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Egypt,” Maggy's pot set fire to the bed-clothes, and the cluded in the ale-house, high words, and even blows were smoke came curling over the minister's shoulders. Maggy sometimes the consequence. This is certainly a practice started up, flew to the bed, and, in her hurry to remove the most improper for seminaries, where the ductile mind clothes, overset the tell-tale pot, splashing Mr. Goodsir's ought to be taught the principles of benevolence and mercy. legs with the hot and fat broth, &c. The consequence may Indeed, we can hardly conceive anything more absurd or easily be conjectured :—Maggy's conduct was reported to preposterous than a parent or teacher laying down precepta the elder of the quarter, she became the laughing-stock of for his children, which he so directly counteracts by the her neighbours, and had further to do public penance before barbarous example which he thus sets before them. It is te the congregation, for the complicated crimes of heresy and the credit of the age, that many schoolmasters have now hypocrisy.
abolished the practice. In relating that all ranks breakfasted on brose on Yule In some quarters of this county, it is still common for the day morning, it appears also worthy of recording, that till scholars, on Candlemas day, to carry each a large candle to within the last forty years, it was the custom, at a noble-school, range them on their tables, light them for a few miman's seat in this county, for a quantity of brose to be nutes, then put them out and leave them for the master. made on Yule-day morning, sufficient to breakfast “man, Pasch Sunday, (vulg. Peace Sunday,) is still noticed wife, and wean," of his tenantry, if they chose to attend. by the children playing with eggs dyed of various colours The hospitable board was spread in the great hall, and if a custom of great antiquity, and by no means confined to the company was not very select, it was always sufficiently Britain, or even to Europe. numerous, while beef and good ale crowned their repast. On Palm Sunday, I have seen the children gathering the
On New Year's-Day morning, no one would go to ask catkins of the different species of willow, &c. of which they a light from their neighbour ; it was considered as un- attempted to twine garlands in honour of the day. lucky to the person from whom such a favour was request
The new term of Whitsunday, (known here by the sp. ed, to carry fire out of the house on this day. It was also pellation of the “ Rood-day,") was formerly reckoned a mast considered improper to enter a neighbour's house empty- important and dangerous day; for witches and wylie (ehanded. The practice so prevalent in large towns, of running about with the whisky bottle was unknown; but ning) wives were believed to have more power that day, neighbours commonly ate and drank together of a more
than on any other in the year; as their incantations were simple, and less pernicious beverage. The first Monday of
more easily performed, and their spells far more difficult to
counteract. the year, reckoning by old style, is still termed Handsel
The scum of a spring well procured on that Monday, and was formerly also kept as a holiday. It is morning before sunrise, was considered as possessing magstill the practice for the scholars to carry a small pecuniary cal virtues; and those suspected of witchcraft vere efter present to their teacher on that morning. However well watched, lest they should obtain this potent liquid, and an intended this might have been at its commencement, it ply it to unhallowed purposes. This was also the day na ought to be done away; it produces jealousies and envyings which they attempted to take the milk from their neigh, among the pupils, and it is also derogatory to the dignity bours' cows, not by milking, but by magical incantations of the schoolmaster, as it bears the appearance of an elec- by which they acquire possession of the milk for the season. mosynary contribution; and where he has many pupils The belief of this practice is still prevalent among some old from the poorer classes, he can hardly fail to reflect
, that ignorant people, and I have seen several wives in great resthe donation which he receives is probably wrung from them taken. According to the superstitious credulity of the pro
ation and agitation of mind, because their cow's milk soms by a struggle between dignity of mind and indigence. ple, there are certain ways of effecting this; the most comsome time ago observed an advertisement from a school,
mon is, for the witch to collect a certain quantity of ksir where it was announced, that the handsel must not be be from the tail of every cow of whose milk she wishes to low five shillings: This is well so far, but it completely get possession ; of this hair she then twists a rope, on which takes away the apparent kindness of a gift when a minimum she casts a knot for every cow of whose hair it is compa is fixed, and in this case it may be said, in the nervous lan- sed; she then walks backward across the entrance of every guage of Crabbe, that
cow-house where any of her victims are lodged, dragging the “ Strong compulsion plucks the scrap from pride."
rope after her, and muttering some uuhallowed and unould it not be better to change the name, abolish the lawful incantation, and the feat is accomplished. Some mode of payment, and add it to the school fees ?
cows of uncommon sagacity, are believed to have the faculty When I was a boy, St. Valentine's Eve was set apart for of discovering by instinct when this magical rite is perform drawing the names of lads and lasses by lot, and valentines, ing, even although the byre door be shut; in that case, of various forms, in rude and artless rhymes, were often the cow lows, and the spell is ineffectual. I have heard a sent by the adoring swain to the object of his affection; wife maintain, that she would know the low of a cow upon but the practice appears now to be forgotten.
this occasion, as it was a cry of pain, different from any Shrovetide, better known by the name of Fasten's E'en, other. To counteract the wiles of these modern daughters of is only remarkable for cock-fighting. Formerly, at every Rowan-tree, (mountain ash,) bound round with a scarlet
Satan, the most common counter-spell is, to lay a twig of parish school a cock fight was held, where the master received a few pence as the entry-money of every cock ; all thread, across the byre door on the inside. The children the cravens who would not strike three strokes were also here have a common proverb, that considered his property; the poor boys whose parents had
" Rowan tree, and a red thread, no cocks were obliged to bez or borrow, for they must be
Makes the witches tyne (lowe) their speed." like their neighbours As the sports of the day often con Or, fix a stalk of clover (trefoil) with four leaves to the
stall of the animal. These are talismans of such anti-magi- have repeatedly heard it affirmed, that the horses so treated cal virtues, as completely to defy the devil and all his imps. were easily known in the morning, as they were always Another mode is, to take the gudeman's breeches and put found in a state of profuse perspiration, jaded, and quite them upon the cow's horns, a horn in each leg ; and the ani- fatigued. I have seen in a stable a stone which is often to mal, when set loose, will run straight to the door of the be found by the sea-side, or on the banks of rivers, with enchantress. I know a family where this exorcism was one or more natural holes through it, hung up by a string performed, not more than seven years ago; but, as might above the horses, to prevent the witches from having power be expected, no discovery was made of the witch, nor did over them. Yea, it was at one period currently believed, the cow recover her milk. It is also believed, that if the that they would seize men against whom they had any, cow is sold, the spell is dissolved.
grudge ; maltreat them by sousing them in rivers, &c.,, Early on the Rood-day morning, witches hold their un. and then, carrying them through the air to a great distance, hallowed orgies in the shape of hares; and I have known leave them in some unknown and desert place, half dead people who would have trembled with terror, had an ani. with terror and fatigue, to find their way home as they best mal of that species crossed their path on that day. Witches could ; and I have heard men named, who were oftener are supposed to have a peculiar attachment to the form of a than once treated in this manner. hare, and it is believed that they get what is called a brief Water-kelpie, or, as he is termed by Home, “ the angry from their infernal master, against lead ; hence, if attempted spirit of the waters,” was a bogle of great celebrity in this to be shot, it must be with something else. I think I have county, and the terrors of his name have scarcely yet va. in my possession a magazine published at Dundee, (if I re- nished. I have repeatedly been told of a stone of very large collect aright,) about the year 1775 or 1776, in which, dimensions, that has been upon the bank of a rivulet for among his articles of domestic intelligence, the Editor very posite side ; this was reported as one of Kelpie's feats,
time immemorial, and was one morning found on the opgravely relates, as an event that had recently happened, that a gentleman went out a-hunting, and in the parks of which were commonly of a more dangerous kind; for he Clessington, scarcely a mile from the town, shot and
was a malignant sprite, and generally appeared on the wounded a hare, which escaped through a hedge, or over a
banks of rivers, like a little black horse, when the fords wall; the sportsman followed, and upon coming to the spot were impassable, alluring strangers to mount him for the where he expected to find the hare, he discovered—an old benefit of crossing, when he was always certain to throw woman breathing her last !
them into the water, vanishing with a wild, unearthly The belief in fairies was once very general here, and
laugh. many remarkable stories could be told concerning them,
The church of St. Vigeans, abont a mile north of Arsuch as their interference with the utensils and labours of broath, stands upon the top of a romantic and very precithe peasantry during the night. My antiquated chronicler pitous knoll, in the midst of a fine valley. This edifice is Lizzie Rassured me that, when about sixteen years of considerable antiquity, and the vulgar had a current of age, she was servant to a weaver, one of whose young tradition, that the knoll on which it stands is artificial, men being anxious to finish a piece of cloth in his loom, he being raised over the centre of a loch or small lake : That fixed upon rising very early on a winter morning, and had both the materials for constructing the knoll, and the engaged her, by the promise of a pecuniary recompense, to
stones for building the church, were brought from a distance rise at the same time, and wind pirns for him. She awoke by Water-kelpie, guided by a man who had the address to during the night, and heard the pirn-wheel driving furiously. clap his own horse's branks on the head of the sprite, which Imagining that she had slept too long, she put on her gives him who does so, the complete commıınd over this clothes in great haste, (the wheel still sounding in her ears,) demon while the branks remain on him: That in conseentered the shop by an inner door, and found all dark ; upon quence of the great fatigue he had undergone, he denouncuttering some exclamation, the wheel immediately stooded bitter and dreadful vengeance against the parishioners still. All this I believe the credulous woman would have of St. Vigeans. Sometime after this, a prediction came sworn before a magistrate. Relations of hers still more
forth, that the minister who should officiate there at a wonderful I forbear to relate.
given period, described in a mystical manner, would com
mit suicide ; after which, the first time that the sacrament Fairies, although, in some of the instances exhibited, of the Lord's Supper was celebrated in the church, the guilty of gross infractions upon the rights and comforts of whole fabric and its congregation were to sink into the domestic life, were not in general dreaded or hated in the lake during the service of the first table. same degree as witches. These were revengeful, malignant, However strange it may appear, it is certain that, about and never exerted their supernatural powers except for a the beginning of last century, the incumbent, whose name bad purpose ; while the former were supposed to delight in (if my memory be correct) was Mr. Henderson, did commerry and fantastic tricks; such as hiding keys, loosing mit suicide. This part of the prediction being fulfilled, cattle from their stalls, pinching the housemaids in their the people believed implicitly that the rest would be accomSleep, or sometimes tickling them, so as totally to prevent plished ; in consequence of which, the sacrament was not their repose, &c. ; and upon many occasions they got credit administered for several years, until the next incumbent at for supplying bread to the hungry, and other benevolent last resolved upon the full discharge of his duty, and of actions.
encouraging his congregation both by precept and example. Witches, on the contrary, stole property, produced sick- | The usual preparation, according to the form of the Church ness and death ; raised storms and tempests; deprived some of Scotland, was gone about with more than ordinary 80of their virility, and others of their senses. It is not yet lemnity ;-the hallowed day arrived, the minister proceed. long ago, since many were of opinion, that they took horsesed in the previous part of the service, having the assistance from the stable, and rode them during the night; and I of several clerical brethren; but it was with great difficul.
ty that they could persuade the people to come forward, or the person to whom it is opposite shall die first of the come sit down at the holy table. At length they prevailed upon pany. If a person is sick, and a magpie rests on the roof a certain number to take their places; while the greater of the house, it is a sure sign of death. The cock crowing part of the congregation withdrew from the church, and at an unseasonable hour is very uncouthy; a phrase for scated themselves on an eminence at some distance, expect- which we have not a correct and equally expressive English ing to see the church sink into the lake. The service was
synonyme; it implies dreary, an' unknown something to concluded, and nothing happened ; consequently the appre- agitate and alarm the mind. It is also believed that the hensions of the people were banished. This is a strong feathers of wild fowl in a pillow under the head of a dyinz and authentic instance of popular credulity.
person, will prevent the approach of death, and protra.1 There was another being of whom I have often heard the sufferings of the patient ; for this cause I have knot: in my early days; and I still recollect, that the relation of the pillows removed. Should a horse stumble when riding his feats, and the descriptions of his different appearances, for a mid-wife, it is a bad omen for either mother or club produced a degree of horror in my mind, that all the spirits Salt spilt on the table prognosticates evil; but this is who composed the train of hobgoblins could not inspire. common to England, see Gay's Fables. If a bride ee His name was Shelly-coat ; I was never able to comprehend bridegroom's wedding shirt is stolen, it is a sure indica:a his character. Of fairies, witches, &c., I believed that I that one of the parties will violate the marriage vor; 20 had a proper conception. I imagined their forms, and of the rest of the clothes stolen is reckoned bad luck. could, in some degree, conceive the boundaries of their
Many people are still afraid of what they term an e.). power ; but Shelly-coat, like Milton's Satan among the eye; and I have known several old women accused of this other fallen spirits, towered proudly eminent. I was
when butter would not make, or when different other opera taught to believe his form gigantic, but indefinable ; and
tions failed of success. Such poor old creatures are alwa his powers almost infinite : his strength was always com- deemed unlucky to meet in a morning, or when one is : mensurate to what he undertook, and his swiftness that of ting off upon a journey; the best way to counteract their a spirit; he delighted only in horrible deeds and devasta- malign influence, is to address them before they speak to tions; blood and massacre marked his progress.
you. Some people are reckoned lucky as a first-foos, apel clothed in a coat of shells, the rustling of which appalled others the contrary. Good and bad hansel at the New-jeal, the stoutest heart ; when his hellish work was finished, he
or at the commencement of a sale, is still believed in by the stripped off his coat, and deposited it below a rock, which
common people. defied mortal strength to move it; after which he continu. ed invisible, until he again resumed his dress for a repeti- March, old style, (termed the Borrowing Days,) indicato
It is still a received opinion, that the last three days ar tion of his infernal purposes.
the weather for the ensuing season: if they are boisterous Such were the ideas impressed upon my infant mind of and stormy, the season will be propitious; if they are fine this monstrous and mysterious being, of whom I have never weather, a bad season is expected. been able to obtain any information. The only recollec In this quarter, the following rhymes are proverbial in tion that I just now have of this character being noticed in
“ If Candlemas day be wet an' foul, our popular poems, is the line of Ramsay, “ she fled as frae
The half o' winter's gane at Yule; a shelly-coated cow." I wish some of your correspondents
If Candlemas day be fair an' clear,
The half o' winter's to gang-an' mair." acquainted with the superstitions of our country, would favour your readers with an illustration of this strange There are certain stones to be found in the earth which character, with some account of his origin, and supposed are lucky to build in the wall of a house ; and others the place of residence.
Hallowe'en is famous in Angus, as the season when the When a boy, I was well acquainted with an old maria fates are propitious in disclosing the future destiny of such who most tenaciously held and acted upon this opinia young men and maids as perform the necessary rites ; but some of his young and roguish neighbours, taking advan, these have been so faithfully and humorously described by tage of his superstitious notions, procured a large stone of the immortal Burns, that it would be gross presumption to the unlucky species, (for he had taught them to distinguish offer an enumeration.
them,) and laid it at his door during the night. They I may take this opportunity of mentioning a few freits watched in the morning, and saw the poor man carry the and prejudices formerly credited, and still partially acted
stone to a considerable distance, and deposit it on a cairn
His tormentors had it again at bis door next morning : upon.
again he carried it with much labour to a grenter distana, The death-watch, death-drop, and deathi-stroke, are all and digging a hole, buried it in the earth. A third tice previous signals of approaching dissolution. Within these it met him on his threshold in the morning, when, will last tirenty years, I have heard a house carpenter afirm, great perturbation of mind, and fatigue of body, he carried that on the night previous to a coffin being ordered from it still farther off, and deposited it in a mill-dım, where him, he hardly ever failed to hear the noise of saws, his persecutors allowed it to remain. planes, &c. in his shop, giving “ dreadful note of preparation." Before the death of a friend, his or her wraitk ap- the common people, there is one which seeing to be handed
Among the prejudices or antipathies still entertained by pears clad in white; will glide along the room, and suddenly vanish.
down from parent to child with unabated virulence: It is When the tallow at a lighted candle melts, and again mer; whose nest is destroyed wherever it is discofered
against that beautiful and innocent bird, the yellow-ham. freezes, curling over like a ribbon, (an effect which a par- The children appear to have a savage delight in turturise ticular current of air will produce,) it is a dead speal, and the unfledged younglings.
They have a doggrel staura
which, being currently repeated, has doomed this hapless EXTERNAL COMFORT, AND DOMESTIC bird, by its vulgar name, to cruelty and infamy.
ACCOMMODATION OF THE PEOPLE. “Half a paddock, half a toad, Half a yellow-yaldrin;
A BENEVOLENT, and on many points an enlightened Gets a drap of the devil's blood
writer, Mr. Dick, the author of the - Christian PhilosoIlka May mornin'."
pher," and other books of highly useful tendency, in a recent Perhaps some of your readers may be able to communi- work upon the general diffusion of knowledge, enumerates cate, through the medium of your Magazine, from whence many of the most obvious late improvements in roads, trathis prejudice has originated. It has been already observed, velling conveyances, houses, churches, manufactories, steam that the Magpie is reckoned ominous ; this bird, and also vessels, &c., &c., but he does not, like some of his fellowthe stone-chaffer, (vulgarly the clochrate,) are generally the labourers, stop there. He admits that much remains to be objects of vengeance and dislike among the vulgar. The done ; and that with the progress of the arts, and the ex. toad, and land-lizard, (vulgarly the ask,) are also doomed tension of manufactures, the comforts of the people have to instant death whenever they appear; the lizard, particu- not kept pace, nor their millennium begun. larly, seems to excite a kind of horror the moment it is “ Much," he owns, tá is still wanting to complete the enobserved ; and I have seen a man stop on a journey and joyments of the lower ranks of society. In the country, collect stones to kill this poor reptile, when he discovered many of them live in the most wretched hovels, open to the it crawling in his path; if he did not kill it at the first wind and rain, without a separate apartment to which an stroke he had to find another stone, and so on till it was des individual may retire for any mental exercise ; in towns, a patched, for he would not again touch the stone that had in a narrow lane, surrounded with filth and noxious exha
whole family is frequently crowded into a single apartment come in contact with so horrible an antagonist.
lations, and where the light of day is scarcely visible. In Spells, charms, and talismans, are still in repute amons such habitations, where the kitchen, parlour, and bed-closet some old people, as preventatives or cures for discascs, par.
are all comprised in one narrow apartment, it is next to ticularly the toothache, and intermittent fever, known here impossible for a man to improve his mind by reading or
reflection, amidst the gloom of twilight, the noise of chilby the appellation of the ague, and trembling fever. Hap-dren, and the preparation of victuals, even although he felt pily for the inhabitants, this painful and lingering disease an ardent desire for intellectual enjoyment. Hence the is now almost banished, except in some low and marshy temptation to which such persons are exposed to seek ensituations ; although there are people still alive, who recol-joyment in wandering through the streets, in frequenting
the ale-house, or in lounging at the fire-side in mental inlect the time when a farmer in this quarter of the country activity. In order that the labourer may be stimulated to would not have engaged a servant unless he had previously the cultivation of his mental powers, he must be furnished had the 'ague ; so prevalent was this disorder about the with those domestic conveniences requisite for attaining this month of May, when the labours of a farm-seryant were
object. He must be paid such wages as will enable him to particularly wanted.
procure such conveniences, and the means of instruction,
otherwise it is next thing to an insult to exhort him to proIt may be remarked, that the opinions imbibed, and the secute the path of science. The long hours of labour, and practices adopted in early life, are not easily changed, espe- the paltry remuneration which the labourer receives in cially if they have the sanction of our ancestors.
many of our spinning-mills and other manufactories, so A strik
long as such domestic slavery and avaricious practices coning instance of this occurred not many years ago. An oldtinue, form an insurmountable barrier to the general diffuman, who had only one cow, which was the principal sup- sion of knowledge. port of his family, found one morning that his valuable, “But were the minds of the lower orders imbued with a animal was stolen ; his grief was excessive, and his family certain portion of useful science, and did they possess such a were in deep dejection, as they were totally unable to pur- ledge would lead them to habits of diligence and economy. In
competency as every human being ought to enjoy, their know chase another. A few of his kind and more opulent neigh- most instances it will be found, that ignorance is the fruitful bours, pitying the distress of the family, contributed a sum source of indolence, waste, and extravagance; and that a bject adequate, purchased another cow, and sent her to the poor poverty is the result of a want of discrimination and proper man; two or three of them also waited upon him, and at arrangement in the management of domestic affairs. Now, parting, enjoined him to get a lock and key to his byre- ledge necessarily produces, would naturally be carried into
the habits of application which the acquisition of knows door, to prevent a repetition of the same misfortune; when the various departments of labour peculiar to their stations, they received the following reply :-“Na, na, Sirs! I'm and prevent that laziness and inattention which is too comnae doubt obliged to you for the cow,-but, to put a lock mon among the working classes, and which not unfrequentupo' my byre-door !—I'll do nac sic a thing-my father ?y lead to poverty and disgrace. Their knowledge of the
nature of heat, combustion, atmospheric air, and combusnever had ane upo' his, a' his days,—an' it's now o'er far tible substances, would lead them to a proper economy in afternoon wi' me, to begin an'fallow new fashions !” the use of fuel; and their acquaintance with the truths of
chemistry, on which the art of rational cookery is founded,
would lead them to an economical practice in the prepara. SCALE OF MARRIAGES.-A calculator has made out tion of ricłuals, and teach them to cxtract from every sulthe following estimates of the chances of matrimony a girl stance all its nutritious qualities, and to impart a proper has at the different periods of her life. Out of a thousand relish to every dish they prepare; for want of which knor. women, 32 are married between 14 and 15; 101 between 16 ledge and attention, the natural substances intended for the and 17;219 between 18 and 19; 233 between 20 and 21 ; 165 sustenance of man will not go half their length in the between 22 and 23; 102 between 24 and 25; 60 between 26 hands of some as they do under the judicious management and 27; 45 between 28 and 29; 18 between 30 and 31 ; of others. Their knowledge of the structure and functions 14 between 32 and 33 ; 8 between 34 and 35; 2 between 36 of the animal system, of the regimea which ought to be at, and 37; and one between 38 and 39. To julge by this tended to in order to health and vigour, of the causes which table, a lady of 30 years would have only 28 chances of produce obstructed perspiration, of the means by which getting married out of 1000; when passed 10, the chances pestilential etiluvia and infectious diseases are propagated, are far less.
and of the disasters to which the human frainc i, liable in
certain situations, would tend to prevent many of those dis- the streets present a grotesque appearance of sandy hillocks eases and fatal accidents to which ignorance and inatten- and mounds, and pools of stagnant water scattered in every tion have exposed so many of our fellow-men. For want direction, with scarcely the vestige of a pathway to gaide of attending to such precautions in these respects, as know the steps of the passenger. In winter, the traveller, in pass. ledge would have suggested, thousands of families have ing along, is bespattered with mire and dirt, and in summer, been plunged into wretchedness and ruin, which all their he can only drag heavily on, while his feet at every step future exertions were inadequate to remove. As the son of sink into soft and parched sand. Now, such is the apathy Sirach has well observed, “ Better is the poor being sound and indifference that prevail among many villagers as to and strong in constitution, than a rich man that is afflicted improvements in these respects, that although the contriba in his body. Health and good estate of body are above all tion of a single shilling, or of half a day's labour might, in gold; there are no riches above a sound body, and no joy some instances, accomplish the requisite improvements, they above the joy of the heart."
will stand aloof from such operations with a sullen obsti. As slovenliness and filth are generally the characteristics nacy, and even glory in being the means of preventing of ignorance and vulgarity, so an attention to cleanliness them. Nay, such is the selfishness of many individuais
, is one of the distinguishing features of cultivated minds. that they will not remove nuisances even from the front of Cleanliness is conducive to health and virtuous activity, their own dwellings, because it might at the same time pro but uncleanliness is prejudicial to both. Keeping the body mote the convenience of the public at large. In large towe, clean is of great importance, since more than the one-half likewise, many narrow lanes are rendered filthy, gloomy, of what we eat and drink is evacuated by perspiration ; and and unwholesome by the avarice of landlords, and the ok. if the skin is not kept clean the pores are stopped, and per- stinate and boorish manners of their tenants, and improvespiration consequently prevented, to the great injury of ments prevented which would tend to the health and com. health. It is highly necessary to the health and cheerful- fort of the inhabitants. But as knowledge tends to liberal. ness of children; for where it is neglected, they grow pale, ize the mind, to subdue the principle of selfishness, and to meagre, and squalid, and subject to several loathsome and produce a relish for cleanliness and comfort, when it is troublesome diseases. Washing the hands, face, mouth, more generally diffused, we may expect that such improve and feet, and occasionally the whole body, conduces to ments as those to which I allude, will be carried forward health, strength, and ease, and tends to prevent colds, rheu- with spirit and alacrity. There would not be the smallest matism, cramps, the palsy, the itch, the toothache, and difficulty in accomplishing every object of this kind, si many other maladies. Attention to cleanliness of body every other improvement conducive to the pleamure and would also lead to cleanliness in regard to clothes, victuals, comfort of the social state, provided the majority of a me. apartments, beds and furniture. Å knowledge of the na- munity were cheerfully to come forward with their assist ture of the mephitic gases, of the necessity of pure atmos ance and contributions, however small, and to act with o pheric air to health and vigour, and of the means by which cord and harmony. A whole community or nation acting infection is produced and communicated, would lead persons in unison, and every one contributing according to his gb to see the propriety of frequently opening doors and win- lity, would accomplish wonders in relation to the impropedows to dissipate corrupted air, and to admit the refreshing ment of towns, villages, and hamlets, and of everything that breeze, of sweeping cobwebs from the corners and ceiling of regards the comfort of civil and domestic society. the room, and of removing dust, straw, or filth of any kind In short, were knowledge generally diffused, and art ani. which is offensive to the smell, and in which infection formly directed by the principles of science, new and intermight be deposited. By such attention, fevers and other esting plans would be formed, new improvements set on malignant disorders might be prevented ; vigour, health, foot, new comforts enjoyed, and a new lustre would appear and serenity promoted, and the whole dwelling and its in on the face of nature, and on the state of general society. mates present an air of cheerfulness and comfort, and be- Numerous conveniences, decorations, and useful establish come the seat of domestic felicity.
ments never yet attempted, would soon be realizel. Hous Again, scientific knowledge would display itself among on neat and commodious plaus, in airy situations, and forthe lower orders, in the tasteful decoration of their houses nished with every requisite accommodation, would be reared and garden plots. The study of botany and horticulture for the use of the peasant and mechanic; schools on a would teach them to select the most beautiful flowers, cious plans for the promotion of useful knowledge would shrubs, and evergreens ; to arrange their plots with neat. be erected in every village and hamlet, and in every quare ness and taste, and to improve their kitchen-garden to the ter of a city where they were found expedient ; asylums best advantage, so as to render it productive for the plea- would be built for the reception of the friendless poor, sure and sustenance of their families. A genius for mecha- whether young or old; manufactories established for up nical operations, which almost every person may acquire, plying employment to every class of labourers and artisans, would lead them to invent a varicty of decorations, and to and lecture-rooms prepared, furnished with requisite appadevise many contrivances for the purpose of conveniency, ratus, to which they might resort for improvement in scienc. and for keeping every thing in its proper place and order | Roads would be cut in all convenient directions, diversified which never enter into the conceptions of rude and vulgar with rural decorations, hedge-rows, and shady bowers minds. Were such dispositions and mental activity gene- foot-paths, broad and smooth, would accompany them in all rally prevalent, the circumstances which lead to poverty, their windings, and gas-lamps, erected at every half-mile's beggary, and drụnkennness, would be in a great measure distance, would variegate the rural scene and cheer the removed, and home would always be resorted to as a place shades of night. Narrow lanes in cities would be either of comfort and enjoyment.
widened or their houses demolished ; streets on broad and Again, the study of science and art would incline the spacious plans would be built, the smoke of steam-engines lower classes to enter into the spirit of every new improve consumed, nuisances removed, and cleanliness and comfort ment, and to give their assistance in carrying it forward. attended to in every arrangement. Cbeerfulness and acti. The want of taste and of mental activity, and the spirit o. vity would everywherë prevail
, and the idler, the vagrant, selfishness which at present prevails among the mass of and the beggar would disappear froin society. All thes: mankind, prevent the accomplishment of a variety of operations and improvements, and hundreds more, could schemes which might tend to promote the conveniences and easily be accomplished, were the minds of the great body of comforts of general society. For example ; many of our the community thoroughly enlightened and moralizedly anal villages which might otherwise present the appearance o. every individual, whether rich or poor, who contributed to neatness and comfort, are almost impassable, especially in bring them into effect, would participate in the general en. the winter season, and during rainy weather, on account o. joyment. And what an interesting picture would be prethe badness of roads and the want of foot-paths. At almost sented to every benevolent mind, to behold the great body every step you encounter a pool, a heap of rubbish, or a of mankind raised from a state of moral and physical dr. dunghill, and in many places feel as if you were walking gradation to the dignity of their rational natures, and to the in a quagmire. In some villages, otherwise well planned, enjoyment of the bounties of their Creator!-to behold the