrived --the patient was to the head goaler for some few comforts to relieve the dis carried into a larger room. He asked me to follow him. tress of their subterranean cell. He was an old soldier, I may die,' said he, under the operation ; let me do so and, under a rough exterior, a man of humane and gentle in the arms of a friend. I was permitted to be with him. feelings.
The confessor came in, and administered the sacrament to " It is the Emperor's concern, I must obey—you have the sufferer. The surgeon had not yet arrived. Maroncelli fever enough to kill a horse—but you cannot have a mat-employed the interval in singing a hymn. At fast they tress till the physician comes to order it.” At last the
came one our household barber-surgeon, who officiated as physician comes, orders the mattress, and a change to the of right; the other an clevé of the school of Vienna. The floor above, but the Governor of the province has also to patient was seated on the bedside, with his legs hanging be applied to, before the indulgence can be granted. The down, while I supported him. The old surgeon cut away prison dress is, however, put on him_a harlequin hat and all round to the depth of an inch, then drew up the skin a rough shirt, with chains to the feet. As the smith fast- which had been cut, and continued to cut through the ened on the latter, " I might have been saved the trouble muscles. The blood flowed in torrents. At last came the he has not two months to live" — he observed to the sawing of the bone ; Maroncelli never uttered a cry. When gaoler in German. “ Would it were so," exclaimed Pellico, he saw them carry away the leg, which had been cut off, who to his surprise understood him.
he gave it one melancholy look, then turning to the surgeon The rules of the prison were harshness itself—the offi- who had operated, he said. You have rid me of an enemy, cials ran the greatest risk if they attempted to mitigate and I have no means of recompensing you. There was a them : Pellico could not swallow the black bread, but he rose standing in a glass near the window ; May I request dared not for his gaoler's sake accept the bit of white loaf, you to bring me that rose ? said he. I took it to him, and surreptitiously put into his hands, least the rentinels should he presented it to the surgeou saying “I have nothing else find it out. One evening he heard an Italian song from the
to present you in token of my gratitude.' The surgeon adjoining cell-he sprang from the mattress“Who are took the rose, and, as he did so, let fall a tear." you, unfortunate man? I am Silvio Pellico." “Silvio,'
In forty days his cure was complete, and, with wooden said the neighbour, “ I know you not by sight, but I have stump and crutches, he accompanied Pellico back again to loved you long. Come, let us to the window, and talk in their old prison, spite of the gaolers." It was the young Count Oroboni, On Sunday, Aug. 1, 1830, Pellico completed ten years of imprisioned on a charge similar to his own. The sentinels his imprisonment. At noon the Inspector of Police sumsoon overheard and suppressed this; bút by whispering, and moned them to his presence to announce that the Emperor by watching the rounds, they held much sweet converse. had cut shortt he term of their imprisonment. One would They never saw each other, but their friendship was soon
suppose this would have thrown them into transports of endearing—they comforted each other, relating the story of joy ;-yet it was not so. Instantly their hearts reverted to their lives, and dilating on religious topics, and Pellico was their relatives, of whom they had heard nothing ; their joy delighted to derive lessons of resignation and Christian) was neutralized. Tedious forms and a jouruey to Vienna
were necessary to their complete release. The evening of expiate, likewise, his own sing. Louis Brabant, of course, the 17th September Pellico reached his own Turin a free affected a due degree of astonishment on the occasion ; and man!
further promoted the deception by acknowledging bia hav. “Who can attempt to describe the consolation of heart ing devoted himself to the prosecution of the charitable I received,” says he, “when I again saw father, mother, design imputed to him by the ghost An old usurer ia and brothers. My dear sister joined, as soon as possible, naturally suspicious. Accordingly, the wary banker made our happy group. Restored to these five objects of my a second appointment with the ghost's delegate for the best tenderest affection, I was—I am, the most enviable of mor- day; and, to render any design of imposing upon himutterly tals. Then for all these past sorrows and present happiness abortive, took him into the open fields, where not a house blessed be that Providence in whose hands men and events or a tree, or even a bush, or a pit were in sight, capable of are but wonderful instruments for the promotion of his all screening any supposed confederate. This extraordinary wise and beneficent ends."
caution excited the ventriloquist to exert all the powers of Amen! responds every British heart.
his art. Wherever the banker conducted him, at every step, These interesting memoirs, which have just been reprinted his cars were saluted on all sides with the complaints
, and in Paris and London, are prohibited in Italy and in the tions, imploring him for the love of God, and in the name
groans, not only of his father, but of all his deceased relsAustrian States.
of every saint in the calendar, to have mercy on his om soul and theirs, by effectually seconding with his purse the
intentions of his worthy companion. Cornu could no longe VENTRILOQUISM.
er resist the voice of heaven, and, accordingly, carried his guest home with him, and paid him down ten thousand
crowns; with which the honest ventriloquist returned 30 The tricks and impositions practised by ventriloquists | Paris, and married his mistress. The catastrophe was fa furnish many curious narratives. By this art, certain per-usurer's ears, who was so much affected by the loss of his
tal. The secret was afterwards blown, and reached the sons can so modify their voice as to make it appear to
money, and the mortifying railleries of his neighbour, the audience to proceed from any distance, and in any that he took to his bed and died. direction, and by this means impostors have sometimes ac Another trick of a similar kind was played off about complished their nefarious designs, of which the following sixty or seventy years ago, on a whole community, by an are instances :
other French ventriloquist. “M. St. Gill, the ventriloquist,
and his intimate friend, returning home, from a place Louis Brahant, a dexterous ventriloquist, valet de chambre whither his business had' carried him, sought for shelter to Francis I., had fallen desperately in love with a young, from an approaching thunder-storm in a neighbouring cohandsome, and rich heiress ; but was rejected by the parents vent. Finding the whole community in mourning, he in. as an unsuitable match for their daughter, on account of quired the cause, and was told that one of the body had the lowness of his circumstances. The young lady's father died lately, who was the ornament and delight of the dying, he made a visit to the widow, who was totally ig- whole society. To pass away the time, he walked into the norant of his singular talent. Suddenly, on his first ap- church, attended by some of the religious, who showal pearance, in open day, in her own house, and in the pre- him the tomb of their deceased brother, and spoke feelings sence of several persons who were with her, she heard ly of the soanty honours they had bestowed on his memors. herself accosted in a voice perfectly resembling that of her Suddenly a voice was heard, apparently proceeding from dead husband, and which seemed to proceed from above, the roof of the choir, lamenting the situation of the de exclaiming, “Give my daughter in marriage to Louis Bra- funct in purgatory, and reproaching the brotherhood with hant. He is a man of great fortune and of an excellent charac- their lukewarmness and want of zeal on his account. The ter. I now suffer the inexpressible torments of purgatory friars, as soon as their astonishment gave them power to for having refused her to him. If you obey this admoni. speak, consulted together, and agreed to acquaint the rest tion I shall soon be delivered from this place of torment of the community with this singular event, so interesting You will at the same time provide a worthy husband for to the whole society. M. St. Gill, who wished to carry on your daughter, and procure everlasting repose to the soul the joke a little farther, dissuaded them from taking this of your poor husband.” The widow could not for a mo- step, telling them that they would be treated by their abeat ment resist this dreadful summons, which had not the most brethren as a set of fools and visionaries. He recommend
. distant appearance of proceeding from Louis Brahant, whose ed to them, however, the immediately calling the whole countenance exhibited no visible change, and whose lips community into the church, where the ghost of their de were close and motionless during the delivery of it. Ac parted brother might probably reiterate his complaints cordingly, she consented immediately to receive him for Accordingly, all the friars, novices, lay-brothers and even her son-in-law. Louis's finances, however, were in a very the domestics of the convent, were immediately summoned low situation, and the formalities attending the marriage and called together. In a short time the voice from the contract rendered it necessary for him to exhibit some show roof renewed its lamentations and reproaches
, and the of riches, and not to give the ghost the lie direct. He, ac whole convent fell on their faces, and vowed a solemn mit cordingly, went to work on a fresh subject, one Cornu, an paration. As a first step, they chanted a De profundia in old and rich banker at Lyons, who had accumulated im- a full choir; during the intervals of which the ghost occa. mense wealth by usury and extortion, and was known tosionally expressed the comfort he received from their pians be haunted by remorse of conscience, on account of the exercises and ejaculations on his behalf. manner in which he had acquired it. Having contracted over, the prior entered into a serious conversation with an intimate acquaintance with this man, he, one day, while M. St. Gill; and, on the strength of what had just passed, they were sitting together in the usurer's' little back par- sagaciously inveighed against the absurd incredulity of our lour, artfully turned the conversation on religious subjects, modern sceptics and pretended philosophers, on the article on demons, and spectres, the pains of purgatory, and the of ghosts or apparitions. M. st. Gill thought it high time torments of hell. During an interval of silence between to disabuse the good fathers. This purpose, however, he them, a voice was heard, which, to the astonished banker, found it extremely difficult to effect, till he had prevailed seemed to be that of his deceased father, complaining, as upon them to return with him into the church, and there in the former case, of his dreadful situation in purgatory, be witnesses of the manner in which he had conducted this and calling upon him to deliver him instantly from thence, ludicrous deception." Had not the ventriloquist
, in this by putting into the hands of Louis Brahant, then with case, explained the cause of the deception, a whole body or him, a large sum for the redemption of Christians then in slavery with the Turks ; threatening him, at the same time, had heard the ghost of a departed brother address them
men might have sworn, with a good conscience
, that they with eternal damnation, if he did not take this method to again and again in a supernatural voice.
When all was
HOUSEHOLD OF THE TYROLESE PEASANT. some are in such circumstances as to be called opulent among
their neighbours; though in richer countries, such opulence THE peasant of the Upper Tyrol seldom possesses more
would be considered but an indifferent competency. A than supplies the wants of his family ; a cow, a pig or two, peasant whose possessions are worth fifteen thousand florins are the whole of his live stock ; and all the land which he (£1750) is rich; and one possessing the half of this sum, possesses beyond what suffices f.is the support of these, pro- is in easy circumstances. Such peasants and their families, duces Indian corn, and a few vegetables, and sometimes a do not, of course, live upon Indian corn,—though this forms, little flax; these crops being no more than suficient for the in all families, one important article of diet. The lower support of his family. The Tyrolean peasant, therefore, order of peasants never eat meat excepting on feast-daysthough in one sense independent, treading, and labouring and bacon only on great feasts. his own soil, and eating the produce of his own industry, is In all countries-even in those where the great bulk yet poor; and lives worse than a day-labourer in many are proprietors, there are of necessity some hewers of wood, other countries. His family is nourished almost solely upon and drawers of water. In this part of the Tyrol, these are Indian corn, and milk; and it must be admitred, that with miserably off. The usual wages of labour do not exceed, small properties like those in the valley of the Inn, no other for a man, fonrpence half-penny per day,—with maintenproduce could be half so serviceable. This plant is indeed ance ; and a woman seldom receives more than one penny the staff of life here, and is prized by the inhabitants as it half-penny, or two-pence. This is a wretched state of things, deserves. Three times a-day, soup made of Indian corii and but fortunately the class of day, labourers is small. The milk, is served at the table of the Tyrolean peasant ; and necessaries of life are not, indeed, dear. Meat usually sells this, with bread, sometimes entirely of Indian corn, but at 4d. or 4£d. per Ib. of 21 oz. which is not more than 2 d. most commonly with one-third, or one-fourth part of wheat, for 16 oz.; butter costs 9d. for 21 oz., or 64d per lb. ; forms his whole diet. I have frequently, in the course of a bread of Indian corn is extremely cheap. Fruit, vegetables, walk, while residing at Inspruck, entered the houses of the and wine, are all dear ; for the valley of the Inn produces peasantry, and tasted both the soup and the bread. To those none of the latter, and little of the two former,-most of who are fond of a milk diet, the soup would not be found dis- which are brought from Botzen; but these are articles with agreeable; and the bread appeared to me good, precisely in which the pour may dispense. Fish, and most kinds of proportiou to the quantity of wheat that was mixed with game, are plentiful and cheap. the Indian corn. It is never used half-and-half in the Tyrol. The wages of a man-servant in the Tyrol (and this applies This would be too expensive; for very little wheat is grown to the country generally) are about L.5. The wages of a fein the valley of the Inn-Tone in the npper part of it, and male servant, about L.3." that which is brought to the Inspruck market, must be re I have already spoken of the dress of the women; but ceived either from Trent, and the Italian frontier, or from here, in the lower Iunthal, it becomes more and more preBavaria.
posterous. In the Tyrol, vanity does not appear to be exerHowever tastes may differ as to the palatableness of an
cised on the same object as elsewhere. A handsome leg, Indian-corn dict, the fine athletic peasantry of the Tyrol, or at least, a pretty ancle, is generally looked upon as not sufficiently attest its wholesome and nutritious qualities. the least contemptible of female charms ; but in "he Tyrol Indeed, I bave generally seen a robust peasantry in those it is otherwise ; stockings—thick woollen stockings, are countries in which Indian corn forms a large portion of their three times the length of the leg: and are therefore allowed subsistence. The people of Languedoc and Bearn, are
to gather themselves in enormous folds, and plaits, that stronger than those of central and northern France; and the render the ankle as thick as a moderate waist in Paris or Biscayans, who eat more Indian corn than any other kind of elsewhere. It may be, indeed, that they look upon a charm bread, are greatly superior in strength to the Castilians. In as more a charm, the more it is concealed. There is a limit, the Tyrol, Indian corn is used in other ways than as an however, to this principle. I ought to mention, that the ar icle of diet : the surplus, if any there be, finds a ready older the women are, they have the greater number of petmarket for horses' food; and the husks and sheaths are used ticoats. The hostess and her daughter permitted me to sain stuffing mattresses ; and also as a substitute for fire- tisfy my curiosity as to the number and quality of theirs. wood. As much fax is generally grown by the Tyrolean The mother, who was about fifty years of age had nine ; the peasant as suffices for the wants of his family, and for em- eldest daughter, who looked almost thirty, but who assured ployment during the winter.
me she was not yet twenty-three, wore six,—and the younge The cultivation of Indian corn has made some noise in er,—a girl of eighteen or nineteen, was contented with ore England; and has excited some interest, owing to the idea, less. All of these were of a woollen stuff, thicker in its texthat its cultivation would ameliorate the condition of the ture than moderately thick flannel. The younger of the lower classes ; and there have been, in fact, two parties in damsels was also prevailed upon to draw her stocking tight; this matter ; 'one asserting its great advantages, and its adap- but she was shocked at the display; and immediately reintation to the climate of England ; and the other denying stated the leg in its Tyrolean privileges. I do assure my both. I am no agriculturist, and am able only to state facts. fair readers, however, that had the leg so esconced in wool. As for the advantages of the cultivation of Indian corn, 1 len, been fitted with an elastic silk stocking, it might have can only say, that throughont the valley of the Inn, it is excited the envy of some of them.-Inglis's Travels in the considered the most useful and the surest produce; and that Tyrol. the peasantry who live upon it, are the finest peasantry in
THE DWELLING OF HOFER. Europe ; and with respect to its fitness for the climate of
FROM Meran, the road ascends the right bank of the England, I would only observe, that the climate of the Up- stream, leaving the castle of the Tyrol on the left hand. At per Tyrol is most uncertain. Its centre is two thousand feet first, the valley is narrow, but gradually widens, though above the level of the sea ; and its winters are extremely se never losing the character of an upland valley. Cottages and vere ; and although from its more southern latitude than hamlets are scattered, but thinly scattered, here and there ; England, the heats of summer are great, the summer is late, little rivulets tumble into the Passeyer, leaping from the ada as some proof of which, I way state, that near the end of joining steeps; and many gentle and beautiful scenes open June, I was under the necessity of having a stove lighted in the hotel at Inspruck. I do not know how these facts bear hours' walk, with many rests by the river side, and upon
among the slopes and dells that form the valley. Four upon the probable success of Indian corn in England ; but the stones that lay in its bed, brought me within sight of if Indian corn be supposed to require a milder climate than the house of Andrew Hofer. The brawling Passeyer, full that of England, I think the success of Indian corn in the
0. large stones, runs past the house at the foot of a little Upper Tyrol, proves this to be an error. The same fruits stone wall raised to protect it against torrents ; a few trees that come to perfection in the southern parts of England, grow round the house, and, on either side, are seen mounwill vot ripen in the valley of the Inn.
tains, their lower acclivities enclosed, and bearing a little Although the properties of the peasantry of the Upper corn and a small church, with a green spire, stands upon Tyrol be in general limited, this is of course not universal ; a neighbouring knoll. The house itself is no way remark